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ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED. Essays I. and II. are unaltered, but short notes are added at pp. 19, 24, 29, and 40.

III.-Mimicry, and other Protective Resemblances

among Animals.


53 Additional illustration of protective colouring in

the case of the wood-dove and the robin. 63 On moths resembling bird's dung and mortar. 86 Correction of some names of African Papilios and

a reference to Mr. Trimen's observations. 89 Mr. Jenner Weir's observation on birds which

refused to eat Spilosoma menthrasti. 102 An additional case of snake mimicry in Oxyrhopus

trigeminus. 107 Mr. Salvin's case of mimicry among hawks. 113 Name, Diadema anomala, added. 117 to 122. Use of gay colours in caterpillars, with an

account of Mr. Jenner Weir's and Mr. Butler's observations.

IV.— The Malayan Papilionida or Swallow-tailed

Butterflies, as illustrative of the Theory of Natural

Selection. 135 to 140. Additions to the discussion on the rank of

the Papilionidæ, and on the principles which determine the comparative rank of groups in the animal kingdom.


164 Illustration of variability from Mr. Baker's re

vision of the British Roses. 173 Additional facts, on local variations of colour. 196 Additional genus of birds (Ceycopsis) peculiar

to Celebes. 199, 200. Concluding remarks.

VI.The Philosophy of Birds' Nests. 218 Un nesting of Terns and Gulls, rewritten. 220 to 222. Daines Barrington, and others, on the song

of birds. 223 On young birds learning to build, by memory and

imitation. 224 Levaillant, on mode of nest-building. 229 On imperfect adaptation in birds' nests.'

VII.- A Theory of Birds' Nests. 231, 232. Introductory passages modified, with some

omissions. 233 How modifications of organization would affect the

form of the nest. 235 Illustration from the habits of children and savages. 235, 236. Objection to term “ hereditary habit”

answered. 237 Passage rewritten, on more or less variable char

acters in relation to nidification. 248 On males choosing or rejecting females, and on

the various modes in which colour may be acquired by female birds.


249 On probable ancestral colours of female birds. 255 Protective colouring of the Waxwing.

VIII.— Creation by Law. 293 Amount of variation in dogs. 296, 297. The “ Times” on Natural Selection. 298 to 300. On intermediate or generalized forms of

extinct animals as an indication of transmuta

tion or development. 302 Tabular demonstration of the Origin of Species by

Natural Selection.

IX.-The development of Human Races, under

the law of Natural Selection. 316 On colour as perhaps correlated with immunity

from disease in man. 326, 327. On the probable future development of man. 330 Concluding paragraph rewritten.

London, March, 1870.


I.-On the Law which has regulated the introduction of New


Geographical distribution dependent on Geologic Changes — A Law

deduced from well-known Geographical and Geological facts, The

form of a true system of Classification determined by this Law-Geo-

graphical Distribution of Organisms-Geological Distribution of the
forms of Life-High Organization of very ancient Animals consistent
with this Law-Objections to Forbes' Theory of Polarity-Rudi-
mentary Organs-Conclusion . . . . . Pp. 1-25


Test of true and false Theories—Importance of the Principle of Utility

- Popular Theories of Colour in Animals--Importance of Conceal-
ment as influencing Colour-Special modifications of Colour— Theory
of Protective Colouring--Objection that Colour as being dangerous
should not exist in Nature-Mimicry-Mimicry among Lepidoptera
-Lepidoptera mimicking other Insects-Mimicry among Beetles--
Beetles mimicking other Insects-Insects mimicking Species of other
Orders—Cases of Mimicry among the Vertebrata—Mimicry among
Snakes-Mimicry among Birds—Mimicry among Mammals—Objec-

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