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INLAND NAVIGATION.-American Canals. An account of canals, except those of America, is given under the article Canals. An account of river navigation will be found under the article Rivers, navigable. In the present article, a view will be given of American canal navigation, as it presents itself in 1831; beginning at the northerly part of the continent, and proceeding southerly. It is difficult to obtain exact information relating to the works of this description in America. The publications on the subject contain immense masses of matter, of very little interest or practical utility, and, at the same time, omit a definite description of the works themselves, and give a very imperfect account of the obstacles overcome in their construction, or the amount of business done upon them. Some of the works mentioned in the following list, as will be seen in the account of them, are merely projected, and others are not yet completed; and it is not easy, at the time of making this article, to ascertain, precisely, what degree of progress has been made in some of them; nor is it very important to do so, since the state of things is rapidly changing in this respect; insomuch, that what would be an exact account of some of them at the time of making this article, would cease to be such at the time of its publication.

CANALS OF CANADA.-Welland canal was constructed from 1824 to 1829. Its length is 41 miles; its breadth at the surface 58 feet, at the bottom 26 feet, and its depth 8 feet. This line of navigation passes from the mouth of Ouse river, on lake Erie, north-eastward, to strike at a point of the Welland or Chippeway river; and, taking the course of that river downwards, 11 miles, proceeds from thence northward, across the mountain ridge, and down to the mouth of Twelve-Mile creek, on lake Ontario. The distance from lake to lake is 43 miles. The deepest cutting, near the summit, is 56 feet. It has 35 locks, 125 to 100 feet long, 32 to 22 feet wide. The capital stock of the company is 200,000 pounds; the number of shares, 16,000. This canal admits of sloop navigation, and opens a communication between lake Erie and lake Ontario, in the same vessels which navigate those lakes, and saves discharging and reloading cargoes. One of the purposes of its construction was, to prevent the trade of that part of Upper Canada which communicates with the great western lakes, from

being diverted to New York, by the route of the Erie canal. It was an arduous and stupendous work, as appears sufficiently from the dimensions and length of the canal. Its execution was, however, facilitated by taking advantage of natural channels of slack-water.-Rideau canal is a projected navigation for 122 miles, from Hull, on the great Ottawa, by the course of the river Rideau and a chain of lakes, to the Gannanoqui, on the St. Lawrence, at the Kingston mills, five miles from the city of Kingston. The plan of communication is calculated for sloop navigation. The expense, it is supposed, may amount to £1,000,000.-La Chine canal is 10 miles in length, from Montreal, on the St. Lawrence, directly to Upper La Chine, on lake St. Louis, cutting off a bend in the river, and avoiding the rapids of St. Louis. Cost, £220,000; for sloop navigation.-L'Isle Perrault canal is a projected work of five miles in length, from St. Louis lake, at the foot of St. Anne's rapids, to the head thereof, by a canal passing either at the back of St. Anne's, or else across the Isle Perrault.— Grenville canal is a projected work of 12 miles in length, from the head of Long Sault or Ottawa falls, at the village of Grenville, by a lateral canal, to the foot of Carillon rapids, opposite Point Fortune; for sloop navigation. Estimated cost, £250,000.-La Petite Nation canal is a projected artificial channel of navigation, of 50 miles in length, from the foot of Carillon rapids, at Hawkesbury, on the Ottawa, across the peninsula, to the St. Lawrence, at Prescott.


CANALS OF THE United STATES. mense improvements have been made in inland navigation, both by rivers and canals, during the 15 years from 1816 to 1831. More than 1000 miles of canal have been made during that time, besides vast improvements in river navigation; and, in 1831, the numerous works of this sort, already commenced, are prosecuted with unremitted activity. Only a very general outline of these improvements, so important, both in a political and economical view, can be given in this work.

Canals in New England.-Cumberland and Oxford canal. This navigation, partly natural and partly artificial, extends about 50 miles, from Portland to Sebago pond, in Maine. The head of the canal is in the town of Bridgeton, at the termination of Long pond, which is 10 miles in length. This pond, together with Brandy pond and Sebago pond, with their outlets, constitutes 27 miles of the ca

nal; 24 locks only are necessary. Tolls are, per mile, for planks, 6 cents per 1000 feet; shingles, 2 cents a thousand; wood, 6 cents a cord, per mile; timber, 6 cents a ton, per mile; goods in boats, 6 cents a ton; boats, rafts, &c., 6 cents additional for each lock.-Middlesex canal was completed in 1808. It opens a communication between Boston harbor and the Merrimack river, a distance of 27 miles. It has but one summit level, 104 feet above Boston harbor, and 32 above the level of the Merrimack, at the place of its junction with that river in Chelmsford, above Pawtucket falls; on which falls are situated the great manufacturing establishments of Lowell. Its breadth at the surface is 30 feet, at the bottom 20 feet, and its depth of water 3 feet. It makes part of a line of water communication between Boston and the central part of New Hampshire. There are on this canal 20 locks of different lifts, of which the highest is 12 feet. The locks are 75 feet long in the clear, 10 feet wide at the bottom, and 11 feet at the top. The number of aqueducts, over rivers and streams, is 7; and there are 50 bridges, having stone abutments 20 feet apart. Cost, $528,000; constructed by the Middlesex canal company, incorporated in 1789. The tolls, in 1824, were, for boats, $14,184; rafts, $5770; in the whole, $19,954.-Bow canal was made in 1812, and is the continuation of a line of navigation, of which the Middlesex canal constitutes a part. Its length is mile; the lockage 25 feet. Its dimensions, and the size of the locks, correspond to those of the Middlesex canal, being designed to pass the same boats. It passes a fall in the Merrimack of 25 feet, with 4 locks. A dam is constructed across the river, at the head of the falls. Expense of the whole work, $19,000.-Hooksett canal, another work on the Merrimack, 50 rods in length, is also a part of the same line of navigation, and passes Hooksett falls, in that river, by a lockage of 16 feet. These falls are lower down the river than the Bow canal. It has three locks. Cost of the whole works, $13,000.—Amoskeag canal, one mile in length, is another part of the same navigation, being eight miles farther down the Merrimack, at Amoskeag falls, which are passed by this canal with a lockage of 45 feet. It has 9 locks, and several dams. Cost, $60,000.--Union canal, a part of the same navigation, having 7 locks in 9 miles, is immediately below the Amoskeag canal, and comprehends 6 sets of falls. Cost, $35,000. Cromwell's falls, which are below, on the same river,

are locked at an expense of $9000; and 15 miles lower down are the Wiccassee falls, which have been locked at an expense of about $12,000. The line of navigation above described, commenced at a very early period in the history of canal navigation in the U. States; and the undertaking evinced great public spirit and enterprise on the part of the persons who engaged in it, whose inadequate pecuniary remuneration has, however, operated as a discouragement from similar enterprises in New England.-Pawtucket canal, a branch of the navigation above described, is a channel of about a mile and a half in length, passing Pawtucket falls on the Merrimack, and facilitating the navigation of that river from Chelmsford, where the Middlesex canal meets the river, to Newburyport, situated near its mouth. It is in the town of Lowell. A dam is made across the Merrimack, above those falls, a short distance below the termination of the Middlesex canal, for the purpose of regulating the height of water for supplying the Pawtucket canal, which was originally made merely for the passage of rafts and boats, and corresponded in dimensions to the other works on the same river above, and to the Middlesex canal. About the year 1820, the proprietors of the manufacturing establishments, which have, during the short subsequent period of about 10 years, grown to so surprising a magnitude, and which are still rapidly increasing, purchased the Pawtucket canal, and enlarged its channel to the dimensions of 90 feet in breadth, and 4 in depth, which not only serves for the original purpose of this canal, in passing these falls, which are in the whole about 32 feet in height, but also supplies immense hydraulic works, used for the purposes of manufacturing.Farmington canal was commenced in 1825, upon the plan of connecting, by a line of 78 miles of entirely artificial navigation, Connecticut river at Northampton, in Massachusetts, with New Haven harbor. It is 36 feet in breadth at the surface of the water, 20 at the bottom, and 4 feet in depth; and passes from New Haven to Farmington, in Connecticut, and from thence to Colebrook. The locks are 80 feet in the clear, and 12 feet wide. Its commencement at New Haven is from a basin of 20 acres capacity. It is (in 1831) nearly completed, and wholly under contract, from New Haven to Southwick ponds, in Massachusetts, a distance, by survey, of 58 miles; lockage, 218 ft.-Hampshire and Hampden canal is a projected

work, of 20 miles in length, in Massachusetts, in continuation of the Farmington canal, from Southwick ponds to Northampton; lockage, 298 feet.-Enfield canal, and the three others next mentioned, are short cuts at the different falls on Connecticut river. This was the latest of these improvements, having been commenced by a company, under a charter granted in 1824. It is 54 miles in length, and passes the Enfield falls, in the state of Connecticut. It has three stone locks, each 10 feet lift, 90 feet by 20. This canal adds 40 miles to the steamboat navigation up the Connecticut. Before the construction of this work, these rapids were navigated by the boats passing along the river, but they were a great impediment to the navigation. This canal, like the Pawtucket at Lowell, on the Merrimack, is intended both to facilitate navigation and supply hydraulic works. It is an important improvement, and does great credit to the undertakers.-South Hadley canal, the next artificial channel of navigation up the Connecticut, is in South Hadley, in Massachusetts. It is 2 miles in length, and overcomes the rapids in the Connecticut at the place, amounting to about 40 feet. There is a cut in this canal, 40 feet deep, 300 feet long, in solid rock. This improvement, and also the one next mentioned, were undertaken by a company which was chartered in 1792.-Montague canal, in the town of Montague, also in Massachusetts, is the next in order, higher up the Connecticut. It is 3 miles in length, 25 feet broad and 3 deep. By this canal the navigation passes the Montague falls, which commence above Miller's river; it terminates above the mouth of Deerfield river; lockage, 75 feet.-Bellows Falls canal is a short artificial channel, higher up the Connecticut, in the state of Vermont, for the purpose of passing Bellows falls.-Blackstone canal (see that article for a description of this canal). A few miles above Providence harbor, this canal meets the Blackstone or Pawtucket river, and passes up along its western bank a great part of its route, and is wholly supplied by the waters of this river and its tributary streams and ponds, some of the latter being made use of as extensive reservoirs, whereby, in the dry season, all the water used by the canal, and so taken away from the various manufacturing works established at the different falls on the river, is replaced, and supposed, indeed, to be more than compensated for. This canal facilitates and greatly increases the trade from the

northern part of the state of Rhode Island, and the interior central part of Massachusetts, to the market of Providence, that of New York, and the ports of the Middle and Southern States.

New York Canals. The state of New York has an extensive system of artificial inland navigation, connecting the navigation of Hudson river with that of lake Champlain, lake Ontario, lake Erie, and Delaware river.-Champlain canal is 634 miles in length, 40 feet wide at the surface, 28 feet at the bottom, and 4 feet in depth. This, and the Erie, Oswego and Cayuga canals, were made by the state, at the public expense, and remain under the administration of the government, as public property. The Champlain canal passes from Albany to Whitehall, on lake Champlain, connecting Hudson river with that lake. This canal commences at Whitehall, at the head of sloop navigation on lake Champlain, and, immediately rising, by 3 locks, 26 feet, proceeds on a level 5 miles up the valley of Wood creek, enters that stream, and follows its channel for 3 miles, to a lock of 4 feet lift, which extends the navigation up the creek 34 miles farther, to Fort Anne village, where, after rising by 3 locks 24 feet, it leaves the creek, and proceeds 12 miles on a summit level, through the towns of Fort Anne and Kingsbury, to Fort Edward. Here it receives the waters of the Hudson, above the great dam in that river, by a feeder of half a mile in length, and soon after descends 30 feet by 3 locks, into the Hudson, below the dam. The great dam is 900 feet long, 27 feet high, and throws back an ample supply of water for the summit level. From Fort Edward, the navigation is continued, for the present, down the channel of the Hudson, 8 miles, to the head of Fort Miller falls; around which it is carried by a canal on the east bank of the river, half a mile long, and having 2 locks of 18 feet descent. From Fort Miller, the river is made navigable for near three miles farther, by a dam at the head of Saratoga falls, just above which the canal leaves the river on the western side, and proceeds on a level for 17 miles, through Saratoga and Stillwater, Schuyler's flats, and over Fish creek, by an aqueduct, to a point two miles below Stillwater village. From this point to Waterford, where the canal enters the Mohawk, and meets the Erie canal, a distance of 9 miles, it descends 86 feet by 9 locks, 6 of which are in the town of Waterford. From Waterford, the Hudson is now made naviga

ble for sloops to Troy, 34 miles below, by a dam across the river at the latter place, 1100 feet in length, 9 feet high, and having a sloop lock, at its eastern extremity, 114 feet long, 30 feet wide, 9 feet lift. The cost of this lock and dam was $92,270.-Erie canal, extending from Albany on the Hudson, to Buffalo on lake Erie, is 363 miles in length, 40 feet wide at the surface of the water, 28 feet at the bottom, with a depth of 4 feet of water. It has 2 summit levels in this distance, and the whole lockage is 692 feet. It was completed in 1825. The locks are 83 in number, all of stone masonry, each 90 feet long in the clear, and 15 feet wide. From Buffalo, the canal proceeds 10 miles to Tonnewanta creek. The Tonnewanta is then used for 12 miles; thence by a deep cut 7 miles to Lockport, where it descends 60 feet by 5 locks; thence on a uniform level 63 miles to Rochester, where it crosses the Gennesee, by an aqueduct of 9 arches, each 50 feet span. Here it is supplied by a navigable feeder, 2 miles long, connecting it with the Gennesee; thence easterly to Montezuma, 67 miles, in which distance it descends 126 feet, and crosses Mud creek twice by aqueducts. At Montezuma, the level of the canal ascends, and, in a distance of 27 miles, to Salina, rises 67 feet. In Salina commences the 'long level,' a distance of 69 miles, to Frankfort. From Frankfort, the canal descends, in 12 miles, 49 feet, to the head of Little Falls, where are 5 locks, and an aqueduct over the Mohawk, of 3 arches. From the foot of Little Falls, the canal continues for 70 miles down the valley of the Mohawk, on the south side of the river, to Niskayuna, 4 miles below Schenectady, where it crosses the Mohawk by an aqueduct 748 feet long. The descent from the foot of Little Falls to Niskayuna is 86 feet. After crossing the Mohawk, the canal proceeds along the north bank thereof for 12 miles, and then recrosses by an aqueduct 1188 feet long, and passes by the Cohoes falls, where, in the space of 2 miles, it descends 132 feet, by 16 locks. A little below the Cohoes falls, a feeder enters from the Mohawk, and connects the Erie with the Champlain canal; and the united work then proceeds to Albany, 8 miles, in which distance it descends 44 feet, and terminates in the tide waters of the Hudson. Cost, $7,602,000.—Oswego canal is a branch of the Erie. This navigation passes from Oswego to Syracuse, connecting lake Ontario with the Erie canal. It has 123 feet of lockage, all de

scending towards lake Ontario. One half of the distance, is a canal connected with Oswego river by locks and dams; the other half is a slack-water navigation on the river. Its structures consist of 22 bridges, 1 aqueduct, 7 culverts, 2 waste weirs, 8 dams across the river, 13 locks of stone, and 1 of stone and timber. Cost, $525,115. It has been made since the Erie canal.-Cayuga and Seneca canal, another branch of the Erie, made in 1828, extends from Geneva to Montezuma, connecting Seneca and Cayuga lakes with the Erie canal. The work consists of 10 miles of independent canal, and 10 miles 24 chains of slack-water navigation. There are 7 locks, embracing 734 feet of lockage, 19 bridges, 5 safety-gates, 5 dams, and 6 culverts. Cost, $211,000.-Delaware and Hudson canal is not, like the preceding, a work of the state, having been made by a private company. It is 64 miles in length, 32 feet wide at the water's surface, 20 feet at the bottom, 4 feet in depth, and has 615 feet of lockage. It commences on the western side of the river Delaware, at Carpenter's point, and passes across to the Hudson, which it enters 4 miles below Kingston, and thus connects those two rivers. It also unites, in Pennsylvania, with the Lackawaxen canal. These canals, when united, extend 117 miles. Length from the tide water of the Rondout, to the summit level between the Hudson and Delaware, 38 miles, with a rise of 535 feet. From the summit level to the Delaware, is 26 miles, and a descent of 80 feet. Up the Delaware to the mouth of the Lackawaxen, is 17 miles, and a rise of 148 feet. Up the Lackawaxen to head water, at Kean's pond, is 36 miles, and a rise of 668 feet. Total lockage, 1431 feet. Cost, $16,000 per mile. The Delaware and Hudson canal company were incorporated in 1823. Tolls not to exceed 8 cents per mile per ton of coal, and 4 cents for other merchandise; the same for every 100 feet, cubic measure, of timber, and every 1000 feet boards, and every 5000 shingles.

New Jersey.-Morris canal was commenced in 1825, and is (1831) much advanced. It is 101 miles in length, from 30 to 32 feet wide at the surface, 16 to 18 feet at the bottom, and 4 feet in depth; the whole lockage is 1657 feet. It extends from Jersey city, on the Hudson, across the state of New Jersey, to the Delaware, opposite Easton, where it connects with the Lehigh canal. The summit level is near lake Hopatcung. On the western division, from the feeder at the summit level

to the Delaware, are to be seven locks, overcoming a difference in level of 67 feet, and 11 inclined planes, overcoming 691 feet. On the eastern division, between the summit level and the Passaic, there are to be 17 locks, overcoming a difference of 156 feet, and 12 inclined planes, overcoming 743 feet. There will be, within these limits, 4 guard-locks, 5 dams, 30 culverts, 12 aqueducts, 200 bridges and upwards. The aqueduct across the Passaic, at Little Falls, is of cut stone, the duct resting on a single arch of 80 feet, with 50 feet radius, and measuring 52 feet perpendicular above the water level, that is, to the coping of the side-walls; extent, from wing-wall to wingwall, 215 feet.-Delaware and Raritan canal is a projected work in the same state. Pennsylvania Canals. The state of Pennsylvania has a very extensive system of canal navigation, a very large part of which has been undertaken by the state, at the public expense.-Schuylkill canal and navigation was commenced in 1816, and has been in operation a number of years. Its length is 110 miles; lockage, 620 feet, or only 5.64 feet per mile; is 36 feet wide at the surface of the water, 24 feet at the bottom, and 4 feet deep, and extends from Philadelphia to Reading, and from thence to mount Carbon. It is sometimes called the Schuylkill navigation. It comprises 31 dams, commencing at Fair Mount waterworks, near Philadelphia, by which is produced a slack-water navigation of 45 miles; also 23 canals, extending 65 miles; 125 locks, 17 feet wide, 80 feet long, of which 28 are guard-locks. There are 17 arched aqueducts; a tunnel of 450 feet, cut through and under solid rock; 65 toll and gate-houses. The dams vary from 3 to 27 feet in height. Total cost of the improvements, January 1, 1830, $2,236,937. Tolls, for 1826, $43,109; 1827, $58,149; 1828, $87,171; 1829, $120,039. It was constructed by the Schuylkill navigation company, incorporated in 1815. The company may declare a dividend not exceeding 25 per cent. per annum, and the tolls are to be regulated accordingly.Union canal and navigation, constructed in 1827; length, 82 miles, exclusive of a navigation of 7 miles; lockage, 520 feet; 36 feet wide at the surface, and 24 feet at the bottom, and 4 feet deep. It extends from 4 miles below Reading to Middletown, connecting the Susquehanna and Schuylkill rivers, and uniting at Reading with the Schuylkill canal, and at Middletown with the great Pennsylvania canal; the summit level is at Lebanon. The canal begins, at its eastern end, in the Schuyl

kill works, and ascends along the western bank of the Schuylkill to the valley of the Tulpehocken, and passes up that valley to the east end of the summit level, within five miles of Lebanon, rising 311 feet by 54 locks, of various lifts of from 8 to 4 feet. The summit extends 6 miles, 78 chains, part whereof is a tunnel of 850 feet, 18 feet wide, 14 high, opening into Clark's creek valley, along which the canal descends to the Swatara, and, continuing along the valley of this river, terminates at Middletown. Descent from summit, 208 feet, overcome by 39 locks. It has 43 waste weirs, 49 culverts, 135 road and farm bridges, 12 aqueducts, one of which is 276 feet in length. On this canal are extensive water-works for raising the water of the Swatara to the summit. Cost, $20,000 per mile. Rates of toll to be regulated so as not to give more than 12 per cent.-Lackawaxen canal is 36 miles in length, 32 feet wide at the surface, 20 feet at the bottom, and 4 feet in depth. It commences at the termination of the Delaware and Hudson canal, near Carpenter's point, and unites with a rail-road at Honesdale. (See Delaware and Hudson canal.) In 1825, the Lackawaxen canal and coal company were authorized to act in union with the Delaware and Hudson canal company. The tolls are not to exceed 13 cents perton per mile on boats transporting stone, coal, &c. Great quantities of Lackawana coal are transported along this canal.-Lehigh canal and navigation was completed about 1829, is 463 miles in length, 60 to 65 feet wide at the surface, 45 feet at the bottom, and 5 feet deep; the lockage is 360 feet. It extends from Easton on the Delaware to Stoddartsville, connecting the Morris canal with the Mauch Chunk railroad; cost, $1,558,000. It consists of 37 miles of canal, and 93 of slack-water pools. The ponds connecting the several lengths of canal are all cleared out in the channel to the width of 50 feet. The canals are furnished with 43 locks, from 6 feet lift to 9, whereof 2 are guard-locks, besides 5 other guard-locks at the pools respectively; dimensions, 22 feet wide, 100 feet long. There are 8 dams, varying in height from 6 to 16 feet. The lock walls are constructed of rough stone. There are 4 aqueducts; 22 culverts; cost, $25,000 per mile. The Lehigh coal and navigation company were incorporated in 1818. Tolls not to exceed three cents per mile, per ton, for boats, and every ton of shingles in rafts, from the Great Falls to the mouth of Nescoponing creek; and from thence to the mouth of the Lehigh, one cent per

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