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two of whom married, and had issue; but the terms of the patent are not known. The second daughter, Lady Jean, married Lord Forrester of Corstorphine, and had by him five sons, who assumed the name of Ruthven.

William, de facto fourth Earl of Gowrie, fled to the continent, and is said to have " been famous for his knowledge of chemistry." He escaped apparently the clutches of King " Jemmie the Sapient and Saxt';" who got hold of his brother Patrick, and popped him in the Tower: where he married, and had one child, a daughter—who became Lady Vandyke. In her issue, the direct representation of the Earls of Gowrie remains, as well as that of the Ruthvens of Ruthven; and of the more ancient Halyburtons of Dirleton— a barony which came to the third Lord Ruthven through his mother, Jean, or Janet, Lady Halyburton of Dirleton.

As Earl William is said to have been learned in chemistry, it was conjectured that he might be the Lord Ruthven alluded to in the preface to the Ladies' Cabinet. Assuredly it could not have been Patrick, Earl of Forth and Brentford; who, if all stories are true, was equally powerful in wine as war : for Gustavus availed himself not only of his services as a warrior, but as a toper, who could drink potations " deep and long," and never be a bit the worse; a man who, as "field-marshal of the bottles and glasses," enabled his master to extract the secrets of those he thought politic to invite to his table.

In the Catalogue of the valuable library of Sir Andrew Balfour, M.D., which was exposed to sale at Edinburgh in 1695, several MSS. were included; amongst others, is the following in 4to— "Georgius Ruthven, Liber Miscellanius Medicinse." Who was this George Ruthven? Was he one of the grandchildren of the Earl of Forth, who adopted his name in preference to their own? J.M.

A DIVINE MEDITATION ON DEATH. The following verses, dated 1696, are from a MS. of contemporary date, or nearly so. As they are possibly hitherto unpublished, I send them-to "N. &Q/: —

"A DIVINE MEDITATION MADE UPON DEATH IN THESE NINE WOBDES FOLLOWING, VIZ'* : —

"Nothing more ture than Death, for all mutt Die. "Nothing more wish't than Wealth, yet y' will leave us;

Nothing more dear than Love, that lasts not ever; Nothing more rare than Friendes, yet they deceive us;

Nothing more fast than Wedlock, yet they sever.
The World must end, all things away must flie;
Nothing more sure than Death, for ail must Die.
"More Strength may be obtain'd, but 'twill decay;

More Beauty may be had, but 'twill not last;
More Honour may be gain'd, but 'twill away;

More Joys may follow, when some of their's are past. *

* This line appears corrupted. Qu. Can it be corrected from another copy? J. G. N.

For long continuance it is vain to trie;
Nothing more sure than Death, for all must Die.

"Sure Love must Die, tho rooted in the Hart;
Sure 'tis y* all things earthy are unstable;
Sure frYiends are pure ffriends, yet such ffriends must
part;
Sure 'tis y' all things here are variable.
Not two, nor one may 'scape, nor you nor I j
Nothing more sure than Death, for all must Die.

"Then let y« Rich no longer covet Wealth,

Then let y Proud vaile his Ambitious thought,

Then let y" Strong not glory in their strength,
Then let all yield, since all must come to nought —

The Elder ffisli", and then the Younger ffrie;

Nothing more sure than Death, for all must Die.

"Death tooke away King Herod in his pride j
Death spared not Hercules, for all his strength;
Death shooke great Alexander, till he dy'd;

Death spared Adam, yet he dy'd at length:
The Beggar and yc King together lie;
Nothing more sure than Death, for all must Die.

"For Scepters, Crowns, Imperially Diadems,
For all yc Glory that yc World can give;
For Pleasures, Treasures, Jewells, costly Jemms,

For all y« Beauties y' on Earth do live,
He will not spare his Dart, but still replie,
Nothing more sure than Death, for all must Die.

"All from yc highest to ye lowest Degree;

All People, Nations, Countryes, Kingdomes, Lands; All that in Earth or Aire, or Sea that bee;

All must yield up to his all Conquering Hands: He wounds them all with his Imperiall Eye; Nothing more sure than Death, for all must Die.

"Must all then Die? then all must think on Death;

Must all then vanish—the Sun, Moon, and Starrs? Must every single Creature ycild his Breath?

Must all then cease—our Joyes, Delights, and Carea? Yes: All, with one united voice do Cry, Nothing more sure than Death, for all must Die.

"Die let ns then, but let us Die in Peace;

Die to y° world, that dyinge wee may live; Die to our Sinus, y' grace may more increase;

Die here, to live with Him that Life doth give: Die, Die wee must, let Wealths and Pleasures lie; Nothing more sure than Death, for all must Die.

"1696."

John Godgh Nichols.

ABSOLUTE MONARCHY OF DENMARK.

At the present crisis in the affairs of Denmark, it is important to know how Frederick VII. derived the power to " will away" his kingdom.

The narrative is found in the Memoirs of Lord Molesworth, who resided in 1660 as envoy of the King of England at the court of Copenhagen (ch. vii.); but the following is extracted from The World Displayed (xx. 65) : —

"Denmark was, till lately, governed by a king chosen by the people of all ranks; but in their choice, they paid a due regard to the family of the preceding prince, and, if they found one of his line qualified for that high honour, they thought it just to prefer him before any other, and were pleased when they had reason to choose the eldest son of their former king: but if those of the royal family were deficient in abilities, or had rendered themselves unworthy by their vices, they chose some other person, and sometimes a private man to that high dignity. Frequent meetings of the States was a fundamental part of the constitution: in those meetings, everything relating to the government was transacted; good laws were enacted, and all affairs relating to peace and war, the disposal of great offices, and contracts of marriage for the royal family, were debated. The imposing of taxes was purely accidental; no money being levied on the people except to maintain a necessary war with the advice and consent of the nation; or now" and then, by way of free gift, to add to a daughter's portion. The king's ordinary revenue consisting only in the rents of his lands and demesnes, in his herds of cattle, hi9 forests, services of tenants in cultivating his ground, Sec.: for customs on merchandise were not then known in that part of the world; so that he lived like one of our noblemen, upon the revenues of his estate. It was his business to see justice impartially administered; to watch over the welfare of his people; to command their armies in person; to encourage industry, arts, and learning: and it was equally his duty and interest to keep fair with the nobility and gentry, and to be careful of the plenty and prosperity of the commons."

Molesworth then proceeds to show that—

"In 1660, the three states, that is, the nobility, clergy, and commonalty, being assembled in order to pay and disband the troops which had been employed against Sweden, the nobility endeavoured -to lay the whole burden on the commons; whilo the latter, who had defended their country, their prince, and the nobility themselves, with the utmost bravery, insisted that the nobles, who enjoyed all the lands, should pay their share of the taxes; since they suffered less in the common calamity, and had done less to prevent its progress."

The commons were then officially informed that they were slaves to the nobility; but the word slaves not being relished by the clergy and burghers, they, on consultation, determined as the most effectual way to bring the nobility to their senses, and to remedy the disorders of the state, "to add to the power of the king, and render his crown hereditary." The nobles were in a general state of consternation at the suddenness of this proposal; but the two other states—the clergy and commons—were not to be wrought upon by smooth speeches, explanations, and appeals for time and delay: —

"The bishop made a long speech in praise of his majesty, and concluded with offering him an hereditary and absolute dominion. The king returned them his thanks; but observed, that the concurrence of the nobles was necessary."

The nobles, "filled with the apprehensions of being all massacred," were now in a great hurry to confirm the decision of the two other states ; but the king would not allow of such cowardly precipitation, and, consequently, with all the formalities, on the 27th Oct., 1660," the homage of all the senators, nobility, clerjry, and commons," was received by the king, "which was performed on their knees: each taking an oath faithfully to promote his majesty's interest in all things, and to serve

him faithfully as became hereditary subjects." One Gersdorf, a principal senator, expressed a wish that his majesty's successors mi<>ht "follow the example his majesty would undoubtedly set them, and make use of that unlimited power for the good, and not the prejudice of his subjects."

"The nobles were called over by name, and ordered to subscribe the oath they had taken—which they all did." .... "Thus," continues Molesworth, "in four days* time the kingdom of Denmark was changed from a state, but little different from that of aristocracy, to that of an unlimited monarchy."

I may add, as an illustration of Shakspeare, that "the kettledrums and trumpets which are ranged before the palace, proclaim aloud the very minute when the king sits down to table." But one of the greatest of blessings must not be omitted: —

"What is most admirable with respect to Denmark, are its laws; which are founded on equity, and are remarkable for their justice, perspicuity, and brevity. These are contained in one quarto volume; wrote in the language of the country with such plainness, that every man who can read is capable of understanding his own case; and pleading it too, if he pleases, without the assistance of either an attorney or of counsel "HI — See Schmauss, Corp. Jur. Gent. Acad., i. 858; Holberg, Daencmariuckc Staatt-und-Rtichi-Hittorie, p. 84; Leitret Hit le Danemark, i. 118; and Mallet, iii. 475.

T. J. BlJCKTOK.

Lichfield.

Bibliography or Heraldry And Genealogt. I have nearly completed, to be put to press as soon as the names of a sufficient number of subscribers are received, a new Catalogue of the published and privately printed Books on Heraldry, Genealogy, and kindred subjects; and as no work of the kind could be accomplished, with any degree of accuracy, without the aid of "N. & Q.," I hope I may be permitted to bring the subject of my compilation before its readers. Briefly I would say, that my Catalogue will be a classified one, and that every work which may be found in the Library of the British Museum will be noted in the same way that Mons. Guigard has, in his Bibliotheque Heraldique de la France indicated the works which are in the Bibliotheque Impdriale. To my work will be added an Index to the Line Pedigrees in the county histories and other topographical publications. It is known that Mr. Sims contemplated the addition of such an index to the Catalogue of Heraldic Manuscripts and new edition of his Index to the Visitations, which he is preparing for the press; but he has waived his prior right in favour of the work now announced, in the belief that the separation of the two indexes would be productive of unity of purpose.

I beg then, through "N. & Q.," to ask the favour of information relating to, 1. Bare books: 2. Privately printed genealogies and 8heet pedigrees; 8. Topographical pamphlets, &c, containing line pedigrees. Ciiahi.es Bridges. Witley, Surrey.

Hanging And Transportation. — It has often been asserted with great confidence, by advocates for the abolition of capital punishment, that men would be as effectually deterred from crime by 'the fear of being transported as by the dread of being banged. The following curious fact, recently met with in the Scots Magazine for 1789 (p. 481), does not, however, bear out that statement. At the close of the Session at the Old Bailey, in September, 1789, there were so large a number of prisoners under sentence of death, but whose executions had been delayed in consequence of the state of the King's health, that the authorities were unwilling to carry out the extreme penalty of the law upon them, for there were, it would seem, no less than eighty-two ; and, consequently, they were brought to the bar on September 19, and asked whether they would accept His Majesty's mercy on condition of being transported for life to New South Wales. A vast majority accepted this conditional pardon, but many with great hesitation. Eight, however, refused; and though warned by the court, that if they persisted in such refusal they should be ordered for execution, they still persisted, and were removed to their cells. In three hours after, five of these entreated that they might be permitted to accept of the mercy of the sovereign. Two of the remainder, later in the] day, sent in their acceptance; and on Monday, Sept. 21, when every preparation was ready for the execution of the last of these poor wretches, he begged and received His Majesty's mercy on the terms first offered to him. H. A. T.

Sir John Coventry, K.B. — This gentleman, the son of John Coventry, Esq. (eldest son, by his second wife, of Thomas Lord Coventry), by Elizabeth, daughter of John Aldersey, Esq., and widow of William Pitchford, Esq., was of Pitminster in the county of Somerset, and Mere in Wiltshire, and represented Weymouth in all the parliaments of Charles II.

A violent and most dastardly assault on him in consequence of a somewhat sorry jest of his in the House of Commons, caused immense excitement, and led to the act against cutting and maiming, denominated the Coventry Act. Although in his lifetime passing for a staunch Protestant and Whig, by his will he recommended his soul to the intercession of the Blessed Virgin, desired that his body might be buried in the chapel of Somerset House, and gave most of his estate to the English Jesuits at St. Omer's. The will was set aside by law, and his property seems to have passed to his uncle, Francis Coventry.

Sir John Coventry probably died between 1681 and 1686. The exact date of that event will be very acceptable.

He founded a hospital for twelve poor men at Wiveliscomb in Somersetshire, but I have not succeeded in discovering any notice»of this institution in the Reports of the Charity Commissioners. S. T. R.

Mocnds Of Human Remains.—I am not aware that any vestiges remain of the mounds of human heads said to have been raised by Zenghis Khan, or Tamerlane, during their devastating wars in the West of Asia; but in the peninsula of India, in the ceded districts of the Madras Presidency, is to be seen at the present day a very large mound, consisting of burnt organic matter and ashes, which the voice of native tradition affirms to have been formed of the remains of a multitude of Buddhists or Jainas, who were here burnt alive in a vast pile by their Brahmin conquerors. The south of India, especially that part of it which formed the old Chera kingdom, now the province of Coimbatorc, was formerly inhabited by Jainas, who were conquered by Brahmin Hindoos. One of these invaders was the king of Chola-mundalum or Coromandel, and I have frequently seen in that part of the country "vera-culs," or heroic stones, raised to warriors distinguished under him, and who are represented in suits of armour much resembling those worn in England in the middle of the fourteenth century, though less substantial. Mahavullipoor, or the Seven Pagodas, on the same coast, the supposed capital of the Chola kings, is celebrated for its monolithic temples, rock sculptures, and other interesting antiquities. H. C.

Records Op Epitaphs. —From curiosity partly, I lately looked at a work by P. Fisher —

"Catalogue of most of the Memorable Tombes, Gravestones, Plates, &c, in the demolisht or extant Churches of London, from St. Katherine's beyond the Tower to Temple Barre," &c 4to, London, 1668.

It is indeed nothing more than a "catalogue," for none of the inscriptions are given, and only in a very few instances does he state in what church the memorial was placed. Two or three names occur which I should be glad to trace so as to obtain the epitaph, but am completely foiled. Is it known how the author compiled the list? Whether from a series of publications, or from his own notes? The British Museum has two copies, perhaps a first and second edition, both imperfect; one having fifty-two pages, and the other only forty-four. Quaritch lately advertised a copy for twenty-five shillings, also " imperfect at the end." A complete copy might give some such information as I have asked for above.

Since writing the above query I had occasion to look into Stow's Survey of London, and though not able to compare the two books together, I felt convinced that Fisher's work is merely an abstract of the epitaphs given in Stow. Seymour's London also appears to contain the same epitaphs—bein an enlargement of Stow. In these works I foun the three epitaphs I wanted. W. P.

“Cu1 Bono?"—Not a day passes but some writer in a newspaper, or speaker at a county meeting, wishes to express the simple idea—“What's the good of it?” and thinking it finer to say it in Latin, he uses the words “cui bono?” Those who know the meaning of “cui bono" shrug their shoulders, and let it pass. But when a publication like the Saturday Review, conducted by able scholars, has a long article headed “Cui bono?" the whole tenor of which proves that the writer so understands these two words, it is time that you should explain to those who are daily using the phrase, that they entirely misconceive the meaning and force of this pithy idiom, which Cicero” calls “illud Cassianum.”

A very logical argument is contained in these two little words. If we were to inquire who was the author of the murder of Darnley, Cicero would have asked “Cui bono fuerit?” who was to gain by the death of Darnley? And the question suggests the answer—undoubtedly Bothwell and the Queen. All this is conveyed by “cuibono” when properly used, which is very rarely its fate.

J.

OLD PAINTING AT EASTER Fowlis. – Some years ago I was favoured with a view of a unique painting, which I think so curious that it deserves to be noted in “N. & Q.” At a place called Easter Fowlis, a few miles from Dundee, there is, in tolerable preservation, an old Roman Catholic chapel which is now used as a Protestant church, in and about which are several very interesting relics of bye-gone times; altogether the place is well worth a visit. The painting I refer to is in the church, and is of considerable size. It is executed on wood, and occupies almost the entire wall at one end of the small building. If I was informed of the subject of it I have forgotten it, but what makes the work remarkable is that among the figures represented are to be found two of extraordinary character; one is the devil, and the other the soul of a man leaving his body. The artist has evidently not been aware of the modern notions of Satan's appearance, or if so, he has departed widely from it. He represents the arch-enemy, as something in size and shape between a pair of large shears, and a black lobster. The soul is represented very much like one of those embryo dolls to be found in the toy-shops, having neither arms nor legs, but of a wedge shape. It appears to be coming out of the dying possessor's mouth, and the lobster-like devil is evidently on the alert to catch it.

* See Cicero pro Milone.

I scarcely think such another piece of ecclesiastical painting is to be seen anywhere else in Scotland, at least adorning the walls of what is now a rural Protestant church. I have no idea of the exact age of the work or its artist's name, but it must be of considerable antiquity. The adjoining churchyard also contains some old tombstones worth notice. G. M.

Edinburgh.

Queries.

HENRY CRABTREF.—In a History of the Town and Parish of Halifar, printed by E. Jacobs, for J. Milner, Bookseller, in the Corn Market, 1789, I find the following notice of “Crabtree, Henry, sometimes wrote Rabtree." He was born, as some have thought, in Norland; as others, in the village of Sowerby, where he was initiated in school learning with Archbishop Tillotson. He has left behind him the character of being a good mathematician and astronomer. He published “Merlinus Rusticus, or, a Country Almanack, yet treating of courtly matters, and the most sublime affairs now in agitation throughout the whole world. 1. Showing the beginning, increase, and continuance of the Turkish, or Ottoman Empire. 2. Predicting the fate and state of the Roman and Turkish Empires. 3. Foretelling what success the Grand Seignior shall have in this his war, in which he is now engaged against the German Emperor. All these are endeavoured to be proved from the most probable and indubitable arguments of history, theology, astrology; together with the ordinary furniture of other Almanacks. By Henry Krabtree, Curate of Todmurden, in Lancashire. London, printed for the Company of Stationers, 1685.”

I may now ask if anything further is known of this Henry Crabtree, and whether a copy of this Almanac is still in existence? “John Crabtree, Gent, author of a Concise History of the Parish and Vicarage of Halifax,” published by “Hartley and Walker, 1836,” evidently confounds this Henry Crabtree with the friend and correspondent of Horrocks and Gascoigne. Mr. Crabtree adds, that “he married — Pilling, widow, of Stansfield Hall, near Todmorden.

T. T. WILKINson, Burnley, Lancashire.

FoEFEITED Estates.—Can any of your readers tell me where I can obtain information as to estates in Scotland, said to have been confiscated in 1715 or 1746.” I want to ascertain the particulars of the estates belonging to a certain person, and the details of the process under which they were seized. - A. F. B.

“HE Digged A Pit."—Can any of your contributors inform me who was the author of the following stanza, and in what book it may be found 2 “He digged a pit, He . loop, He digged it for his brother; But through his sin He did fall in The pit he digg'd for t'other.” Thomas CRAggs. West Cramlington.

Judicial CoMMITTEE of the PRIvy Council. The Church Times for Feb. 13, 1864, p. 52, col.2, says that—

“The Members of the Privy Council have all a theoretical right to be present at all meetings of that body. Practically none ever are present save those who are formally summoned, nominally by the Lord President, but actually by a subordinate, who can, without any difficulty or any apparent breach of propriety, select the judges almost as he will. Therefore, ifpoon. to be tried by the Judicial Committee have,” &c. &c.

What follows may be true, but may be also oil. libellous, and is therefore omitted. It will perhaps serve future history to ask, (1) What is the actual custom to which members submit? (2) What is the title of the summoning officer? (3) To whom is he responsible?

S. F. Creswell. The Cathedral School, Durham.

LEADING APEs IN HELL.-Can any of your readers inform me of the origin, or earliest mention of a jocular superstition as to the ultimate fate of ancient maiden ladies? We find Huncamunca, on being promised Tom Thumb for a husband, exclaiming:“Oh! happy fate: henceforth let no one tell, That Huncamunca shall*ead apes in hell.” Again, in Love in a Village, a girl sings : — “T"were better on earth, Have five brats at a birth, Than in hell be a leader of apes.” While, in the Ingoldsby Legend of “Bloudie Jacke of Shrewsburie,” we are told that “the young Mary Anne,” who afterwards died an old maid, is not only now a leader of apes, but also “mends bachelors' small clothes below." I shall be glad of any information on this subject. T. D. H.

MozARApic Liturgy.-Can any of your clerical readers verify the statement made in Ford's HandBook of Spain, that many of the collects of the Mozarabic Liturgy have been transferred to the English Book of Common Prayer? Further, are these collects common to the Gallician and Mozarabic Liturgies, or peculiar to the latter? If we owe anything to the Mozarabic Liturgy, by what channel has the benefit come to us?

FRED, E, Toy NE. Chapeltown, Leeds.

PAGET AND Milrox's Third Wife.-What relation was Dr. Paget to Milton's third wife Elizabeth Minshull? He is often quoted as the friend of both, and cousin to Mrs. Milton. In the Rev. John.. Booker's work on the Ancient Chapel of †: in Manchester Parish, p. 66, after stating that the family of Paget are descended from the Pagets of Rothley, in the county of Leicester, where one of its members was vicar in 1564, he goes on to say, that Mr. Paget was appointed minister of Blackley about 1600; he afterwards became rector of Stockport, and died in 1660. By his will dated May 23, 1650, he leaves his of. to his two sons—Nathan, a physician; and Thomas, in Holy Orders. He alludes also to his three daughters Dorothy, Elizabeth, and Mary, and entreats his cousin Minshull, apothecary of Manchester, to be supervisor of his will. Dr. Nathan Paget was an intimate friend of Milton, and cousin to the poet's third wife, Elizabeth Minshull. By will dated January 7, 1678, he leaves bequests to his cousin John Goldsmith, of the Middle Temple, gentleman, and his cousin Elizabeth Milton. The mother of Minshull, the apothecary, was Ellen Goldsmith, daughter of Richard Goldsmith of Nantwich, and this Thomas Minshull was uncle to Mrs. Milton. I shall esteem it a favour if any of the readers of “N. & Q." can give me the connecting link between the families of Paget and Minshull. I have two hundred, pedigrees of the Minshull family by me, together with the families they are allied to, but can only find the following concerning them, which I extracted from Warmincham registry in Cheshire:– “Buried, Oct. 8, 1586, Margaret Minshull, alias Paget; Married Oct. 28, 1593, Rondle Minshull to Jane Paget.” John B. MINshull. 21, Beaumont Square.

PAssage IN “Tom Joxes."—The meaning of the following passage is perhaps apparent on the face of it; but can any of your readers throw light upon the particular “wondrous wit of the place,” to which it alludes 2 –

“Or as when two gentlemen, strangers to the wondrous wit of the place, are cracking a bottle together at some inn or tavern at Salisbury, if the great Dowdy, who acts the part of a madman as well as some of his setterson do that of a fool, should rattle his chains, and dreadfully hum forth the grumbling catch along the gallery: the frightened strangers stand aghast, scared at the horrid sound, they seek some place of shelter from the approaching danger; and if the well-barred windows did admit their exit, would venture their necks to escape the threatening fury now coming upon them.”— Tom Jones, book vi. cap. 9.

J. S.

PRIvate PRAYERs For THE LAITY. — In a recent notice of a popular book of family devotions, objection was raised to all such works, on the

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