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INFINITIVE; the indefinite mode, in which the verb is represented without a subject. As the verb expresses an action, or a state, it generally belongs to a subject whose action or state is expressed; but if we wish to express the mere idea of this action or state, we use the infinitive, which therefore, in many languages, is employed without further change, as a substantive for instance, in Greek and German-only preceded by the neuter article; but, as the verb expresses an action or state, under certain conditions of time, the infinitive can also express the action or state in the present, past or future, though these conditions are not expressed in all languages by peculiar forms; nay, some languages have not even a peculiar form for the infinitive present, and must express it by some grammatical contrivance, as is the case in English. (See Verb.)
INFLAMMATION OF (See Enteritis.)
INFLEXION, POINT OF, in the theory of curves; that point in which the direction of the curve changes from concavity to convexity, and vice versa. It is particularly called punctum inflexionis, at the first turning, and punctum regressionis when the curve returns. These points are of much interest in the theory of the functions.
INFLUENZA (Italian, influence); a term used in medicine to denote an epidemic catarrh which has, at various times, spread more rapidly and extensively than any other disorder. It has seldom occurred in any country of Europe, without appearing successively in every other part of it. It has sometimes apparently traversed the whole of the Eastern continent, and, in some instances, has been transferred to America, and has spread over this continent likewise. The French call it la grippe. In all the known instances of its occurrence, from the 14th century, its phenomena have been pretty uniform, and have differed little, except in severity, from those of the common febrile catarrh. In 1802, such an influenza attracted universal attention. In February, it set out from the frontiers of China, traversed all Russia, extended along the Baltic, to Poland and Denmark; reached Germany and Holland in April and May, and France and Spain in June. It could even be followed to Gibraltar. No sex, age or state of health was exempted. It showed itself chiefly as a severe cold, attended with a catarrhal fever of a more or less inflammatory or bilious character.
Generally, it passed over within a few days, yet, in some places, it gave a check to business. Few persons died of it, except those who were afflicted at the same time with other diseases, but almost every one was attacked. G. F. Mort, a German physician, attempted to prove that Europe suffered periodically from the influenza. He maintained that, during the greater part of the period which had elapsed since 1712, this epidemic had visited Europe, at intervals of about 20 years, and still more frequently in the early part of the period. Accordingly, he prophesied a new one for 1820, which, however, did not happen.
INFORMER. To encourage the apprehending of certain felons, divers English statutes of 1692, 1694, 1699, 1707, 1720, 1741 and 1742, granted rewards of from 10 to 50 pounds sterling, to such as should prosecute to conviction highwaymen, counterfeiters, and thieves. These acts were passed at the time of the troubles in Great Britain, occasioned by the risings of the Jacobites, when, with the increase of political criminals, the number of private offenders was thought to be increasing also. By the law of 1699, besides the £40, an immunity from all parish offices (overseer of the poor, churchwarden, &c.) was allowed to any person who should prosecute to conviction a felon guilty of burglary, horse-stealing, &c. The Tyburn tickets (as the certificates of exemption were called) could be sold, as the first was of no use to a man who received a second, and were actually sold in large cities, like Manchester, at high prices (from 250 to 300 pounds sterling). The amount of the rewards (without including the Tyburn tickets), in the 40 counties of England, for 1798, was £7700, and, in 1813, it had risen to £18,000. The abuses which originated from this system were horrible. The police officers made a trade of it, by seducing poor, ignorant persons, chiefly foreigners, to crimes (principally the issuing of counterfeit money), in order to gain the reward by prosecuting them for the offence. A certain McDaniel confessed (1756) that he had caused, by his testimony, 70 men to be condemned to death. He was brought to the bar with two others, but the people, fearing they were to be acquitted, treated them with such violence, that they were killed on the spot. In 1792, a similar case happened, in which 20 men had become the victims of an informer. A more recent case, in 1817, excited greater indignation. Four
police officers, who had entered into a conspiracy against the life of poor men, were condemned to death, but, on account of some judicial formalities, were released by the 12 judges (the united members of the three chief tribunals in Westminster hall), and escaped without punishment. They had induced several poor women to pass counterfeit money, and seized them in the act. In other cases, such men endeavored to change a small offence into a capital crime; for instance, if one had stolen the work-bag of another, they swore that it had been tied with a string or ribbon to the arm, and torn from it by violence, by which theft was transformed into robbery, and, instead of imprisonment, the punishment was death, and the informer received the price of blood (£50). A revolting case of this kind happened (1817) when two soldiers, who were wrestling with another, in sport, for a wager of one shilling, were condemned for robbery by the artifice of a police officer, and escaped with the greatest difficulty from an undeserved punishment. Small offences were kept secret by the police officers, and the perpetrators watched, until, as they termed it, they weighed 40 pounds sterling. For prosecution to conviction of any person attempting to pass counterfeit bank notes (which is a capital crime), the bank pays £30, and, for the prosecution of a person issuing counterfeit coin, £7. Several persons have become the victims of this provision. The police officers very well knew the counterfeiters, and those who made it a trade to induce women and children to change their false notes, and deliver them into the hands of the police; but they spared the true authors of the crime, as good customers, and denounced the poor wretches employed by them, who were condemned by the jury upon the slightest suspicion, and executed without mercy. Alderman Wood asserted, in parliament, that, in the year 1818, at a visitation of the prison, he had found 13 men, mostly Irishmen and Germans, who had received counterfeit money from others, to buy bread, had been seized in the act, and condemned, without any regard to their assertions that they were ignorant of the character of the money. These rewards were abolished in 1818, by an act of parliament (58 George III, c. 70), but the abuse in respect to the bank notes remained as before. The desire of obtaining the rewards for the conviction of offenders has recently tempted the police officers to prosecute unhappy individuals,
who, during the hard times, complained loudly against the government, and accused it of injustice and hostility to the middling class of citizens.
INFULA was, with the Romans, the wide, white woollen ornament of the head of priests, vestals, and even of animals offered for sacrifice, the hiding of the head being considered a mark of humiliation. At later periods, the imperial governors wore the infula as a sign of dignity, and, as such, it was adopted, in the 7th century, by the bishops of the Catholic church, who continue to wear it on solemn occasions, and have it, instead of a crown or helmet, in their coat of arms. It consists of two pieces, turning upward, of a pointed form, one before and one behind, so that in the middle there is a hollow. They are of pasteboard, or tin, and covered with white silk, the one in front being ornamented with a cross. The bishops of the church of England have an infula still in their coat of arms, but never wear it on the head. With them, however, it is generally called mitre, from mitra, which, according to Von Hammer, originally meant the globular part of the head-dress of Persian kings, indicating, originally, the ball of the sun, which the Persian kings wore on the crown, and the Egyptian on the head. Mithra was the genius of the sun, with the Persians. (See Mithra.)
INGE; a Saxon word signifying field, appearing in many German geographical names, as Thüringen, Tübingen, Zophingen, &c.; also in Dutch names, as Grőningen.
INGEMANN, Bernhard Severin, born in 1789; one of the most distinguished Danish poets. The works of his countryman Ehlenschläger had great influence upon his productions. His patriotic odes, particularly that to the Danebrog (the Danish Flag), shows great poetical spirit; but his epic, the Black Knights (Copenhagen, 1814), an allegoric poem, in nine cantos, like Spenser's Fairy Queen, often suffers from the length to which the allegory is protracted, though it contains real beauties. Masaniello and Blanca are Ingemann's most celebrated tragedies. He has also written much in prose.
INGENHOUSS, John, a naturalist, born at Breda, in 1730, practised physic in his native city, and afterwards went to London, where he was well received by Pringle, the president of the royal society. The empress Maria Theresa, having lost two children by the small-pox, ordered her ambassador at London to send her an
English physician, to vaccinate the others. Pringle recommended Ingenhouss, who received honors and presents, at Vienna, for the easy operation, which was not then much practised. He then travelled, and finally settled near London, where he died 1799. He was the author of several treatises on subjects of natural history, which he enriched by several important discoveries.
INGOT, in the arts, is a small bar of metal made of a certain form and size, by casting it in moulds. The term is chiefly applied to the small bars of gold and silver, intended either for coining or exportation to foreign countries.
INGRIA; a former province of Sweden, on the bay of Finland. It belonged, as early as the 13th century, to Russia, was inhabited by the Ingrians or Ishorians, and received its name from the river Inger, the former name for Ishora, when the Swedes took possession of it in 1617. In 1700, the Russians reconquered it. It forms, at present, a part of the government of St. Petersburg, in which the capital, St. Petersburg, is situated.
INGULPHUS, abbot of Croyland, and author of the history of that abbey, was born in London about 1030. He received his early education at Westminster, and afterwards went to Oxford, where he applied to the study of Aristotle, and, as he says, "clothed himself down to the heel in the first and second rhetoric of Tully." In the year 1051, William, duke of Normandy, then a visitor at the court of Edward the Confessor, made Ingulphus, then of the age of 21, his secretary. He accompanied the duke to Normandy, afterwards went on a pilgrimage to the Holy Land, and, upon his return, entered into the order of the Benedictines, at the abbey of Fontenelle, in Normandy, of which he became prior. On the acquire ment of the crown of England by William, Ingulphus was created abbot of the rich monastery of Croyland. He died in 1109. His history of the monastery of Croyland is interspersed with many particulars of the English kings. It was published by sir Henry Savile, in 1596, among the Scriptores post Bedam, and has been reprinted both at Frankfort and at Oxford, the latter of these editions, dated 1684, being the most complete. The history of Croyland comprises from 664 to 1091.
INHABITANCY. (See Domicil, vol. iv, p.
INHERITANCE. (See Descent, and Es
In diseases of
INJECTIONS belong partly to surgery and partly to anatomy. In surgery, fluids, different, according to the different effects desired to be produced, are thrown, by means of a small syringe, into the natural cavities of the body, or those occasioned by disease, partly to remove unhealthy matter, and partly to bring the remedy immediately to the seat of the disorder, and thus effect a cure. Wounds and sores are usually cleansed in this way, when they extend far below the skin, or an excitement and cure are produced by the same method. Cato the Censor had one applied to himself when he suffered from a fistula. the nose and the cavities connected with it, in those which have their seat in the neck, in disorders of the ears, the bladder and urethra, the uterus and vagina, and for the radical cure of hydrocele, injections are often used, and with important advantages. Pure warm water is injected, with the highest success, for the removal of pus, blood, or even foreign bodies. Sometimes astringent medicines, to restrain excessive evacuations, sometimes stimulating ones, to excite inflammation, as in hydrocele, or even to increase and improve evacuations, sometimes soothing medicaments, to mitigate pain, &c., are added to the water. In diseases of the throat which hinder the patient from swallowing, and thus tend to produce death by starvation, nourishing fluids are injected into the stomach. The blood of beasts, or of men, has been sometimes injected into the veins, which is called transfusion. In the same way, medicines are introduced immediately to the blood; for instance, tartar emetic to excite vomiting, if a foreign body is fixed in the throat so firmly as to restrain the patient from swallowing, and can neither be moved up nor down. According to the place where the injection is to be made, the instrument must be either longer or shorter, a straight or a curved tube. The size is regulated by the quantity of the liquid to be injected, and the force which is to be applied. Anatomists inject into the vessels of bodies various colored fluids, which are liquid when hot, and coagulate when cold, to make the smaller ones visible. Thus the arteries, veins and lymphatic vessels are injected. Anatomy has carried this art so far as to make very minute vessels visible to the naked eye.
INJUNCTION is a prohibitory writ, issuing by the order of a court of equity, restraining a person from doing some act which appears to be against equity, and
the commission of which is not punishable by the criminal law. An injunction may be obtained to stay waste, as where a tenant for life, or years, is proceeding to cut down timber which he has no right to cut; to prevent vexatious litigation in the courts of common law, as where a man persists in bringing actions to recover an estate, notwithstanding repeated failures; to enable a man to make a júst defence, which he could not make at common law, as where the legal defence to a claim rests exclusively, or to a great degree, in the knowledge of the party advancing the claim; to prevent infringement of a copyright, or a patent, &c.
INJURIA (Latin), in law; properly, every act by which some one suffers unlawfully. In the Roman law, the obligations arising from such violations formed a class by themselves, which were regulated by the lex Aquilia, so called because the tribune Aquilius (in the sixth century, between the destruction of Carthage and Corinth, and during the beginning of the civil wars) had caused the law to be enacted. At a later period, the right to ask legal redress was also extended to a mere violation of the honor of a person; and, in the laws of modern nations, this has been retained, though with a great variety of views. In the middle ages, the duel was authorized by law; and, when the laws took from individuals the right of redressing their own wrongs, it was deemed necessary to offer some other mode of redressing injuries to honor, which had been one of the most fruitful sources of duels. The common law of England punishes injuries to honor only when they amount to malicious attempts to blacken a man's reputation (see Libel, and Slander); but according to the Prussian code, a person may be sued for having used insulting language, or even insulting gestures, on the mere ground of violation of honor, and not of any other damage inflicted thereby. But, of late, the right has been considerably restricted; for instance, the complaint must be entered within a short period fixed by law, &c. According to the laws of the German states, the petition of the complainant may be to have the amende honorable made him, as by an apology for the insult, &c., or to have the offender punished. Legislation and adjudication on injuries to honor are matters of much delicacy, beyond the limits of the English law, which makes reparation only in cases where the offence has produced, or is directly calculated to produce injury, to a man, in his character or business.
INK, WRITING. This material can be prepared of various colors, but black is the most common. Doctor Lewis gives the following receipt:-In three pints of white wine, or vinegar, let three ounces of gall-nuts, one ounce powdered logwood and one ounce green vitriol be steeped half an hour; then add 1 ounce gum Arabic, and, when the gum is dissolved, pass the whole mixture through a hairsieve. Van Mons recommended the following preparation :-Let four ounces gallnuts, 24 ounces sulphate of iron, calcined to whiteness, and two pints water, stand in a cool place 24 hours; then add 14 ounce gum Arabic, and keep it in a vessel open, or slightly stopped with paper. Another recipe is this :-Take one pound gallnuts, six ounces gum Arabic, six ounces sulphate of iron, and four pints beer, or water; the gall-nuts are broken, and stand as an infusion 24 hours; then coarselypounded gum is added, and suffered to dissolve; lastly, a quantity of vitriol is introduced, and the whole passed through a hair-sieve. It is generally observed, that unboiled inks are less likely to fade than others. A good red ink is obtained as follows:-A quarter of a pound of the best logwood is boiled with an ounce of pounded alum and the same quantity of cream of tartar, with half the quantity of water, and, while the preparation is still warm, sugar and good gum Arabic, of each one ounce, are dissolved in it. Solutions of indigo with pieces of alumina, and mixed with gum, form a blue ink. Green ink is obtained from verdigris, distilled with vinegar and mixed with a little gum. Saffron, alum, and gum water, form a yellow.-It is not well ascertained how soon the present kind of writing ink came into use. It has certainly been employed for many centuries in most European countries; but the ancient Roman inks were, for the most part, of a totally different composition, being made of some vegetable carbonaceous matter, like lamp-black, diffused in a liquor.. The Chinese, and many of the inks used by the Oriental nations, are still of this kind. Sometimes the ink of very old writings is so much faded by time as to be illegible. Doctor Blagden (Philosophical Transactions, vol. 77), in his experiments on this subject, found that, in most of these, the color might be restored, or, rather, a new body of color given, by pencilling them over with a solution of prussiate of potash, and then with a dilute acid, either sulphuric or muriatic; or else, vice versa, first with the acid, and then with the prussiate. The acid dissolves the oxide
of iron of the faded ink, and the prussiate precipitates it again of a blue color, which restores the legibility of the writing. If this be done neatly, and blotting paper laid over the letters as fast as they become visible, their form will be retained very distinctly. Pencilling over the letters with an infusion of galls also restores the blackness, to a certain degree, but not so speedily, nor so completely.
China or Indian Ink. The well known and much admired Indian, or China ink, is brought over in small oblong cakes, which readily become diffused in water by rubbing, and the blackness remains suspended in it for a considerable time, owing to the extreme subtilty of division of the substance that gives the color, and the intimacy with which it is united to the mucilaginous matter that keeps it suspended. Indian ink does, however, deposit the whole of its color by standing, when it is diffused in a considerable quantity of water. Doctor Lewis, on examining this substance, found that the ink consisted of a black sediment, totally insoluble in water, which appeared to be of the nature of the finest lamp-black, and of another substance soluble in water, and which putrefied by keeping, and, when evaporated, left a tenacious jelly, exactly like glue, or isinglass. It appears probable, therefore, that it consists of nothing more than these two ingredients, and probably may be imitated with perfect accuracy by using a very fine jelly, like isinglass, or size, and the finest lamp-black, and incorporating them thoroughly. The finest lamp-black known is made from ivory shavings, and thence called ivory black.
Printers Ink. This is a very singular composition, partaking much of the nature of an oil varnish, but differing from it in the quality of adhering firmly to moistened paper, and in being, to a considerable degree, soluble in soap-water. It is, when used by the printers, of the consistence of rather thin jelly, so that it may be smeared over the types readily and thinly, when applied by leather cushions; and it dries very speedily on the paper, without running through to the other side, or passing the limits of the letter. It is made of nut-oil, boiled, and afterwards mixed with lamp-black, of which about two ounces and a half are sufficient for 16 ounces of the prepared oil. Other additions are made by ink-makers, of which the most important is generally understood to be a little fine indigo in powder, to improve the beauty of the color. Red printers' ink is made by adding to the varnish
about half its weight of vermilion. A little carmine also improves the color. (Encyclopédie, Arts et Métiers, vol. iii, page 518.) Colored Inks. Few of these are used, except red ink. The preparation of these is very simple, consisting either of decoctions of the different coloring or dyeing materials in water, and thickened with gum Arabic, or of colored metallic oxides, or insoluble powders, merely diffused in gum-water. The proportion of gum Arabic to be used may be the same as for black writing ink. All that applies to the fixed or fugitive nature of the several articles used in dyeing, may be applied, in general, to the use of the same substance as inks. Most of the common water-color cakes, diffused in water, will make sufficiently good colored inks for most purposes.
Sympathetic Inks; liquids without any observable color; any thing may be written with them invisibly, and made visible at will by certain means. Even Ovid informed maidens who were closely watched, that they might write to their lovers whatever they pleased with fresh milk, and when dry sprinkle over it coal-dust, or soot. In modern times, chemistry has taught the preparation of many improved inks of this nature:-Form a solution of green vitriol in water, and add a little alum, to prevent the yellow iron precipitate from sinking, which always rises in case the acid does not prevail; this solution forms a sympathetic ink, which appears extremely black when it is moistened with a saturated infusion of gall-nuts. A sympathetic ink may likewise be formed from common black ink. For this purpose, the color must be destroyed by a mixture of nitric acid. Any thing written with it becomes visible on moistening it with a solution of some volatile alkali. The famous ink, invisible in the cold, and visible at a moderate temperature, may be prepared without much difficulty. (See Cobalt.) Any writing with this ink is invisible; but, on the application of a certain degree of heat, it becomes a beautiful greenish blue. As soon as it cools again, the color vanishes and thus, by alternately heating and cooling it, the writing can be made visible or invisible. Care must be taken not to heat it more than is required to make it plain, for otherwise it always continues visible. With this sympathetic ink landscapes may be drawn, in which the trees and the earth lose their verdant appearance in the winter, but may be changed again into a spring landscape, at will, by exposing them to a