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ITALY.

REPORT BY OONSUL-GENERAL BYBRS.

The wages paid to laborers in Rome, as generally throughout Italy, are calculated by the day. It must be understood that Italian artisans from early boyhood follow one trade only; on becoming masters they have a full knowledge of every branch of their trade. For example, masons are at one and the same time masons, bricklayers, plasterers, roofers, slaters, &c. In other words, the division of labor as practiced in the United States does not exist here.

I. GENERAL TRADES.

Statement showing the wages per day of from ten to twelve hours, earned by the general trades

in Rome.

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Bakers

58 773 Blacksmiths

773 67 Strikers (advanced apprentices).

433 383 Book-binders: Men

381 673 Women, fixed wages. Bickmakers

774 484 Brewers.

96) 483 Stonecutters

773
Tufo cutters (job work)
Painters, house
Butchers

383 Brass-founders

777 Cabinet-makers (common furniture)

483 961 Confectioners

38]

624 Coopers

58

435 Coopers, boys Drivers

383 Draymen and teamsters : 1-horse cart

1 55 1 74 1 64 2-horse cart

2 51 Cab, carriage (per month).

11 58 23 16 19 30 Street railway (fixed wages) Dyers.

624 Engravers (artisans).

481 1 16

67 This valuable report was only received at the Department on February 5, 1885, too late for mention in the Secretary's letter. The delay in its preparation and transmission was due to the absence, on account of sickness, of some of the force at the consulate-general, and to the promotions of Consul-General Richmond to Lisbon, and of Consul Byers, of Zurich, to Rome. That no fault can be found with Consul-General Byers, in this connection, is clearly apparent from the fact that he prepared the labor report for Zurich before leaving that post, and the present report for Italy after his arrival at Rome. Consul-General Byers expresses his acknowledgments to Mr. Wood, consular clerk, for valuable co-operation in the preparation of this report.

Statement showing the wages per day of from ten to twelre hours, earned, fc.-Continued.

Occupations.

Lowest. Highest. Arerago

OTHER TRADE8-Continued.

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Farriors (repairers only)
Gardeners.
Harters
Horse shoers (not a special trade).
Jewelers
Laborers, porters, &c
Lithographers
Potters
Saddle and harness makers
Tanners
Tailors :

Men

Women
Tinamiths
Weavers (ontside of mill)
Boot and shoe makers.
Boot and shoe upper makors (women)
Coufectioners and pastry cooks (men)
Coppersmiths
Carringe-makers:

Body-makers..
Smiths
Leather work

Upholstering
Glove-makers :

Cutters and finishers (men)..

Sewers (women)
Gnnamiths.
Workers in mosaics..
Cameo cutters.....
Cameo cutters, apprenticos
Trunk-makers
Upholsterers:

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Women Artistic tapestry.

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GENERAL TRADE NOTES.

Masons.-Contrary to general usage, maisons in Rome work mostly during the cooler months. This is not so much on account of the excessive heat as the common custom for workmen to visit their homes during the two or three hottest months of the year. It must also be said that their work continues without interruption through the rest of the year. This exodus in summer occasious an increase in wages; in former years this increase was considerable, but it is diminishing from year to year, as masons are becoming more permanent residents.

Asphalters.--The great use now being made of asphaltum has created the new trade of asphalter. Work being one at night to avoid nni. sance from smoke and smell, wages rule bigher than in corresponding trades.

Slaters and roofers.--Slating and roofing is done by masons. Still some masons apply themselves to cement work, which covers a great part of root buildings, terraces, &c. This is not a specialty, but requires considerable quickness in execution to prevent the cement or its composition from drying.

Brass-roorkers.-Gas-fitters are skilleıl mechanics, working in brass, bronze, and other metals ased for gas-tixtures; they also lo plumbing. Pump-makers also execute all plumbers' work in their line aud receiva the same wages.

Brewers.--Foremen alone are practical brewers; they receive $0.96} per day. Attendants receive from $0,33} to $0.434. · They are cominon laborers, more or less expert.

Cutlers.-Cutlery is not a special traile. Repairing and some common manufacturing is done. This trade, known in Italian as coltellinaio, comprises everything, from work done by a skilled mechanic from making a spur or fine cutting tools down to the sharpening of razors and kvives.

Horseshoer8.-Horseshoeing is not a special trade. As already stated, Italian artisans are skilled in every branch of their trade. Where no special trade is referred to it should be understood that the work is done by artisans in corresponding trailes. For example, a blacksmith is at one and the same time borseshoer, nail-maker, common lock-maker, &c. In some cases extra wages are paid when artisans are employed on work particularly trying or dangerous.

Cabinet makers. The nearest corresponding trade is the stepettaio and ebanista; the highest wages are paid to molders, veneerers, inlayers, and the like.

Steredores.-There are no steredores at Rome. At seaports in discharging ships they generally receive about 964 cents per day, but when the whole cargo is discharged at one place the work is usually done by contract, and remuneration varies from $0.194 to $0.29 per ton, the higher rate being for discharging railway iron or the like, and the lower rate for grain and coals or other more manageable goods.

Tapester8.- Artistic tapestry is now supported mainly by the Pope, by royalty, and by art patrons. In the words of Alessandro Castellavi, thie late eminent antiquarian and art collector, without the assistance of the state artistic tapestry would soon become a lost art.

II. FACTORIES, MILLS, ETC.

Daily wages in woolen mills.

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My informant could not designate an average of wages in woolen manufactures, they being too variable. The lowest wages are paid in country towns, the highest in Rome.

Other trades connected with manufactures, such as smith, carpenters, machinists, &c., are paid the rates as set forth in special table of general trades.

FLOUR-MILLS.
Wages paid in the flour-mill and Italian paste manufactory of the Pantanella Brothers at

Rome.
(Day of ten and twelve hours.)

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This mill runs night and day, being served by two gangs. It is second to none in Rome. Three hundred and twenty workmen are employed under tre direction of one of the owners, Signor Michele Pantanella, who courteously afforded every facility for collecting information on the spot.

GAS-WORKS.

Wages paid per day of twelve hours at the gas-works of the Anglo-Roman Company.

Occupations.

Lowest. Highest. Average.

$0 381

$0 961)

Engine-driver
Machinists
Refiners.
Head firemen.
Firemen's foremen.
Firemen
Gas-lighters' inspectors
Gas-lighters.

Wages in these works are all fixed, with the exception of those paid to machinists. No workman is allowed to leave his post during the twelve hours' continuous attendance required per day. The company gratuitously furnishes each workman with a plentiful meat dinner, to be eaten on the spot. Refiners are chiefly old employés, who, for age or infirmity, are unable to do other work. For good conduct a bounty of $0.193 per week is given to firemen's foremen. The company also pay a pension of $1 per week to the widows of workmen, which ceases on their remarriage. Gas-lighters take turns in extinguishing one-half the lamps at midnight and the other halfat daybreak. They are also bound to clean the lamps; their presence is never required at the gas-works.

For this information I am indebted to the Chevalier Carlo Pouchain, manager of the company.

III. FOUNDRIES, MACHINE-SHOPS, AND IRON WORKS.

Wages paid per day of ten hours in the foundry, machine-shops, and iron works of Giaccom

Moriggia, at Rome.

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Machine adjusters, when required, have the care of the engine at work in the shop. Most of the above workmen are assisted by boys, who receive from 114 to 38.6 cents per day.

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