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LEWIS MORRIS. (3'd S. v. 12, 85, 142.)

My attention has just been called to a Query, by H. H., in one of your January numbers; and also to what purports to be an answer thereto, by a gentleman signing himself L.txius.

As H. H.'s Queries are really unanswered, you will allow me to say in reply to the first, that, to the best of my belief, nothing is now known of the existence of such a pedigree as is spoken of by Lewis Morris in Lord Teignmouth's Life of Jones. However, on looking through the collection of Lewis Morris's manuscript works in the Library of the British Museum, I find several apparently authentic pedigrees of various ancestors of his, written by his own hand; one by the mother's side, tracing descent from a prince, or chieftain, named Madoc Goch. Perhaps one of these may show the alleged connection between Lewis Morris and Sir William Jones. Lewis Morris's lineal descendant is the gentleman of that name who will be found holding a distinguished position in the Oxford Class List for 1855, or 1856; and who is now, I believe, practising either at the Common Law or Equity Bar.

With regard to L^xius. I am afraid some patriotic Welshmen will be a little shocked at finding their idol, the patron of " Goronwy "—the Maecenas of contemporary literature — described as having succeeded in obtaining a situation in the custom-house at Holyhead. The fact is, that if he ever held such a position, he speedily emerged into what was then the very important and lucrative post of Government Inspector and Surveyor of Mines in Wales; and his reports as a public servant are still, as I have reason to know, considered by the crown officials as authorities on the subjects to which they relate. Moreover, he was twice married—on both occasions prudently; and by the latter] marriage he obtained, through his wife, the estate of Penbryn, in Cardiganshire, where he resided till his death. Nor perhaps is it a sufficient account of his intellectual position to say, that he was connected with literary pursuits in Wales. The fact is, that he is still considered in Wales to have been a man of extraordinary intellectual power. As an antiquary he was so distinguished a 'scholar, that his unpublished work, "Celtic Remains," is supposed to have created more than one reputation. His Welsh poetry is thought to have the true poetic ring, and is quoted to-day by many a homely fireside in Wales. And his accomplishments in languages and music were considered wonderful in a self-taught man, whose time was always taken up by hard practical work. As to his quarrels with other literary men, I dare say human nature has not much changed within the last century, but I have never heard of them. As to troubles,

with reference to irregularities in his accounts, of which Lxxius finds no account in any recognised writer—but with regard to which he has seen, in / some "Welsh magazine," "curious" statements— I can only say that, with some knowledge of Welsh literature, they would be to me extremely "curious" if they were true.

H. H., if he wishes for real knowledge of Lewis Morris and his character, will find it in a compendious form in the chapter devoted to his "noble character," by Mr. Borrow, in his recent work, Wild Wale*. His picture is now at the Welsh School at Ashford, of which he was a benefactor. Many of his works, and of those of his brothers Richard and William — both distinguished scholars—are to be found under the head "Morrisian Manuscripts " at the British Museum.


There is a discrepancy as to time and place of birth between the memoir of Lewis Morris quoted by Ljeuus, and that given in the Cambrian Register for 1796. L«ucs says, that his account of Morris was drawn up by Dafydd Ddu Eryri; and by it we are informed, that Lewis Morris was born, on March 12, 1700, in the parish of Llanfihangel Tre'r Beirdd, in the Isle of Anglesey. According to the Cambrian Register, he was born in the aforesaid island, at a village called "Pentrew Eirianell," in the parish of Penros Llugwy, on the first day of March, 1702. He was married twice: first, on the 29th of March, 1729, to Elizabeth Griffiths, heiress of Ty Wrayn, near Holyhead; of which marriage were born a son and two daughters. His second wife was Ann Lloyd, heiress of Penbryn, in Cardiganshire; at which place he died in 1765, and was buried at Llanbadarn Vawr, in the aforesaid county. Nine children were the offspring of this second marriage, viz. five sons and four daughters. At the date of the memoir, there was only one son living, the third of the second marriage: "William, now living (1796) in Cardiganshire. He is engaged in republishing his father's Survey of the Coast of Wales, with additions; and is also bringing out his own Map of Anglesey."

This is the " William Morris of Gw'aelod, near Aberystwith," who gave my copy of Cambria Triumphans to the Hon. Robert Fulke Greville. Colonel Greville was born either in 1800 or 1801; and as he was, doubtless, of full age when Mr. Morris gave him the book, it would show that the latter was alive a good way on in the present century. A son of his may be now living. I made a mistake when I stated that Lewis Morris became the owner of my copy of Cambria Triumphans one hundred and two years after its publication. I should have said ninety-two years: the book having been published in 1661.

John Pavjn Phillips.

Whitmore Family (3rd S. v. 159 )—Your correspondent says, that "three places in Staffordshire may have originated this as a family name, viz., Whitmore, near Newcastle-under-Lyme; Wetmore, in the parish of Burton-on-Trent; and Wildmore, in that of Bobbington, the last running into Shropshire." But, as regards this last place, your correspondent is not quite correct; and, as the correction of his mistake (such as it is) may tend to strengthen his surmise, I here note it. Wildmoor is a spot on the Staffordshire side of the high range of ground, called Abbots Castle 1 Hill, between Claverley and Seisdon, and is about a mile and a half from the boundary of the parish of Bobbington, a small portion of which parish is in the county of Salop. It is just at this spot, within Shropshire, and on the outskirts of the parish of Bobbington, adjacent to the parish of Claverley, that we come upon one of those better class of farm-houses which may, at some previous time, not improbably have formed the residence of a squire's younger son, if not of a squire himself. This substantial house, with its barns and stables, and outlying buildings, its four cottages for workmen, and its well-stocked farm, is that same "Wytimore within the manor of Claverley, Salop," to which your correspondent refers as having been held by the Whitmores in the reign of Edward I. On the ordnance map the place is marked as "Whitimore;" but it is locally pronounced Wittymere. Mr Whitmore, of Apley, is the patron of the parish in which Whitimore is situated.


Trousers (3rd S. v. 136.)—I believe the word Trousers, in its present signification, is not more than eighty or ninety years old. The following quotation from " The Trite Anti-Pamela; or, Memoirs of Mr. James Parry, of Ross, in Herefordshire, in which are inserted His Amours with

the celebrated Miss of Monmouthshire. 12mo,

1741," — a disgusting memoir of the last century, seems to show that in 1741 an article of dress, entirely different from that now in use, was indicated by this word : —

"I slipt down the Garden Stairs with my Trowzers * at my heels," p. 188.

The word Trowzers lias a star attached, and this note at the bottom of the page : —

"* Trowzers are commonly worn by those that ride post down into the North, and are very warm; at the same time they keep the Coat, Breeches, &c. very clean by being worn over them."

In later days the articles of attire Mr. James Parry here describes were called overalls.

This book contains a few other sentences worth extracting, e. g.:

"This woman hated me worse than a Quaker

does a Parrot."—P. 10.

"In the Spring of the year 1782-3, the Small Pox broke out at Ross, and prov'd very fatal, so that Miss

and her mother hardly ever stirr'd out of doors.

The old Lady stufFd all the windows with Tobacco

Dust, in order to keep out the infectious air I

carried daily a large Bundle of Rue in my Bosom." — P. 81 82.

"He told me he had been buying a suit of Cloaths, trimm'd with Frosted Buttons, at Nicholas Fisher's, and Nicholas advised him .... to have the suit lined with white Shagreen."—P. 129.

"Well, mv dear, said I, it is needless crying after shed milk."—P. 131.

"The house that Mrs. P. liv'd in was built of wood, and plaister'd over, theu painted in imitation of Bricks." —P. 134.

"A fiercer look than any of the Tancoloured Devils which are painted upon the Church Windows of Fairford in Gloucestershire." — P. 204.

"Well, thinks I, if I must go over the Herring-Pond there is no avoiding it."—P. 246.

"Mrs. J—s, whom I hate worse than a Magpye does a Toad."


Harriet Livermore (3rd S. v. 35.)—This lady is now (January, 1864) living in Philadelphia.

St. T.

Diobt Motto (3rd S. v. 153.) — There can be little doubt, I think, that the motto "Nul que unt," refers to the Supreme Being. Compare the following "ideas : —" None other God but one" (1 Cor. viii. 4); "None good but one, that is God" (Matt. xix. 17)]; and many similar passages. Wtnke E. Baxter.

Female Fools (3t4 S. iv. 453, 523.) — I think that the earliest female jester was Iambe, whom Queen Metanira consigned as a merry companion to Ceres, when the latter was looking for Proserpine. The Harpaste of Seneca's wife's household was a poor idiot, who took the darkness of blindness for that of night. Theodora, before she became the wife of Justinian, was famous for the way in which she acted buffoon characters. Nicola la Jardiniere, who was with Mary Stuart, had been the foUe of Catherine de Medici. In the "Diversoria" (Colloquies of Erasmus) we find that female jesters were kept in the inns at Lyons to bandy jests with the sojourners there. The Grand-Duchess Catherine of Russia had a Finnish girl for her jester. The male jester has not died out in that country. The Dowager Duchess of Bolton (natural daughter of the Duke of Monmouth, by Eleanor Needham), undertook to play the jester to George I., whom she constantly amused by her affected blunders and capital wit. Lady Bridget Lane Fox, daughter of the swearing Chancellor Northington, did the same office to George III. and Queen Charlotte. The official female fool still exists. Mrs. Edmund Hornby found a very efficient one, in 1858, in the hareem of Riza Pasha, at Constantinople. How this jester kept the hareem in hilarious laughter by her bold wit, A. J. M. may learn by consulting Mrs. Hornby's book, In and, about Stamboul.

Readers of the French debates will perceive that the Emperor there retains an official jester, in the person of his illegitimate brother, M. de Morny. When an opposition speaker becomes troublesome, M. de Morny interrupts him by quips and jokes, or simulated angry words, either of which produce those rires prolonges duly recorded by the Moniteur, which show that the office has been happily executed. J. Doran.

The Sea Op Glass (3rd S. v. 155.)—I find, in Pole's Synopsis, extracts from the writings of Grotius, Ribera, and Gomarus; suggesting the same idea so beautifully rendered in the lines quoted by Oxoniensis : —

"Hoc mare vitreum elicit—quia Deus et actiones et cogitata populi pcrspicit, ut recti; judicet et reddat unicuique secundum opera ejus."—This from Grotius and Bibera.

"Solum et quasi pavimentum cteli beatorum, per quod, quasi per mare vitreum et cryatallinum, Deus omnia qua? in terra sunt conspicit," &c.—From Gomarus.

S. L.

The idea of the "sea of glass" (Rev. iv. 6) reflecting the scenes on earth, seems to be merely a poetical fancy, based neither on Scripture nor on ancient exposition. The Fathers regarded the crystal sea as a type of baptism, shadowed forth by the molten sea in the Jewish Temple. One Protestant commentator, Gomar {Ap. Poli Sunops. Crit.), speaks of it as being, as it were, the pavement of heaven, through which men's lives on earth were watched. This is the nearest approach to the thought in the poem which I can discover. W. J. D.

The Order Op The Ship In France (3rd S. v. 117.) — A long account of the foundation of this Order will be found in Favine's Theater of Honour and Knighthood (English translation, London, 1623, pp. 355—364). St. Louis's first voyage to Egypt was from Marseilles, thon belonging to the Count of Provence, August. 25, 1248. On his return, be built a port and haven in Languedoc, so that he might depart on a second voyage from a port in his own territories :—

"For the greater animating and encouraging the Nobilitie of France, in attempting this Voyage over the Seas with him, as a new Recompence'and Prize of honour (besides the two Orders of France, then in full pride and request, of the Starre arid of the BroomeFlourt), be instituted a third, particularly for this last Voyage: the subject and circumstances whereof were represented by the collar of this Order, called of the Skip, and banging at.the lower end thereof."

Job J. B. Wobkabd.

Oath "ex Officio" (3fd S. v. 135.) —The nature of this oath is more fully set forth in a previous Act (16 Car. I., c. 11, s. 4), whereby it was enacted —

"That no Archbishop, Bishop, nor Vicar General, nor any Chancellor, Official nor Commissary of any Arch

bishop, Bishop, or Vicar General, nor any Ordinary whatsoever, nor any other Spiritual or Ecclesiastical Judge, Officer, or Minister of Justice, nor any other person or persons whatsoever, exercising Spiritual or Ecclesiastical Power, Authority, &c. . . . shall award, impose, or inflict any pain, penalty, fine, &c, upon any of the King's subjects for any contempt, misdemeanor, crime, &c, belonging to Spiritual or Ecclesiastical cognisance or jurisdiction, or shall ex officio, at the instance or promotion of any other Person whatsoever, urge, enforce, tender, give, or minister unto any Churchwarden, Sideman, or other person whatsoever, any Corporal oath, whereby he or she shall or may be charged, or obliged to make any presentment of any crime or offence, or to confess, or to accuse himself or herself of any Crime, offence, delinquency or misdemeanor, or any neglect, matter, or thing, whereby, or by reason whereof, he or she may be liable or exposed to any censure, pain, penalty, or punishment whatever."

As to the oath ex officio, see Gibson's Codex, tit. 44, c. 4, p. 1010, of the 2nd edition, 1761' and 12, Lord Coke's Reports, 26.

Job J. B. Wobkabd.

Thb Verb « To Liquob" (3rd S. v. 133.) — Your correspondent J. C. Lindsay seems to class this word among "Americanisms," adding, " It is, of course, confined to the vulgar."

Nevertheless, we find old Anthony Wood telling us, nearly 200 years ago, in his Athena Oxonienses, that, on the occasion of a Mr. James Quin, an Irishman, who sang a fine bass, being presented to Oliver Cromwell at Oxford, that he might procure the Chancellor's pardon for some college irregularity —

"Oliver, who loved a good voice and instrumental music well, heard him with great delight, and liquored him with sack, saying, ' Mr. Quin, you have done very well, what shall I do for you?' &c. &c"

The word is to be found in almost all our modern dictionaries as a verb "to drench, or moisten." R. S. Brooke, D.D.

Customs Op Scotland (3,d S. v. 153.)—"Figone" is a mixture consisting of ale, sliced figs, bread, and nutmeg for seasoning ; boiled together, and eaten hot like soup. The custom of eating this on Good Friday is still prevalent in North Lancashire, but the mixture is there known as "fig-sue," the origin of which term I am unable to make out. The dish is a very palatable one.

W. P. W.

William Dell, D.D. (3rd S. v. 75.)—I happen to have access, at this moment, to the register book of the parish of Dr. Dell, Yelden (not Yeldon), sometimes written, and still pronounced Yeilden, an abbreviation of its old form Yevel, or Gevel-dean. The following excerpta therefrom, relating to members of the Dell family, may prove not unserviceable to your correspondent, and an aid of your editorial note : —

"The Register for the Births of Children in the Toune of Yelden " has, for its first item, the nativity (for the rite of baptism is subordinated here until after the Restoration) of one of this rector's children: —

'',A°: J6??' Decemb: 16, Anna Dell, the daughter of William Dell and Martha his wife was borne.''

It also records—

"AnncL??,mini l?,55. Maye the 16th, Nathanael Dell, sonne of Willim Dell, rector, and Martha his wife was borne.

"Anno Domini 1656, ffebniary the 16th, Mary Dell, borae "°r Wllllam Del1 and Matthew (sic Q his wife was

,^°,TM " ^he ^gi^r for BuriaUs in the Tonne oi lelden, we have these further statistics Delhana:—

J^^£nminik1?,55' JlJy tte 6th- N»thanael Dell, sonne of Willim Dell, rector,* and Martha his wife was Duiyed.

«1656, January the 12th, Samuell Dell, sonne of William Dell, and Matthew (iteram) his wife was buryed."

I should be glad to be informed whether the puritanical doctor's tomb in the spinney at Westonuig be an extant memorial. No note of it occurs in Tymm's useful Topography, and I have not Cooke's to refer to. R. Lxm.

Martin (3'« S. v. 154.)—Among the numerous possessors of Alresford Manor and inhabitants of Alresford Hall were Matthew Martin, who died July 20, 1749, and Samuel Martin his son, on whose death the property fell into the hands of his brother Thomas, a barrister. (Morantfs Hi»t. of Essex, i. 453.) The vocation, arms, family, and other useful and interesting information are given in Morant's Essex, vol. ii. 188, etseq.

Wibke E. Baxter.

The Fibst Papeb Mill In America (2""1 S. iv. 105.) — The statement that the first paper mill m America was at Elizabeth Town, in New Jersey, and that the second was at Milton, near Boston, Mass., is an egregious error that has been perpetuated in nearly every standard work on the subject of paper-making. The first was situate in Roxburgh township, Philadelphia county, Pa., and was at the commencement owned by a company or partnership, among the members of which were William Bradford, William Rittinghousen [Rittenhouse], Robert Turner, Thomas Tresse, and other prominent citizens of Pennsylvania. William Rittenhouse and his son Claus, or Nicholas, were the practical paper-makers. Ihey were Hollanders, and were Dutch Baptists or Mennomsts in their religious faith. Claus was a preacher at the German Town Mennonist church.

This paper-mill was built in the year 1690, and was in operation nearly forty years before the Elizabeth Town and Milton mills were begun. I have lately read before the Historical Society of Pennsylvania an essay, entitled Historical Sketch

Erased by some retributive hand.

of the Rittenhouse Paper Mill, the first in America, erected A.d. 1690. My essay is written entirely on paper made at this first paper-mill by the first paper-maker and his son, prior to the year 1G99.

William Bradford, the first printer of Pennsylvania, and the other middle colonies, was supplied with paper from this mill; and Dr. Franklin also procured his paper from the same source. The second paper-mill was erected in the year 1710 by another Hollander named William De Wees. Both were situate near the Wissahickon Creek, a' tributary of the River Schuylkill.

I have a great variety of American "paper marks;" and T propose to prepare an essay on Pennsylvania paper marks. Further information about the first paper-mill in America may be found in The Historical Magazine, g-c. vol. i. pp. 123-4 (Boston); and also in Bishop's History of American Manufactures: to both of which I communicated the facts. This communication is written on some of the paper made at the first mill prior to 1699, by Rittenhouse and his son.

Hoeatio Gates Jones. Philadelphia, Feb 1,1864.

Giants And Dwarfs (3rd S. v. 34.)—At Barnum's Museum in New York are now, Feb. 1, exhibiting four giants, which, or who, upon the authority of the advertisement, are "each over eight feet high, and weigh " altogether "over fifteen hundred pounds." Also, "The Lilliputian King, fourteen years old, only twenty-two inches high, and weighs but seventeen pounds." St. T.

Austrian Motto: The Five Vowels (3rd S. iv. 304.)— la the Atlas Geographus, 1711, I find, in a description of the Imperial Palace at Vienna, that —

"Over the gate of the palace there are the five Vowels, A, E, I, O, U, in Capitals over the gate; to which some have given this explanation, Austria est imperare orbi universe; i. «., • 'Tis the part of Austria to govern the whole world;' but 'tis not certain that this was the meaning of the architect."

A little further on, in the same book, in the account of Neustatt, or Neapolis Austria?, is the following: —

"Over the chief Gate, they have the five Capita] Vowels, as over the Palace at Vienna, which they interpret thus, Ai/uila electa juste omnia vincit, i. e. The Eagle

being chosen justly, overcomes all."

W. I. S. Hobton.

Common Law (3rd S. v. 152.) —The term "common law" has a general and a particular signification. In its general signification, it denotes a law which extends over a whole country, in contradistinction to customs and laws which are confined to particular districts and persons. In this sense, it will even include statutes of the realm. (Co. Litt. 142a.) Blackstone remarks that the term was probably originally applied to a law common to all the realm; that is, the jus commune, or folc-rigbt established by King Edward the Elder, after he had abolished various provincial customs and particular laws. (Bla. Corn. by Coleridge, i. 67.)

In its particular signification, the common law comprises, 1. General customs, or unwritten laws which extend over the country generally; 2. Particular customs, or those which are confined to Earticular districts and persons; 3. Particular iws, or those which are administered in particular courts.

1. The common law is defined as lex non scripta in opposition to lex scripta. This is a particular signification of the common law.

2. It is opposed to such part of the civil and canon law as it does not recognise, because foreign laws, as such, have no force in this kingdom.

3. It is opposed to equity in a particular sense. Equity is a suppletory system, which was established in later ages to enforce rights which the common law did not, and does not now, recognise. But equity is not altogether opposed to the common law, for in many cases the maxim jEnuitas setntitur legem holds good.

4. The lex mereatoria, or law merchant, though it may be distinguished from the common law in the general sense of the term, is part of the common law of England, in the same way that other particular customs and laws are parts of it.

The connection between the general and particular sense of the term common law is now rather remote. The introduction of equity, and the incorporation into the old common law of particular customs, the lex mereatoria, and parts of the civil and canon law, necessarily intrench upon the term "common." But I should think that the common law of England may at the present day be defined with moderate correctness, as that system of unwritten law (as opposed to equity and statute law) which is administered in courts of justice, and prevails through the kingdom.

W. J. Tnx.


St. Mary Mattblon (3rd S. v. 161.)—Will you admit another note on this vexed question? I am not familiar enough with Arabic to say that it nowhere contains a form from which Matfelon, in the sense of paritura, can be derived: but what Iknow of most of the cognate languages convinces me that it is not derived from any offshoot of the root yalad, ifr,: it might come from the root naphal, S)£}}, and in fact we have a word from that root in Syriac, signifying an untimely birth, an abortion. I have far more sympathy with Mb. Walcott's view, and had copied out a curious passage bearing upon it from Dr. R. C. A. Prior's Popular Names of British Plants, p. 147. I will not now send it, but I earnestly beg those who can refer to it to do so, to see what vagaries

this word Matfelon has played. And yet, I do not think the church of St. Mary Matfelon owed its name to the plant except indirectly. The case I take to be this: In the middle ages, the plant Matfelon was believed to be useful for softening and hastening the removal of boils: hence it is a compound of the old verb mateY, to macerate, and felon, a boil. Probably a St. Mary (which I know not) was famous for occupying the same province of " Leechdom ;" and what more natural than that some one, who ascribed the removal of a terrible felon to her kind offices, should found the Whitechapel of St. Mary Matfelon? The old explanation of " felon-slayer" is doubtless verbally correct, but its sense has been lost sight of. B. H. C.

Gbumuald Hold (3rd S. v. 115.) — Is not this connected with the old Saxon (?) name of Grimbald? One Grimbald was Abbot of Hyde in Alfred's time; another was famous in the sixteenth century, and others exist in our own day.

B. H. C.

Dr. Johk Wigah (3rd S. v. 37.)—Dr. John

Wigan and my maternal great-grandfather were two of the sons of Dr. William Wigan, Vicar of Kensington, who is mentioned as such in Bishop Kennett's Register. I have an admirable portrait of Dr. John Wigsh, kit-cat size, painted possibly by Hogarth, and by his Bide, on a bookstand, is a volume lettered " Friend's Opera." I possess also his diploma, signed by Sir Hans Sloane, as President of the College of Physicians, and a few of his letters, written in a more or less humorous vein, from Jamaica. Dr. John Wigan went out as physician in ordinary with his college friend, Mr., afterwards Sir Edward Trelawny, when he was appointed Governor of Jamaica. Sir Edward was son of Sir Jonathan, one of the seven bishops. The two friends married two sisters, daughters of the principal planter in the island, and Dr. Wigan appears to have died mancipiis locuples, as shown by the inventory of his effects, taken for the purpose of administration.

If Oxoniexsis wishes for any further information, may I refer him to you for my name and address? W. Wigan H .

Comic Sokgs Translated (3rd S. v. 172.)— Latin translations of "Billy Taylor" and of "One night it blew a hurricane," are appended to the second edition of Johamiis Gilpini Iter, Latine redditum, which was published by Vincent at Oxford, in 1841.

If this be the translation of "Billy Taylor," after which your correspondent Tra inquires, I have the best reason for Knowing that it was not made by the Rev. C. Bigge, though, curiously enough, the original of the two additional verses was given to the translator by the late Venerable E. T. Bigge, first Archdeacon of Lindisfarne.

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