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familia de Pershor oriundo;" who died aged eighty-six. The tomb was erected by his onlyson Edward, and may possibly be now in the church. The arms—Argt. on a chief sable, three lions' heads erased of [the first], langued gules — are drawn on my MS.

The Richardson family have so long been extinct in the county of Worcester, that we have lost all trace of their descendants: but the stately Abbey of Pershore, whose property they once held—a small part indeed of its ancient magnificence—is under restoration by Mr. Gilbert Scott; who, I understand, thinks its great lantern tower was erected by the same architect, or by a close imitator of him, who built the steeple of Salisbury Cathedral. Thomas E. Winnikgtos.

An account of the parentage and descendants of Sir Thomns Richardson will be found in the sixth volume of Fosa'sJudges of England^. 359. He was created a Serjeant-at-Law in Michaelmas Term, 1614, and King's Serjeant in February, 1625; was chosen Speaker of the Parliament that met in January, 1620-1; appointed Chief Justice of the Common Pleas in November, 1626; and promoted to the Presidency of the Court of King's Bench in October, 1631.

The two representations of arms in Dugdale's Origines Juridiciales are of the same person. One in p. 240, in the chapel of Lincoln's Inn, of which society he was a member, put up when he was Speaker in 1620-1; and the other, in p. 238, in Lincoln's Inn Hall, when he became Chief Justice of the Common Pleas.

There was no other Serjeant of the name during the reigns of James I. or Charles I. E. A. O.

The Lapwing (3rd S. v. 10, 77.) — Notwithstanding the lexicographers, I cannot think it likely that the same word would have been used to designate two such very dissimilar birds as the lapwing or peewit, and the hoopoe; and there can be but little doubt, I should suppose, that (irmfi, upupa, pupu, huppe, or, as given in the Petit Apparat Royal, hupe, are only various forms of tne latter name.

That the common name for the lapwing in former days was peewit would appear from what Mb. Mackenzie Waxcot calls "the Bursar's Rebus," in one of the windows of the Bursary at New College, Oxford, viz. a lapwing with the motto "Redde quod debis;" i. e. pay it, or pay weight, which has long been its traditional rendering.

In the west country I cannot find that it bears any other name than peewit; and it certainly seems to me exceedingly improbable that its name should have been altogether changed, and its former designation utterly lost, during the com

Earatively short period of 150 years, in the neighouring counties of Dorset and Somerset.

The question, then, still remains what were these wopes, or popes, or pops, or poups upon whose unhappy heads a price was set by our rude forefathers in vestry assembled? If I might hazard a conjecture, I should be inclined to suggest, though with some diffidence, that they might have been bullfinches, which birds, under the name of mopes, or mwoaps, are still but too justly regarded in the west with the fiercest animosity, on account of their bud-destroying propensities. The curious interchange of the letters M. and P. in the nicknames Molly and Polly, Matty and Patty, Meg and Peg, rather helps my supposition.

C. W. Bingham.

We need not, I think, go to Old French for the word pope, as applied to a bird. The bullfinch is so-named in some parts of England, and he has always had a bad repute as a mischief-maker in gardens and orchards. Jaydee.

I think that I can elucidate the mystery which at present hangs over the parochial accounts referred to by your correspondent W. W. S. Pope. Nope, Alp, Red-Hoop, and Tony-Hoop, are all provincial appellations of that beautiful and interesting, but very destructive bird, the common Bullfinch. To its mischievous propensities ornithologists, from Willughby downwards, have unfortunately been compelled to testify.

"Libentissime vescuntur primis illis gemmis ex arboribus ante folia et florcs erumpentibua, precipue florum Mali, l'yri, Persies, aliarumque hortensium, adeoque non leve damnum hortulanis inferunt, quibus idcirco maxime inviste sunt et odioste."

Thus writes Willughby. I could give quotations to the same effect from Montagu, Selby, Yarrell. and many others; but I have cited quite enough to show "why a price should have been put on" popes' or woopes' or hoops' heads by churchwardens at the commencement of the eighteenth century. W. T.

Worcester.

William Mitchell, The Gbeat Tinclabian Doctob (3td S. v. 74.)—For information respecting this oddest of characters, J. O. cannot do better than consult the very valuable and most interesting Domestic Annals of Scotland, written by Robert Chambers, LL.D., &c, vol. iii. p. 358. See also, Traditions of Edinburgh (p. 42), by the same author. William Pinkebtox.

Elma, A Chbistian Name (3r(1 S. v. 97.) — In answer to the query of J. G. N., I have to say that Elma was the name by which the late Lady Elgin was familiarly called, as he supposes, from the first syllables of her two Christian names. Her daughter was so christened; her father, in his distress at her mother's death, being unable to think of any other name.

One Of Heb Nearest Relatives.

'Natter (3rd S. v. 64.) — One query begets many. Tour correspondent B. L. of Colchester, while searching for the origin of the simile " Mad as a hatter," has dug up some etymological remains, which lead my thoughts in another direction. When, at Cambridge, we used to make botanical excursions under the delightful guidance of the late Professor Henslow, we used to be shown at Gamlingay a species of toad found in that neighbourhood, and known to the villagers as the natter-jack. What is natter in this word? Is it the German word for adder, or is it merely a corruption of the English word adder — as thus, an adder-jack, a natter-jack, and so called from the fact that the animal in question crawls instead of hopping like common toads? Does the word occur in any other compounds among obsolete or merely local names of reptiles?

Alfred Ainger. Alrewas, Lichfield.

Gaspar De Navarre : Spengle (3rd S. iv. 88.) — It would seem, from the notice in the Bibliotheca Hispana Nova, that there was a Latin version of Caspar de Navarre's work; but perhaps Antonio translated part of the title only. I believe the Spanish book is very scarce, but there is a copy in the British Museum : —

"Tribunal de Superstición Ladina, dirigido a Jesus Nazareno, por el Doctor Gaspar Navarro, canónigo de la santa iglesia de Jesús Nazareno de Montaragon, naturel de la Villa de Aranda de Moncago. Huesca, 1631." 4to, pp. 244.

The passage, corresponding with that quoted, is: —

"Maleficio tácito llaman los magos a aquel que se da a las Brujas, para que no sientan los tormentos que les da la justicia: este se suele dar por comida o por bevido os les imprime el Demonio en las espaldas, o les pone y absconde entre la carne y el pellejo, para que no digan la verdad, aunque mas les atormenten: como lo dizen los Inquisidores de Gemianía, in Malleo, part. i. qua^t. 14. Y con e9tos hechizos ellas se están burlando, y riendo de los tormentos: y para que estas no sientan, suele el Demonio aplicar remedios frigidissimos. Y viendo esto la gente barbara se espuntan mucho, pareciendoles que es cosa milagrosa, yes cierto que no lo es; porque esto lo haze el Demonio, el quel, como tengo provado en las disputas pascadas, no puede hazer milagros. Pero haze el Demonio esto, poniendo ciertos medicamentos, que quieten o entorpezcan el sentido, o detergan el influxo de la facultad animal a los órganos en el tal persona, que causen humores crasos, y gruesos que impieden la via, paraque los espíritus vitales no passen a las partes exteriores y assi impieden el sentimiento y dolor. Otras veces el mesmo Demonio se apodera de los sentidos exteriores por si proprio para que no sientar; otras vezes de cosas naturales en quantitad haze medicamentos que turban los humores; otros vezes detiene el Demonio los tormentos, no lleguen al sentimiento, subllevando al paciente, y aliviándole del tormento, teniendo los cordeles floxos, y aunque mucho les aprieten, es de poca importancia, que como el Demonio tiene superioridad sobre las cosas corporales (si Dios le da licencia) haze lo que quiere delías."—P. 56, b.

Spengle is an error of the press for " Sprenger,"

author of Malleus Maleficorum, which is often cited by Gaspar de Navarre. Fitzhopkins.

Garrick Club.

Epitaph : " Hoc Est Nescire" (3rd S. v. 83.)— This epitaph (as written, 3,d S. iv. 474) is inscribed on a monument in the church of the village of Atcham, near Shrewsbury. Whether then and there original, I know not. The mode of sentiment would suggest Boethius (Anicius) or Lactantius, as the author, rather than the celebrated Bishop of Hippo. J. L.

Dublin.

Arg. A Saltire Az. (3rd S. iv. 325.)—This coat of arms, mentioned by your correspondent, appertains to the fuinily of Yorke, of Bewerley, Yorkshire. See Burke's History of the Commoners of Great Britain and Ireland (edit. 1838), vol. iv. p. 744. Carilfo,

Cape Town. s*\ \

Miitelinaeant.
BOOKS AND ODD VOLU

WANTED TO PURCHASE.

Particular* of Price, &c, oí the following Book» to be sent direct to the gentlemen by whom they are required, and whoee naraea and audi esses are given for that purpoae: —

Notbs Ano Qcshibs. lit Serien, Vol. I. Nos. 13 and 10 (Jan. 26 and
March 16, ISM.)
Wanted by Mr. F. Norgate, 14, Henrietta Street, Coven t Garden.

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í)attrc<¡ to Comaponoeitttf.

We art this week compelled to omit our Notes on Books.
Among other articles of interest waiting for insertion, are
Bead Wilson : Law of I,aoriston.
Dona Maria Db Padilla.

Lnpurlhhsd PoBHSBV ÜSLXN D'ahov Caanstoon.

Socratss' Oath. *

Charlas Fox And Mrs. Grieve.

P. W. Trepolpen. The Cornish proverbs would be very acceptable.

Thk Rkv. F. Fhillott. We fear that the articles on the Immaculate Conception and the calamity at Santiago would provoke a controversy unsuited to our columns.

ERRATOAt.-Srd 8. v. p. 109, col. ii. line 43, /or"Mr. Aldis Wright" read '* Rev. W. Houghton."

E. H. (Twickenham.) The Jacobite toast is by the celebrated John. Byrom of Manchester,a sturdy Sonjuror. See "N. ft Q." IstS. v. ¿73i and 2nd S. Ii. 292.

C. W. On the Form of Prayer for the Great Fire of London consult our 3rd S. i. 3SS, and ii. 86.

John Townsbbnd (New York.) Eight articles on the origin of the word Humbug appeared in our 1st S. vols. vii. and viii.

• •• Cases for binding the volumes or" M N. ft Q." may be had of the Publisher, and of all Booksellers and Newsmen.

"notrs And Qcbhibs" is published at noon on Friday, and is also issued in Monthly Parts. The Subscription for Stamped Copies for Six Months forwarded direct /ram the Publisher ¡.inclutltng the. Halfyearly Index) u Ms. Id., which may be paid by Post Office Order, payable at the Strand Post Office, in favour of William G. Bmith, 32, WlLLI.vOTON Street, Strand, W.C., lo K**» ail Communications Fob. Tub Editor should be addressed.

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HAYDN'S DATES. — ELEVENTH EDITION. Dates and Facts relating to the History of Mankind from the most authentic and recent records, especially interesting to the Historian, Members of the Leurned Professions,

Literary Institutes, Merchants, and General Readers.

In One handsome Library Volume, beautifully printed in legible type, price Eighteen Shillings, cloth, A DICTIONARY OF DATES

RELATING TO ALL AGES AND NATIONS: FOR UNIVERSAL REFERENCE: COMPREHENDING REMARKABLE OCCURRENCES, ANCIENT AND MODERN,' The Foundation, Laws, and Government of Countries - their Progress in Civilisation, Industry, Literature, Arts, and Science - their Achievements in Arms — and their Civil, Military,

and Religious Institutions, and particularly of
THE BRITISH EMPIRE.

BY JOSEPH HAYDN.
ELEVENTH EDITION, REVISED AND GREATLY ENLARGED, BY BENJAMIN VINCENT,
Assistant Secretary and Keeper of the Library of the Royal Institution of Great Britain.

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NOTES:—Schleswick: the Danne-werke.127 —A Witty Archbishop. 128—The Infant Prince of Wales, 129 —An Old London Rubbish Heap, lb. A General Literary Index, Ac, 131 — Congreve the Poet — A Heroine — Primula: the Primrose — Camel born in England — Sir Francis Walsingham — Neology — Lynch Law in the Twelfth Century, I3t.

QUERIES: —Thomas Jenny, Rebel and Poet, 132 —Americanisms — Anonymous — Aubery and Du Val — Great Battle of Cats — Socket — Roliert Calks — Posterity of the Emperor Charlemagne—Family of Do Scarth—The Danish Riirht of Succession — Engraving on Gold and Silver — Descendants of Fitzjames — Thomas Gilbert, Esq. — Posterity of Harold, King of England —Hindoo Gods —The Iron Mask — Leighton Family— Matthew Locke—Lord Mohan's Death, 1877 — Napoleon the First —The Oath ex-omeio—Pope's Portrait — Practice of Physic by William Drage—Proverbial Savings — Stone Bridge — Ulick, a Christian Name—White Hats — Life of Edward, Second Marquis of Worcester, 1SS.

Qit:riks With Answers:— Hilton Crest: "Houmout"— Trousers — Dr. George Oliver — Bishop Androwes' Will — Top of his Bent — Blind Alehouse, 136.

REPLIE8:—A Fine Picture of Pope, 137—Socrates'Oath by the Dog, 138 — Decay of 8tone in Buildings, 7*.— Roman Games, 189 — Burton Family, 140 — Stamp Duty on Painters' Canvass — Situation of Zoar — The Old Bridgo at Newinirton — Maiden Castle —Rye House Plot Cards — Newhaven in France — Lewis Morris — Twelfth Ni(?ht: the worst Pun — Sir Edward May — Quotation — Toadeater — Crapaudine —The Owl — Heraldic— Passage in Tennyson, &c, 111.

Notes on Books. 4c.

HattS.

SCHLESWICK: THE DANNE-WERKE.

The war now disturbing Denmark has recalled attention to the very ancient fortification which forms a defence for Jutland from attacks on the southern frontier. Torfseus says the name is not Dana-verk "Danorum opus," but Dana-nirki, "Danorum vallum," or the "Danish entrenchment;" and the narratives of various assaults which it has withstood, and of its vicissitudes of destruction and restoration, are to be found in-the collections of Langebek, Wormius, and Suhm, as well as in the Saga of Olaf Tryggveson and others of the Norse chronicles.

There is some confusion as to the time of its original construction. Mr. Laing, in his version of the Heimnkringla, says in a note at p. 390, vol. i. that it was raised by Harald Blaatand to resist the incursions of Charlemagne; and the Archaeological Society of Copenhagen, in their Index to the Scripta Historica hlandorum, vol. xii. p. 118, describe it as "vallum vel munimentum lllustre, in finibus Danise meridionalibus positum; quod a Regina Thyria filioque Haraldo cognomine Blatuon extructum esse fertur."

But whatever the date of its original formation, this remarkable work was in complete preservation and efficiency in the time of the King Olaf Tryggveson, who reigned in Norway between A.d. 995 and

1000; and his Saga recounts the two expeditions conducted by the Emperor Otho, to compel the Danes by force of arms to conform to Christianity. In the second of these, when Otho, A.d. 998, led an army to the Daneverk, its condition is thus described in^the Saga: — *

"De meridie Ottho Imperator reniens, Danavirkum accessit, munimentorum istios valli defensore cum suis Hakono Jarlo. Danevirki autem ea erat constitutio, ut ab utroque mari duo sinus longius in continentem penetrant, inter intimos quorum receosus relictum terra; spatium munierant Dani, ducto ex lapide, cespite, atque arboribos vallo, extra quod fossa lata atque profunda in altum erat depressa, sed ad portas disposita castella." — Snorri Sturleson, Heimskrmglat voL i p. 217.

Another version of the same Saga, edited by Svienbjorn Egilsson, in the collection of the historians of Iceland, published by the Royal Society of Copenhagen, gives some minuter particulars, describing the nature of the country between the Eider and the Schlei: —

"Duo sinus hinc illinc in terram insinuant; inter Ultima vero sinuum brachiu Dani aggerem altum et fir mum extruerant, etc.—Centeni quique passus portam habebant cui superstructum erat castellum ad defensionem munimenti; nam pro singulis portis pons fossa erat impositas." —Scrip. Hut. Island!*, t i. 144: see also tfr., t x. 228, etc.; xi. 23.

History it is said repeats itself; and the result of the assault of the Emperor Otho has a parallel in the present war between the Prussians and the Danes: when the former, instead of persevering in the attack on the Danne-verke, turned the flank of the defenders by a movement across the Schlei, by which they succeeded in landing their troops in the rear of the great embankment. Precisely the same strategy is stated, in the Saga, to have been resorted to by the German Emperor nearly a thousand years before. Earl llakon, who commanded on the side of the Danes, so successfully repulsed every assault of the enemy, that Otho fell back towards the south; collected his ships of war at the mouth of the Schlei, landed them to the north of the Danne-verke, and eventually achieved a victory. The catastrophe is thus narrated in the Saga of Olaf Tryggveson : —

"Cecidere ibi ex Imperatoris acie plurimi, nullo ad vallum capiendi emolumento; quare Imperator (re non stepius tentatal) inde decessit .... turn flexo mox Slesvicum versum itinere, cum totam iliac claasem acciverat, exercitum inde in Jutlandiam transportavit." — Heimshringla, torn. i. p. 218.

This battle is celebrated, in the VelUhla, in a passage thus rendered into English by Mr. Laing:—

"Earl Hakon drove, by daring deeds,
These Saxons to their ocean steeds;
And the young hero saved from fall
The Danaverk—the people's wall."

J. Emerson Tenkent.

A WITTY ARCHBISHOP.

An industrious student, a deep thinker, an acute reasoner, a learned mind, a correct, and at times, elegant writer — these are titles of honour which the mere outside-world, travelling in its flying railway-carriage, will gladly award to the late Archbishop of Dublin. Not so familiar are certain minor and more curious gifts, which he kept by him for his own and his friends' entertainment, which broke out at times on more public occasions. He delighted in the oddities of thought, in queer quaint distinctions; and if an object had by any possibility some strange distorted side or corner, or even point, which was undermost, he would gladly stoop down his mind to get that precise view of it, nay, would draw it in that odd light for the amusement of the company.

Thus he struck Guizot, who described him as "startling and ingenious, strangely absent, familiar, confused, eccentric, amiable, and engaging, no matter what unpoliteness he might commit, or Vhat propriety he might forget." In short, a mind with a little of the Sydney Smith's leaven, whose brilliancy lay in precisely these odd analogies. It was his recreation to take up some intellectual hobby, and make a toy of it. Just as, years ago, he was said to have taken up that strange instrument the boomerang, and was to be seen on the sands casting it from him, and watching it return. It was said, too, that at the dull intervals of a visitation, when ecclesiastical business languished, he would cut out little miniature boomerangs of card, and amuse himself by illustrating the principle of the larger toy, by shooting them from his finger. i

The even, and sometimes drowsy, current of Dublin society was almost always enlivened by some little witty boomerang of his, fluttering from mouth to mouth, and from club to club. The archbishop's last was eagerly looked for. Some were indifferent, some were trifling; but it was conceded that all had an odd extravagance, which marked them as original, quaint, queer. In this respect he was the Sydney Smith of the Irish capital, with this difference — that Sydney Smith's king announced that he would never make the lively Canon of St. Paul's a Bishop.

Homoeopathy was a medical paradox, and was therefore welcome. Yet in this he travelled out of the realms of mere fanciful speculation, and clung to it with a stern and consistent earnestness, faithfully adhered to through his last illness. Mesmerism, too, he delighted to play with. He had, in fact, innumerable dadas, as the French call them, or hobby-horses, upon which he was continually astride.

This led him into a pleasant affectation of being able to discourse de omnibus rebus, frc, and the more recondite or less known the subject, the

more eager was he to speak. It has been supposed that the figure of the "Dean," in Mr. Lever's pleasant novel of Roland Cashel, was sketched from him. Indeed there can be no question but that it is an unacknowledged portrait.

"What is the difference," he asked of a young clergyman he was examining," between a form and a ceremony? The meaning seems nearly the same; yet there is a very nice distinction." Various answers were given. "Well," he said, "it lies in this: you sit upon a form, but you stand upon ceremony."

"Morrow's Library "is the Mudie of Dublin; and the Rev. Mr. Day, a popular preacher. "How inconsistent," said the archbishop, "is the piety of certain ladies here. They go to day for a sermon, and to morrow for a novel!"

At a dinner party he called out suddenly to the

host, "Mr. !" There was silence. "Mr. ,

what is the proper female companion of this John Dory?" After the usual number of guesses an answer came, "Anne Chovy."

Another Riddle. — "The laziest letter in the alphabet? The letther G!" (lethargy.)

The Wichlow Line.—The most unmusical in the world—having a Dun-Drum, Still-Organ, and a Bray for stations.

Doctor Gregg. — The new bishop and he at dinner. Archbishop: "Come, though you are John Cork, you mustn't stop the bottle here." The answer was not inapt: "I see your lordship is determined to draw me out."

On Doctor K x's promotion to the bishopric

of Down, an appointment in some quarters unpopular: "The Irish government will not be able to stand many more such Knocks Down as this!"

The merits of the same bishop being canvassed before him, and it being mentioned that he had compiled a most useful Ecclesiastical Directory, with the Values of Livings, &c, "If that be so," said the archbishop, " I hope next time the claims of our friend Thorn will not be overlooked." (Thoni, the author of the well-known Almanack.')

A clergyman, who had to preach before him, begged to be let off, saying "I hope your Grace will excuse my preaching next Sunday." "Certainly," said the other indulgently. Sunday came, and the archbishop said to him," Well! Mr. ■, what became of you? we expected you to preach to-day." "Oh, your Grace said you would excuse

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