Page images
PDF
EPUB

enza.

INFINITIVE; the indefinite mode, in Generally, it passed over within a few which the verb is represented without a days, yet, in some places, it gave a check subject. As the verb expresses an action, to business. Few persons died of it, exor a state, it generally belongs to a subject cept those who were afflicted at the same whose action or state is expressed; but if time with other diseases, but almost every we wish to express the mere idea of this one was attacked. G. F. Mort, a German action or state, we us the infinitive, physician, attempted to prove that Euwhich therefore, in many languages, is rope suffered periodically from the influemployed without further change, as a He maintained that, during the substantive—for instance, in Greek and greater part of the period which had German-only preceded by the neuter ar- elapsed since 1712, this epidemic had ticle; but, as the verb expresses an action visited Europe, at intervals of about 20 or state, under certain conditions of time, years, and still more frequently in the the infinitive can also express the action early part of the period. Accordingly, he or state in the present, past or future, prophesied a new one for 1820, which, though these conditions are not expressed however, did not happen. in all languages by peculiar forms; nay, INFORMER. To encourage the appresome languages have not even a peculiar hending of certain felons, divers English form for the infinitive present, and must statutes of 1692, 1694, 1699, 1707, 1720, express it by some grammatical contri- 1741 and 1742, granted rewards of from vance, as is the case in English. (See 10 to 50 pounds sterling, to such as Verb.)

should prosecute to conviction highwayINFLAMMATION OF THE INTESTINES. men, counterfeiters, and thieves. These (See Enteritis.)

acts were passed at the time of the trouINFLEXION, Point Of, in the theory of bles in Great Britain, occasioned by the curves; that point in which the direction risings of the Jacobites, when, with the of the curve changes from concavity to increase of political criminals, the numconvexity, and vice versa. It is particular- ber of private offenders was thought to be ly called punctum inflexionis, at the first increasing also. By the law of 1699, beturning, and punctum regressionis when sides the £40, an immunity from all parthe curve returns. These points are of ish offices (overseer of the poor, churchmuch interest in the theory of the func- warden, &c.) was allowed to any person tions.

who should prosecute to conviction a INFLUENZA (Italian, influence); a term felon guilty of burglary, horse-stealing, used in medicine to denote an epidemic &c. The Tyburn tickets (as the certificatarrh which has, at various times, cates of exemption were called) could be spread more rapidly and extensively than sold, as the first was of no use to a man any other disorder. It has seldom occurs who received a second, and were actually red in any country of Europe, without sold in large cities, like Manchester, at appearing successively in every other part high prices (from 250 to 300 pounds of it. It has sometimes apparently trav- sterling). The amount of the rewards ersed the whole of the Eastern continent, (without including the Tyburn tickets), in and, in some instances, has been transfer- the 40 counties of England, for 1798, was red to America, and has spread over this £7700, and, in 1813, it had risen to continent likewise. The French call it £18,000. The abuses which originated la grippe. In all the known instances of from this system were horrible. The poits occurrence, from the 14th century, its lice officers made a trade of it, by seducphenomena have been pretty uniform, ing poor, ignorant persons, chiefly foreignand have differed little, except in severity, ers, to crimes (principally the issuing of from those of the common febrile catarrh. counterfeit money), in order to gain the In 1802, such an influenza attracted uni- reward by prosecuting them for the versal attention. In February, it set out offence. A certain McDaniel confessed from the frontiers of China, traversed all (1756) that he had caused, by his testimoRussia, extended along the Baltic, to Po- ny, 70 men to be condemned to death. land and Denmark; reached Germany He was brought the bar with two othand Holland in April and May, and ers, but the people, fearing they were to France and Spain in June. It could be acquitted, treated them with such vioeven be followed to Gibraltar. No sex, lence, that they were killed on the spot. age or state of health was exempted. It In 1792, a similar case happened, in showed itself chiefly as a severe cold, at- which 26 men had become the victims of tended with a catarrhal fever of a more or an informer. A more recent case, in less inflammatory or bilious character. 1817, excited greater indignation. Four police officers, who had entered into a who, during the hard times, complained conspiracy against the life of poor men, loudly against the government, and acwere condemned to death, but, on ac- cused it of injustice and hostility to the count of some judicial formalities, were middling class of citizens. released by the 12 judges (the united INFULA was, with the Romans, the members of the three chief tribunals in wide, white woollen ornament of the Westminster hall), and escaped without head of priests, vestals, and even of anipunishment. They had induced several mals offered for sacrifice, the hiding of poor women to pass counterfeit money, the head being considered a mark of and seized them in the act. In other humiliation. At later periods, the impecases, such men endeavored to change a rial governors wore the infula as a sign of small offence into a capital crime; for in- dignity, and, as such, it was adopted, in stance, if one had stolen the work-bag of the 7th century, by the bishops of the another, they swore that it had been tied Catholic church, who continue to wear it with a string or ribbon to the arm, and torn on solemn occasions, and have it, instead from it by violence, by which theft was of a crown or helmet, in their coat of transformed into robbery, and, instead of arms. It consists of two pieces, turning imprisonment, the punishment was death, upward, of a pointed form, one before and the informer received the price of and one behind, so that in the middle blood (£50). A revolting case of this there is a hollow. They are of pasteboard, kind happened (1817) when two soldiers, or tin, and covered with white silk, the who were wrestling with another, in one in front being ornamented with a sport, for a wager of one shilling, were cross. The bishops of the church of Engcondemned for robbery by the artifice of land have an infüla still in their coat of a police officer, and escaped with the arms, but never wear it on the head. greatest difficulty from an undeserved with them, however, it is generally called punishment. Small offences were kept mitre, from mitra, which, according to secret by the police officers, and the per- Von Hammer, originally meant the globupetrators watched, until, as they termed lar part of the head-dress of Persian it, they weighed 40 pounds sterling. For kings, indicating, originally, the ball of the prosecution to conviction of any person sun, which the Persian kings wore on the attempting to pass counterfeit bank notes crown, and the Egyptian on the head. (which is a capital crime), the bank pays Mithra was the genius of the sun, with £30, and, for the prosecution of a person is- the Persians. (See Mithra.) suing counterfeit coin, £7. Several persons Inge; a Saxon word signifying field, have become the victims of this provision. appearing in many German geographical The police officers very well knew the names, as Thüringen, Tübingen, Zophingcounterfeiters, and those who made it a en, &c.; also in Dutch names, as Grőtrade to induce women and children to ningen. change their false notes, and deliver them INGEMANN, Bernhard Severin, born in into the hands of the police; but they 1789; one of the most distinguished spared the true authors of the crime, as Danish poets. The works of his coungood customers, and denounced the poor tryman Ehlenschläger had great influwretches employed by them, who were ence upon his productions. His patriotic condemned by the jury upon the slightest odes, particularly that to the Danebrog suspicion, and executed without mercy. (the Danish Flag), shows great poetical Alderman Wood asserted, in parliament, spirit; but his epic, the Black Knights that, in the year 1818, at a visitation (Copenhagen, 1814)

, an allegoric poem, in of the prison, he had found 13 men, nine cantos, like Spenser's Fairy Queen, mostly Irishmen and Germans, who had often suffers from the length to which the received counterfeit money from others, allegory is protracted, though it contains to buy bread, had been seized in the act, real beauties. Masaniello and Blanca are and condemned, without any regard to Ingenann's most celebrated tragedies. their assertions that they were ignorant He has also written much in prose. of the character of the money. These INGENHOUSS, John, a naturalist, born at rewards were abolished in 1818, by an Breda, in 1730, practised physic in his naact of parliament (58 George III, c. 70), tive city, and afterwards went to London, but the abuse in respect to the bank notes where he was well received by Pringle, remained as before. The desire of ob- the president of the royal society. The taining the rewards for the conviction of empress Maria Theresa, having lost two offenders has recently tempted the police children by the small-pox, ordered her officers to prosecute unhappy individuals, ambassador at London to send her an English physician, to vaccinate the others. INJECTIONS belong partly to surgery Pringle recommended Ingenhouss, who and partly to anatomy.

In surgery, received honors and presents, at Vienna, fluids, different, according to the different for the easy operation, which was not effects desired to be produced, are thrown, then much practised. He then travelled, by means of a small syringe, into the natand finally settled near London, where he ural cavities of the body, or those occadied 1799. He was the author of several sioned by disease, partly to remove untreatises on subjects of natural history, healthy matter, and partly to bring the which he enriched by several important remedy immediately to the seat of the discoveries.

disorder, and thus effect a cure. Wounds Ingot, in the arts, is a small bar of and sores are usually cleansed in this metal made of a certain form and size, way, when they extend far below the by casting it in moulds. The term is skin, or an excitement and cure are prochiefly applied to the small bars of gold duced by the same method. Cato the and silver, intended either for coining or Censor had one applied to himself when exportation to foreign countries.

he suffered from a tistula. In diseases of INGRIA; a former province of Swe- the nose and the cavities connected with den, on the bay of Finland. It be- it, in those which have their seat in the longed, as early as the 13th century, to neck, in disorders of the ears, the bladder Russia, was inhabited by the Ingrians or and urethra, the uterus and vagina, and Ishorians, and received its name from the for the radical cure of hydrocele, injecriver Inger, the former name for Ishora, tions are often used, and with important when the Swedes took possession of it in advantages. Pure warm water is injected, 1617. In 1700, the Russians reconquered with the highest success, for the removal it. It forms, at present, a part of the of pus, blood, or even foreign bodies. government of St. Petersburg, in which Sometimes astringent medicines, to rethe capital, St. Petersburg, is situated. strain excessive evacuations, sometimes

INGULPHUS, abbot of Croyland, and stimulating ones, to excite inflammation, author of the history of that abbey, was as in hydrocele, or even to increase and born in London about 1030. He received improve evacuations, sometimes soothing his early education at Westminster, and medicaments, to mitigate pain, &c., are afterwards went to Oxford, where he ap- added to the water. In diseases of the plied to the study of Aristotle, and, as he throat which hinder the patient from says, “ clothed himself down to the heel swallowing, and thus tend to produce in the first and second rhetoric of Tully.” death by starvation, nourishing fluids are In the year 1051, William, duke of Nor- injected into the stomach. The blood of mandy, then a visitor at the court of Ed- beasts, or of men, has been sometimes ward the Confessor,' made Ingulphus, injected into the veins, which is called then of the age of 21, his secretary. He transfusion. In the same way, medicines accompanied the duke to Normandy, af- are introduced immediately to the blood; terwards went on a pilgrimage to the for instance, tartar emetic to excite vomHoly Land, and, upon his return, entered iting, if a foreign body is fixed in the into the order of the Benedictines, at the throat so firmly as to restrain the patient abbey of Fontenelle, in Normandy, of from swallowing, and can neither be which he became prior. On the acquire- moved up nor down. According to the ment of the crown of England by Wil- place where the injection is to be made, liam, Ingulphus was created abbot of the the instrument must be either longer or rich monastery of Croyland. He died in shorter, a straight or a curved tube. The 1109. His history of the monastery of size is regulated by the quantity of the Croyland is interspersed with many par- liquid to be injected, and the force which ticulars of the English kings. It was is to be applied. Anatomists inject into published by sir Henry Savile, in 1596, the vessels of bodies various colored fluids, among the Scriptores post Bedam, and has which are liquid when hot, and coagulate been reprinted both at Frankfort and at when cold, to make the smaller ones visiOxford, the latter of these editions, dated ble. Thus the arteries, veins and lym1684, being the most complete. The his- phatic vessels are injected. Anatomy has tory of Croyland comprises from 664 to carried this art so far as to make very 1091.

minute vessels visible to the naked eye. INHABITANCY. (See Domicil, vol. iv, p. INJUNCTION is a prohibitory writ, issu613.)

ing by the order of a court of equity, reINHERITANCE. (See Descent, and Es- straining a person from doing some act tate.)

which appears to be against equity, and 2

VOL. VII.

the commission of which is not punisha- Ink, WRITING. This material can be ble by the criminal law. An injunction prepared of various colors, but black is may be obtained to stay waste, as where the most common. Doctor Lewis gives & tenant for life, or years, is proceeding to the following receipt:-In three pints of cut down timber which he has no right to white wine, or vinegar, let three ounces of cut; to prevent vexatious litigation in the gall-nuts, one ounce powdered logwood courts of common law, as where a man and one ounce green vitriol be steeped persists in bringing actions to recover an half an hour; then add 1 ounce gum estate, notwithstanding repeated failures; Arabic, and, when the gum is dissolved, to enable a man to make a júst defence, pass the whole mixture through a hairwhich he could not make at common sjeve. Van Mons recommended the follaw, as where the legal defence to a lowing preparation :-Let four ounces gallclaim rests exclusively, or to a great de- nuts, 24 ounces sulphate of iron, calcined gree, in the knowledge of the party ad- to whiteness, and two pints water, stand vancing the claim; to prevent infringe in a cool place 24 hours; then add 14 ment of a copyright, or a patent, &c. ounce gum Arabic, and keep it in a vessel

INJURIA (Latin), in law; properly, eve- open, or slightly stopped with paper. Anry act by which some one suffers un- other recipe is this :-Take one pound galllawfully. In the Roman law, the obliga. nuts, six ounces gum Arabic, six ounces tions arising from such violations formed sulphate of iron, and four pints beer, or a class by themselves, which were regu- water; the gall-nuts are broken, and stand lated by the lex Aquilia, so called because as an infusion 24 hours; then coarselythe tribune Aquilius (in the sixth century, pounded gum is added, and suffered to between the destruction of Carthage and dissolve; lastly, a quantity of vitriol is inCorinth, and during the beginning of the troduced, and the whole passed through a civil wars) bad caused the law to be enact- hair-sieve. It is generally observed, that ed. At a later period, the right to ask le- unboiled inks are less likely to fade than gal redress was also extended to a mere others. A good red ink is obtained as folviolation of the honor of a person; and, lows:-A quarter of a pound of the best in the laws of modern nations, this has logwood is boiled with an ounce of poundbeen retained, though with a great variety ed alum and the same quantity of cream of views. In the middle ages, the duel of tartar, with half the quantity of water, was authorized by law; and, when the and, while the preparation is still warm, laws took from individuals the right of sugar and good gum Arabic, of each one redressing their own wrongs, it was deem- ounce, are dissolved in it. Solutions of ed necessary to offer some other mode of indigo with pieces of alumina, and mixed redressing injuries to honor, which had with gum, form a blue ink. Green ink is been one of the most fruitful sources of obtained from verdigris, distilled with vinduels. The common law of England pun- egar and mixed with a little gum. Saffron, ishes injuries to honor only when they alum, and gum water, form a yellow.-It amount to malicious attempts to blacken a is not well ascertained how soon the pres man's reputation (see Libel, and Slander); ent kind of writing ink came into use. It but according to the Prussian code, a per- has certainly been employed for many son may be sued for having used insulting centuries in most European countries; but language, or even insulting gestures, ou the ancient Roman inks were, for the most the mere ground of violation of honor, part, of a totally different composition, beand not of any other damage inflicted ing made of some vegetable carbonaceous thereby. But, of late, the right has been matter, like lamp-black, diffused in a liquor.. considerably restricted; for instance, the The Chinese, and many of the inks used complaint must be entered within a short by the Oriental nations, are still of this period fixed by law, &c. According to kind. Sometimes the ink of' very old the laws of the German states, the petition writings is so much faded by time as to be of the complainant may be to have the illegible. Doctor Blagden (Philosophical amende honorable made him, as by an Transactions, vol. 77), in his experiments apology for the insult, &c., or to have the on this subject, found that, in most of offender punished. Legislation and adju- these, the color might be restored, or, rathdication on injuries to honor are matters of er, a new body of color given, by pencilmuch delicacy, beyond the limits of the ling them over with a solution of prussiate English law, which makes reparation only of potash, and then with a dilute acid, in cases where the offence has produced, either sulphuric or muriatic; or else, vice or is directly calculated to produce injury, versa, first with the acid, and then with to a man, in his character or business. the prussiate. The acid dissolves the oxide of iron of the faded ink, and the prussiate about half its weight of vermilion. A litprecipitates it again of a blue color, which tle carmine also improves the color. (Enrestores the legibility of the writing. If cyclopédie, Arts et Métiers, vol. iii, page this be done neatly, and blotting paper laid 518.) over the letters as fast as they become vis- Colored Inks. Few of these are used, ible, their form will be retained very dis- except red ink. The preparation of these tinctly. Pencilling over the letters with is very simple, consisting either of decocan infusion of galls also restores the black- tions of the different coloring or dyeing ness, to a certain degree, but not so speedi- materials in water, and thickened with ly, nor so completely.

gum Arabic, or of colored metallic oxides, China or Indian Ink. The well known or insoluble powders, merely diffused in and much admired Indian, or China ink, gum-water. The proportion of gum Arais brought over in small oblong cakes, bic to be used may be the same as for which readily become diffused in water black writing ink. All that applies to the by rubbing, and the blackness remains sus- fixed or fugitive nature of the several arpended in it for a considerable time, owing ticles used in dyeing, may be applied, in to the extreme subtilty of division of the general, to the use of the same substance substance that gives the color, and the in- as inks. Most of the common water-color timacy with which it is united to the mu- cakes, diffused in water, will make sufficilaginous matter that keeps it suspended. ciently good colored inks for most purIndian ink does, however, deposit the poses. whole of its color by standing, when it is Sympathetic Inks ; liquids without any diffused in a considerable quantity of wa- observable color; any thing may be writter. Doctor Lewis, on examining this ten with them invisibly, and made visible substance, found that the ink consisted of at will by certain means. Even Ovid ina black sediment, totally insoluble in water, formed maidens who were closely watchwhich appeared to be of the nature of the ed, that they might write to their lovers finest lamp-black, and of another sub- whatever they pleased with fresh milk, stance soluble in water, and which putre- and when dry sprinkle over it coal-dust, fied by keeping, and, when evaporated, or soot. In modern times, chemistry has left a tenacious jelly, exactly like glue, or taught the preparation of many improved isinglass. It appears probable, therefore, inks of this nature:-Form a solution of that it consists of nothing more than these green vitriol in water, and add a little altwo ingredients, and probably may be im- um, to prevent the yellow iron precipitate itated with perfect accuracy by using a from sinking, which always rises in case very fine jelly, like isinglass, or size, and the acid does not prevail ; this solution the finest lamp-black, and incorporating forms a sympathetic ink, which appears them thoroughly. The finest lamp-black extremely black when it is moistened with known is made from ivory shavings, and a saturated infusion of gall-nuts. A symthence called ivory black.

pathetic ink may likewise be formed from Printers' Ink. This is a very singular common black ink. For this purpose, the composition, partaking much of the na- color must be destroyed by a mixture of ture of an oil varnish, but differing from nitric acid. Any thing written with it beit in the quality of adhering firmly to comes visible on moistening it with a solumoistened paper, and in being, to a con- tion of some volatile alkali. The famous ink, siderable degree, soluble in soap-water. invisible in the cold, and visible at a modIt is, when used by the printers, of the con- erate temperature, may be prepared withsistence of rather thin jelly, so that it may out much difficulty. (See Cobalt.) Any be smeared over the types readily and writing with this ink is invisible; but, on thinly, when applied by leather cushions; the application of a certain degree of heat, and it dries very speedily on the paper, it becomes a beautiful greenish blue. As without running through to the other side, soon as it cools again, the color vanishes; or passing the limits of the letter. It is and thus, by alternately heating and coolmade of nut-oil, boiled, and afterwards ing it, the writing can be made visible or mixed with lamp-black, of which about invisible. Care must be taken not to heat two ounces and a half are sufficient for it more than is required to make it plain, 16 ounces of the prepared oil

. Other ad- for otherwise it always continues visible. ditions are made by ink-makers, of which With this sympathetic ink landscapes may the most important is generally understood be drawn, in which the trees and the earth to be a little fine indigo in powder, to im- lose their verdant appearance in the winprove the beauty of the color. Red print- ter, but may be changed again into a spring ers' ink is made by adding to the varnish landscape, at will, by exposing them to a

« EelmineJätka »