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Statement showing the wages per day of from ten to twelre hours, earned, fc.-Continued.
Lowest. Highest. Arerago
Farriors (repairers only)
Cutters and finishers (men)..
Women Artistic tapestry.
GENERAL TRADE NOTES.
Masons.-Contrary to general usage, maisons in Rome work mostly during the cooler months. This is not so much on account of the excessive heat as the common custom for workmen to visit their homes during the two or three hottest months of the year. It must also be said that their work continues without interruption through the rest of the year. This exodus in summer occasious an increase in wages; in former years this increase was considerable, but it is diminishing from year to year, as masons are becoming more permanent residents.
Asphalters.--The great use now being made of asphaltum has created the new trade of asphalter. Work being one at night to avoid nni. sance from smoke and smell, wages rule bigher than in corresponding trades.
Slaters and roofers.--Slating and roofing is done by masons. Still some masons apply themselves to cement work, which covers a great part of root buildings, terraces, &c. This is not a specialty, but requires considerable quickness in execution to prevent the cement or its composition from drying.
Brass-roorkers.-Gas-fitters are skilleıl mechanics, working in brass, bronze, and other metals ased for gas-tixtures; they also lo plumbing. Pump-makers also execute all plumbers' work in their line aud receiva the same wages.
Brewers.--Foremen alone are practical brewers; they receive $0.96} per day. Attendants receive from $0,33} to $0.434. · They are cominon laborers, more or less expert.
Cutlers.-Cutlery is not a special traile. Repairing and some common manufacturing is done. This trade, known in Italian as coltellinaio, comprises everything, from work done by a skilled mechanic from making a spur or fine cutting tools down to the sharpening of razors and kuives.
Horseshoers.-Horseshoeing is not a special trade. As already stated, Italian artisans are skilled in every branch of their trade. Where no special trade is referred to it should be mderstood that the work is done by artisans in corresponding trailes. For example, a blacksmith is at one and the same time horseshoer, nail-maker, common lock-maker, &c. In some cases extra wages are paid when artisans are employed on work particularly trying or dangerous.
Cabinet makers. The nearest corresponding trade is the stepettaio and ebanista; the highest wages are paid to molders, veneerers, inlayers, and the like.
Sleredores.—There are no steredores at Rome. At seaports in discharging ships they generally receive about 964 cents per day, but when the whole cargo is discharged at one place the work is usually done by contract, and remuneration varies from $0.194 to $0.29 per ton, the bigher rate being for discharging railway iron or the like, and the lower rate for grain and coals or other more manageable goods.
Tapesters.-Artistic tapestry is now supported mainly by the Pope, by royalty, and by art patrons. In the words of Alessandro Castellani, the late eminent antiquarian and art collector, without the assistance of the state artistic tapestry would soon become a lost art.
My informant could not designate an average of wages in woolen manufactures, they being too variable. The lowest wages are paid in country towns, the highest in Rome.
Other trades connected with manufactures, such as smith, carpenters, machinists, &c., are paid the rates as set forth in special table of general trades.
Wages paid in the flour-mill and Italian paste manufactory of the Pantanella Brothers at
This mill runs night and day, being served by two gangs. It is second to none in Rome. Three hundred and twenty workmen are employed under tre direction of one of the owners, Signor Michele Pantanella, who courteously afforded every facility for collecting information on the spot.
Wages paid per day of twelve hours at the gas-works of the Anglo-Roman Company.
Lowest. Highest. Average.
Wages in these works are all fixed, with the exception of those paid to machinists. No workman is allowed to leave his post during the twelve hours' continuous attendance required per day. The company gratuitously furnishes each workman with a plentiful meat dinner, to be eaten on the spot. Refiners are chiefly old employés, who, for age or infirmity, are unable to do other work. For good conduct a bounty of $0.193 per week is given to firemen's foremen. The company also pay a pension of $1 per week to the widows of workmen, which ceases on their remarriage. Gas-lighters take turns in extinguishing one-half the lamps at midnight and the other halfat daybreak. They are also bound to clean the lamps; their presence is never required at the gas-works.
For this information I am indebted to the Chevalier Carlo Pouchain, manager of the company.
III. FOUNDRIES, MACHINE-SHOPS, AND IRON WORKS.
Wages paid per day of ten hours in the foundry, machine-shops, and iron works of Giaccom
Moriggia, at Rome.
Machine adjusters, when required, have the care of the engine at work in the shop. Most of the above workmen are assisted by boys, who receive from 114 to 38.6 cents per day.
Tages paid per day of ten hours to glass-workers in glass factory, at Poggio-Mirleto, near
Glass-making is an insignificant industry in the district of Rome. The chief factory is at Poggio-Mirleto, about 45 miles distant from Rome, and employs about 30 hands; the products of the factory are window. glass, lamp-chimnies, cases for clocks, &c.
MAJOLICA AND EARTHEN WARE.
There are also four establishments in the district of Rome, manufacturing majolicaware ard fine earthenware, employing 50 workmen. Wages paid per day of ten hours are as follows:
There are also several manufactories of common earthenware, some of them producing kitchen hollow ware remarkable for great resistance to the most intense charcoal fire.
In this industry the following wages are paid per day of ten hours :
V. MINES AND MINING.
Wages paid per dry of eleven hours in connection with the Alum mines of Signor Theofilo
Berner, in the mountains of La Tolfa near Cirita Vecchia, prorince of Rome.
The total number of men employed is 238, of this number 168 are act daly employed in the mines at La Tolfa, aud 70 in the refining works at Civita Vecchia.
Wages paid in mines and quarries at Tivoli, 18 miles distant from Rome.
Work is also done by the job and by the cubic meter. Carting is generally done by contract at so much per load aud per mile.
VI. RAILWAY EMPLOYÉS.
Wages paid per month to railivay employés (those engaged ahout stations, as well as those it.
gured on the engines and cars, linemen, railroad laborers, fc.) by the Roman Railroad Company (Ferrovie Romane), in Rome.
Chief of section
recorder of contracts