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Essays I. and II. are unaltered, but short notes are added at pp. 19, 24, 29, and 40.

III.—Mimicry, and other Protective Resemblances among Animals.


53 Additional illustration of protective colouring in

the case of the wood-dove and the robin. 63 On moths resembling bird's duns: and mortar. 86 Correction of some names of African Papilios and

a reference to Mr. Trimen's observations. 89 Mr. Jenner Weir's observation on birds which refused to eat Spilosoma menthrasti. 102 An additional case of snake mimicry in Oxyrhopus

trigeminus. 107 Mr. Salvin's case of mimicry among hawks. 113 Name, Diadema anomala, added. 117 to 122. Use of gay colours in caterpillars, with an account of Mr. Jenner Weir's and Mr. Butler's observations.

IV.—The Malayan Papilionidce or Swallow-tailed Butterflies, as illustrative of the Theory of statural Selection.

135 to 140. Additions to the discussion on the rank of the Papilionidse, and on the principles which determine the comparative rank of groups in the animal kingdom.


164 Illustration of variability from Mr. Baker's revision of the British Roses.

173 Additional facts, on local variations of colour.

196 Additional genus of birds (Ceycopsis) peculiar to Celebes.

199, 200. Concluding remarks.

VI.—The Philosophy of Birds' Nests.

218 On nesting of Terns and Gulls, rewritten. 220 to 222. Daines Barrington, and others, on the song of birds.

223 On young birds learning to build, by memory and


224 Levaillant, on mode of nest-building. 229 On imperfect adaptation in birds' nests.

VII.—A Theory of Birds' Nests.

231, 232. Introductory passages modified, with some omissions.

233 How modifications of organization would affect the form of the nest.

235 Illustration from the habits of children and savages.

235, 236. Objection to term "hereditary habit" answered.

237 Passage rewritten, on more or less variable characters in relation to nidification.

248 On males choosing or rejecting females, and on the various modes in which colour may be acquired by female birds.


249 On probable ancestral colours of female birds. 255 Protective colouring of the Waxwing.

VIII.— Creation by Law.

293 Amount of variation in dogs.

296, 297. The " Times " on Natural Selection.

298 to 300. On intermediate or generalized forms of extinct animals as an indication of transmutation or development.

302 Tabular demonstration of the Origin of Species by Natural Selection.

IX.— The development of Human Races, under
the law of Natural Selection.

316 On colour as perhaps correlated with immunity

from disease in man. 326, 327. On the probable future development of man. 330 Concluding paragraph rewritten.

London, March, 1870.


I.—On the Law which has regulated the introduction of New


Geographical distribution dependent on Geologic Changes — A Law

deduced from well-known Geographical and Geological facts—The

form of a true system of Classification determined by this Law—Geo-

graphical Distribution of Organisms—Geological Distribution of the
forms of Life—High Organization of very ancient Animals consistent
with this Law—Objections to Forbes' Theory of Polarity—Rudi-
mentary Organs—Conclusion Pp. 1 — 25

II.—On the Tendency of Varieties to depart indefinitely from the

Original Type.

Instability of Varieties supposed to prove the permanent distinctness of

Species—The Struggle for Existence—The Law of Population of

Species—The Abundance or Rarity of a Species dependent upon its

more or less perfect Adaptation to the Conditions of Existence—

Useful Variations will tend to Increase, useless or hurtful Variations

to Diminish—Superior Varieties will ultimately extirpate the Ori-

ginal Species — The Partial Reversion of Domesticated Varieties

explained — Lamarck's Hypothesis very different from that now

advanced—Conclusion Pp. 26—44

III.—Mimicry, and other Protective Resemblances amonj


Test of true and false Theories—Importance of the Principle of Utility
—Popular Theories of Colour in Animals—Importance of Conceal-
ment as influencing Colour—Special modifications of Colour—Theory
of Protective Colouring—Objection that Colour as being dangerous
should not exist in Nature—Mimicry—Mimicry among Lepidoptera
—Lepidoptera mimicking other Insects—Mimicry among Beetles—
Beetles mimicking other Insects—Insects mimicking'JSpecies of other
Orders—Cases of Mimicry among the Vertebrata—Mimicry among
Snakes—Mimicry among Birds—Mimicry among Mammals—Objec-

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