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also descended on his mother's side. As ing delivered them to their master, he rehe steadily rejected all propositions for a ceived, in return, the persons of Pedro new marriage, his secret was suspected, Coëlho and Alvarez Gonsalvez; the third, and the envious rivals of the beautiful Pacheco, escaped to Arragon. The two Ines were fearful that her brothers and were then tortured in the presence of the family would gain a complete ascendency king, in order to make them disclose their over the future king. The old king was accomplices ; their hearts were torn out, easily blinded by the intrigues of his art- their bodies burnt, and their ashes scatful counsellors, Diego Lopez Pacheco, tered to the winds (1360). Two years afPedro Coëlho and Alvarez Gonsalvez. ter, he assembled the chief men of the

They persuaded him that this marriage kingdom, at Cataneda, and solemnly dewould be prejudicial to the interests of clared on oath, that, after the death of his his young grand-son Ferdinand (the son wife Constantia, he had obtained the conof Pedro by his de rased wife). Alphon- sent of the pope to his union with Ines so asked his son if he was married to de Castro, and that he had been married Ines. Pedro dared not confess the truth to her in the presence of the archbishop to his father, much less would be comply of Guarda and of an officer of his court, with the command of the king, to re- Stephen Lobato. He then went to Coimnounce his mistress and unite himself to bra. The archbishop and Lobato conanother. Alphonso again consulted his firmed the assertions of the king; and the favorites, and it was resolved to put the papal document, to which the king referunhappy Ines to death. The queen Bea- red, was publicly exhibited. The king trice, mother of the Infant, obtained intel- caused the body of his beloved Ines to be ligence of this cruel design, and gave her disinterred, and placed on a throne, adornson notice of it. But Pedro neglected noted with the diadem and royal robes, and only this information, but even the warn- required all the nobility of the kingdom ing of the archbishop of Braga, as a ru- to approach and kiss the hem of her garmor intended merely to terrify him. The ment, rendering her when dead that homfirst time that Pedro left Ines, to be absent age which she had not received in her several days, on a hunting expedition, the life. The body was then_carried in a king hastened to Coimbra, where she was funeral car to Alcobaça The king, the living in the convent of St. Clara with her bishops, the nobles and knights of the children. The arrival of Alphonso filled kingdom, followed the carriage on foot ; the unhappy lady with terror; but, sup- and the whole distance, from Coimbra to pressing her feelings, she appeared before Alcobaça, was lined on both sides by mathe king, threw herself with her children ny thousands of people, bearing burning at his feet, and begged for mercy with torches. In Alcobaça, a splendid monutears. Alphonso, softened by this sight, ment of white marble was erected, on had not the heart to perpetrate the intend- which was placed her statue, with a royal ed crime. But after he had retired, his crown on her head. The history of the evil counsellors succeeded in obliterating unhappy Ines has furnished many poets, the impression which had been made on of different nations, with materials for him, and obtained from him permission tragedies,-Lamothe, count von Soden, to commit the murder which had been &c.; but the Portuguese muse has immorresolved on. It was executed that very talized her through the lips of Camoens, hour; Ines expired under the daggers of in whose celebrated Lusiade, the history her enemies. She was buried in the con- of her love is one of the finest epivent where she was murdered (1355). Pe- sodes. dro, frantic with grief and rage, took arms INFALLIBILITY ; exemption from the against his father, but the queen and the possibility of error. God, of course, is archbishop of Braga succeeded in recon- infallible, because the idea of divinity exciling the father and son. Pedro obtained cludes that of error; Christ was infallible, many privileges ; in return for which, he and, according to the belief of the Greek promised, on oath, not to take vengeance and Catholic church, and of most Proteson the murderers. Two years after, king tant sects, the apostles were also infallible, Alphonso died ; the three assassins had after the descent of the Holy Ghost. Here, already left the kingdom, by his advice, however, the Protestants and Catholics and taken refuge in Castile, where Peter divide. The latter, founding their creed the Cruel then reigned, whose tyranny on tradition (q. v.) as well as on the Bible, had driven some noble Castilians into maintain that the tradition, that is, the Portugal. Pedro agreed to exchange these general doctrine and belief, handed down fugitives for the murderers of Ines. Hav- from age to age, and taught by the great

body of the pastors, is above the possibili- vine right believe in a somewhat more ty of error ; consequently, also, the coun- real political infallibility of kings. cils are infallible, because the councils, INFANT, in law. By the English, and according to a Catholic writer,“ do not generally by the American, and so by the make truths or dogmas, as some Protes- French law, persons come to majority at tants maintain, but merely express the the age of twenty-one years, until which belief of the church on certain points in time they are called in law infants, and question :" the truth pronounced, there- are under guardianship or tutelage. The fore, always existed, but had not been pre- laws of some of the U. States, however, viously declared by the church. From make a distinction between males and feseveral passages in the Bible, the Catholic males, the age of eighteen being that of infers that the above-mentioned tradition majority in females. Infants cannot, in and the councils are under the continual general, bind themselves by contracts, as guidance and influence of the Holy Ghost: they are supposed not to have sufficient hence the formula so often repeated by discretion for this purpose. But this is the council of Trent, the last general their privilege, and their contracts are accouncil of the Catholic church_" the holy cordingly held in general not to be void, council lawfully assembled under the but only voidable at their election ; and guidance of the Holy Ghost.” It is clear, they may elect to avoid their contracts that, if the councils are infallible, it is of during their minority, but they cannot conthe utmost importance for the Catholic to firm them so as to be bound by them, know what are lawful councils. This is a until their majority. Infants may possess point which, as may be easily conceived, property, but it must be under the manhas created great discussions in the Cath- agement and control of a guardian. They olic church, because the popes claimed have not the right of citizens as to voting, the sole right to convoke councils. (See and discharging other political functions. Council.) So far all Roman Catholics But in regard to crimes and punishments, agree respecting infallibility, namely, that and trespasses and private wrongs, their Christ, the apostles, the body of the pas- conduct is regulated by the same laws as tors, the traditions of the church, and the that of the other members of the commucouncils, are infallible ; but they disagree nity, in case of their being of sufficient respecting the infallibility of the pope. age and discretiou to understand their The ultramontane theologians maintain duties and obligations. And for this purthat the pope is infallible, whenever he pose no general limit can be assigned, as pronounces dogmatically on a point of some children are much more intelligent doctrine, to settle the faith of the whole than others of the same age ; and it will Catholic church. These theologians are again depend, in some degree, upon the therefore called infallibleists. The theolo- nature of the offence committed, or the gians of the Gallican church do not ad- wrong done, whether a child of any given mit this infallibility. The assembly of age can be considered legally guilty of it, the French clergy, in 1682, laid down the since some offences and wrongs can be maxim, " that in questions of faith, the soy- more easily understood to be such than ereign pontiff has the chief part, and that others. The law, in general, has a tenhis decrees concern the whole church ; der regard to youth, and does not permit but that his judgment is not irreformable, them to be convicted and punished for until it be confirmed by the acquiescence offences and trespasses, unless it appears of the church.” Bossuet, in his Defensio clearly that they have sufficient knowledge Declarat. Cleri Gallic., 21 part, l. 12 seq. and discretion to distinguish them to be has treated this point at length. He main- such.-There are exceptions to the incatains, that the pope is by no means infalli- pacities of minors as to contracting, and ble, and that a papal decision is not to be these exceptions are made for their beneconsidered infallible until the church ac- fit. Thus an infant not sufficiently furquiesces in it, which, he admits, may be nished with necessary clothes, food or indone, in general, silently.—In politics, the struction, by his parent or guardian, and word infallible is used in a different sense. not being under the immediate superinThe position that any political person, or tendence of the parent or guardian, may body, is infallible, onļy means, that there make a valid contract, in respect to those is no appeal from such person or body. subjects, and such contract may be enWhen the English public law declares forced against him. Another exception that the king can do no wrong, every one to the general incapacity of infants to knows that this is merely a political fic- contract, relates to the contract of martion. But the genuine supporters of di- riage, which, by the law of England and


the U. States, may be made by a male the intercession of the French ambassador at the age of fourteen, and by a female Beauharnais, prevented the sentence. In at that of twelve. The French code 1808, the duke accompanied Ferdinand fixes the age for making a valid marriage VII to Bayonne. July 7, 1808, he signed contract, in the case of the male, at the constitution prepared by Napoleon, at eighteen, and in that of the female at fif- Bayonne, for Spain, and became colonel

And as the law gives validity to in the guards of king Joseph; but he the principal contract, the prevalent doc- soon after resigned his post, and summontrine, though subject to some doubt as to ed the nation to arm against the French, the extent of its application, is, that all and was consequently denounced as a contracts collateral and incidental to that traitor by Napoleon, Nov. 12, 1808. In of marriage, such as making marriage 1809, he commanded a Spanish division, settlements by the husband, and accepting but was twice defeated by Sebastiani; and, them instead of dower by the wife, are notwithstanding his courage, he lost the equally binding on both of the parties, confidence of the supreme junta, who debeing of age to contract marriage, and, prived him of his command. He then accordingly, not subject to be revoked retired to Seville. In 1811, the cortes either before or after coming to the age appointed him president of the council of of inajority. If, however, one party be Spain and the Indies, and ambassador exunder the age at which a contract of mar- truordinary to England. _In June, 1812, riage may be made, he or she may, on ar- he returned to Cadiz. From hence he riving at such age, either ratify or anpul went to Madrid, after the French had any such contract previously made. The been driven from that capital, in 1813, but jurisdiction in respect to infants is gen- was obliged to withdraw from that city, erally vested in either probate or orphans' by the command of the junta, as one of courts, in the U. States. These courts ap- the chiefs of the Servile party (los serviles). point guardians to take charge of the prop- Ferdinand VII, however, recalled the erty of infants, and, in case of the decease duke, made him president of the council of the father, to take charge of their per- of Castile, and treated him with distinsons; but, during the life of the father, he guished favor. On the establishment of has the guardianship and control of the the constitution in 1820, he resigned his persons of his sons until they are twenty- place, and retired to his estate near Maone years of age, and of his daughters drid, but was banished to Majorca. In until they are either eighteen or twenty- 1823, he was appointed president of the one. At a certain age, however, that is, regency which was established by the twelve or fourteen, the child, in case of French at Madrid during the war. In the decease of the father, may choose his August, he went with Victor Saez to own guardian, who, being approved by Puerto Santa Maria, to resign the governithe proper judge, is appointed accord- ment into the hands of the king, who ingly. (See Infante.)

made him a member of the council of INFANT Schools. (See Schools.) state. The duke formed the plan for the INFANTADO, duke of, a Spanish grandee organization of the regiments of guards, of the first class, born 1773, was educated and obtained for the king (1824) the sum in France, under the eye of his mother, a of 100,000 florins, for his journey to Aranprincess of Salm-Salın. In the war of juez. In October, 1825, he succeeded Zea 1793, he raised a regiment in Catalonia at as first minister, and changed Zea's dehis own expense. The prince of the Astu- liberative junta into a council of state ; but rias formed an intimate union with him, be- the machine of state, which the apostolic cause the duke showed an aversion to Go- party checked in its course, could not be doy, the king's favorite. Godoy therefore put effectually in motion. The duke conobtained an order, in 1806, for the duke tributed 500,000 francs, the amount of his to leave Madrid. He became, in conse- income for one year, to the necessities of quence (1807), still more intimately con- the state, and in October, 1826, obtained nected with the prince (see Ferdinand VII), his discharge. who appointed him, in case of the death INFANTE, or INFANT (a word derived of the king, captain-general of New Cas- from the Latin, sigpifying child);

the title tile. This appointment involved him in given, particularly in Spain and Portugal, the affair of the Escurial ; the attorney- to the princes of the royal house, the elgeneral of the king demanded sentence dest being also called "el principe. The of death against the duke and Escoiquiz; princesses at these courts are called inbut the popular favor towards him, and fanta, the eldest also la princesa.

INFANTRY.* If cavalry (q. v.) are to used to protect the shoulders. The thick be called l'arme du moment, the great cue, with wire in it, has sometimes been work of the battle is to be performed by considered a defence to the neck. Infanthe infantry, which composes the greatest try is divided into light infantry and that part of an army, and is, in point of char- of the line. The latter forms the great acter, the most important part, because it mass, which is intended to fight in line, to can be used every where--in mountains, decide attacks by the bayonet, to make on plains, in woods, on rivers, and at sea, assaults, and is itself again divided into in the redoubt, in the breach, in cities and grenadiers (q. v.) and musketeers. The fields, and, depending only on itself, has a light infantry is particularly intended to great advantage over the two other classes serve in the outposts, to act as sharpof troops, who, depending, in a great shooters, to make bold expeditions, and measure, 'for their efficiency on the harass and disquiet the enemy. It instrength and the will of brutes, are far cludes the riflemen. The light infantry less fitted to endure deprivation, and a form from the 30th to the 60th part of an noxious climate, to contend with the army. The character of military operasnows of Russia, or the deserts of Egypt. tions, however, has changed of late so The infantry are preëminently the moral much, that, in a good army, it is necessary power of armies; and on no class of that the infantry of the line should take troops has a general, who knows how to part readily in the light service, and the act on his soldiers, such influence. Foot- light infantry be ready to fight in the line, soldiers were armed, in old times, with a from which the riflemen only are excepted. spear, sometimes with a sword, arrows, These are only used as sharpshooters. lance and sling; at present, with a gun In some armies, there are, besides the and bayonet, which is generally accom: riflemen, whole regiments of light infanpanied with a sword. Sometimes, but try; in others, as in the Prussian army, rarely, they are armed with pikes. Some each regiment has two battalions of infanfoot-soldiers, in most armies, have rifles, try of the line, and one battalion of light generally so constructed that the rifle- infantry; in others, as in the French, each man may put his short sword on the rifle, battalion has its grenadiers and tirailleurs to be used as a bayonet, though this has (sharpshooters). Infantry is divided into prorad of no great service. The sword battalions (q. v.), these into companies, given to foot-soldiers, in almost all armies, these into platoons. Several battalions, is of but little advantage, and is generally two or three, sometimes four and five, intended principally for ornament, to form a regiment. The tactics of infantry complete the soldierlike look, rather than admit three different modes of arranging to be used in fighting. It serves, how this species of troops in battle-1. in line, ever, for cutting branches, to be used in when they are drawn up in line two or cooking and building huts; but swords three men deep, an order very rarely, if might be given to foot-soldiers, similar to ever, used at present; 2. in column, when the sailors' cutlasses, which would answer several lines, three or two men deep, are all these purposes, and also the chief end— drawn up one behind the other (see Colto fight. (See Cutlass.) They ought al- umn, in Tactics, and Square); 3. in disways to have a sufficient guard for the persed order. (See Sharpshooters.) The hand. The foot-soldier has no defensive excellence of infantry depends on their covering, or very little. The greatest is good order in advancing and retreating, his mantle, rolled up, and worn on one perfect acquaintance with their exercises shoulder by the Prussian and Russian and duties, in a just application of their troops. The helmet or cap protects the fire, and great calmness both in assaulting head, and epaulettes (q. v.) are sometimes and when assaulted in the square, which

is acquired by experience. As long as Though the word is immediately derived the infantry remain calm, the general from the lialian infanteria and fanteria, it is pri- need not lose hope; but all is to be feared marily of German origin. We find still, in the di- when they are disordered, whether alect of Lower Saxony, Fant and Vent, signify- through ardor or fear. In countries aftended meaning, a servent, a soldier on foot. fording horses, men always prefer, in the The Icelandic fant, Italian fante, Danish fant, early periods of society, to fight on Swedish fante, have the same meaning with the horseback, and civilization only gives Low-Saxon Vent, and are, no doubt, connected more importance to infantry. Where with the Latin infans. With the prefixed sibilant, foot-soldiers exist, at this early period, tothis root became, in Anglo-Saxon, svein, in English swain, in Danish suend (a youth employ. gether with cavalry, they are considered ed in country service, a young lover).

of inferior consequence. The Hebrew army, however, consisted, for a long time, the thirty years' war, was excellent. The of infantry only. (See Cavalry.) The arrangement became, in the course of Egyptians, likewise, seem to have used time, more judicious, and all unnecescavalry little. With the Asiatics, besides sary maneuvring was avoided. The the use of infantry and cavalry, princes Austrians, at this

time, employed soldiers and noblemen fought on chariots. The from their Turkish frontiers-the Croats infantry was the part least esteemed, and, and Pandoors, semi-savages as a sort of with the Persians, consisted of the heavy- irregular light infantry; and other armies armed, the slingers and archers. Proba- had troops of a similar character; but they bly this was one reason of the victories were so rude and disorganized, because of the Greeks over the Persians, as they their warfare was little better than legalhad cultivated infantry more, and had given ized robbery, that Gustavus Adolphus up the chariots, described by Homer as would not admit them into his forces; common in the Trojan war. Even their but Frederic the Great again established kings and generals fought on foot. They free corps (q. v.) during the seven years' had both heavy and light infantry. The war. Infantry remained without much Greeks were conquered, in their turn, by change in the 18th century. Prince Leoan improved form of infantry, the col- pold of Dessau, during this time, first inumns of Philip of Macedon, which also troduced, in the Prussian army, the iron enabled his son Alexander to conquer the ramrod, the lock-step, and several other Persians. With the Romans, infantry was improvements. The bayonet having been the strength of the armies. Their le- invented already in the middle of the 17th gions, consisting mostly of infantry, con- century, came more and more into use, quered the world. With the ancient and enabled the squares to resist the cavGermans and Gauls, also, infantry was alry; but a great change in the use of considered very important; but when, in infantry took place towards the end of the the great migration of nations, the Huns, 18th century, when, in the American war and other Mongolic tribes, arrived in Eu- of independence, the people, being obliged rope, on small and fleet horses, and car- to contend, without discipline, against ried victory with them, spreading the well trained troops, adopted the irregular terror of their arms far and wide, and mode of fighting, protected by trees or when the Franks in Northern Spain be- other objects, being, at the same time, came acquainted with the Moors, who mostly skilful marksmen. The efficiency came from Arabia, and the plateau of of this method of fighting was evident; Asia, on beautiful horses, cavalry was con- and when, in 1791, the French revolu. sidered as more important. When the tionary war began, the French sent feudal system was developed, the horse, of swarms of tirailleurs against the allies, course, was more agreeable to the adven- and injured them exceedingly. In the turous knight, than the foot service. The wars from 1791 to 1802, the French crusades, where the Europeans were greatly improved this way of fighting, obliged to fight with the fine cavalry of which, in the interval of peace that the Seljooks, favored this tendency still followed, was reduced to a system, the more. Infantry fell into total disrepute, consequences of which were seen in and consisted of the poorer people, who 1805, 1806, and 1807, against the_Auscared little in whose service they fought, trians, Prussians, and Russians. These in those times of violence and oppression, nations, after the disasters which they when a change of rulers made no change suffered, adopted the same system, as well in their sufferings; and no reliance could as the greater use of columns, particularly be placed upon them. Among those peo- as the ordinary mode of arranging the ple who were not in feudal bondage, and troops before they came into the fire. fought for the defence of their own liber- Under equal circumstances, well trained ty, infantry maintained its old importance, infantry is almost uniformly successful as with the Swiss, on several occasions in against any other kind of troops. the 14th and 15th century; and the pene- INFERIÆ, in Roman antiquities; sacritrating Machiavelli, who burned to free fices offered to the infernal deities for the his country from its numberless foreign souls of the departed. Some writers and native tyrants, saw the great value of have thought that they are the origin of infantry, and urged its establishment upon the exequies of the Catholic church. a respectable footing. The invention of INFERNO (Italian for hell); the name of gunpowder changed the whole art of war, the first part of Dante's grand poem. (See and brought infantry again into repute. Dante.) (See Army.) The Swedish infantry, in INFINITESIMALS. (See Calculus.)

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