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with fifteen counters or stones (calculi) of different colours, upon a table marked with twelve lines (Eschenburg, by Fiske, p. 295). Schrevelius says the calculi and latrones are the same game.

"Sive latrocinii sub imagine calculus ibit."

Ovid, Art. Amandi, ii. 205.

and that the modern Greeks call it £a,Tptnu>v. This is not trictrac, the name of which is To rai\i, a corruption of the Italian tavoliere. See Simon, "Jeux de Hazard chez les Romnins" (Mem. Acad. Inter. i. 120), and "Historia Shahi ludii" of Dr. Hyde (Syntagm. DUstrtat. ii. 61—69).

T. J. BrjcKToif.

Robert Dove (3rd S. v. 170, 331, 388.)—The name of the worthy citizen is correctly given "Dove," in the 1618 edition of Stow's Survey. The u used in the old edition for », has caused the name to be printed "Done" in the extract given in " N. & Q." The reference to the passage, in the 1618 edition, should be p. 195, not " p. 25."

I have now before me a rare tract by Ant. Nixon, entitled: —

"London's Dove, or the Mirour of Merchant Taylors: a Memoriall of the Life and Death of Maister Robert Dove, Citizen and Merchant Taylor of London; and of his Several) Almes-deedes and Large Bountie to the Poore, in his Lifetime. 1C12. 4to."

We learn, from this interesting brochure, how Robert Dove bequeathed to thirteen aged men "twenty nobles yearly n-peace, and every three yeares to each man a gown ;" to sixty poor widows in the parish of St. Botolph's-Without, Aldgate, and to six men, four nobles a-year for ever; also, his charities to Bedlam and Bridewell, the hospitals of St. Bartholomew and St. Thomas's. His relieving the prisoners in Newgate and Ludgate; his charities " to the poor young "beginners of the Company of Merchant Taylours;" his provision for the tolling the bell at St. Sepulchre's, for condemned persons, "every day of execution until they have suffered death," which gift is to "continue for ever." And also, for a small handbell to be rung at midnight, under Newgate, the night after the execution; and the next morning at the church wall, to remind them of their mortality ; and a prayer to be said for their salvation; and this to "continue for ever."

After recording numerous other liberal benefactions of this old English worthy, Nixon mentions " sixteen pounds a-year for ever to Christ's Hospital, to train up and instruct ten young schollers in the knowledge and learning of musick and prick-song."

The name of good old Robert Dove surely deserves to be remembered at the present day.

Edward F. Rimbault.

The Passing-beix Of St. Sepulchre's.—The lines indicating the ancient distrust of executors,

and quoted in a note at the last above-mentioned page, were, in a somewhat different form, written upon a wall in St. Edmund's church in Lombard Street. (Jeremy Taylor's Hoi. Dy. ed. 1682, p. 178):—

"Man, thee behoveth oft to have this in mind,
That thou giveth with thine hand, that shalt thou find,
For widows beth slothful, and children beth unkind,
Executors beth covetous, and keep all that they find.
If any body ask where the dead's goods became,

Thev answer,
So God me help, and Halidam,* he died a poor man.

Think on this."

This was the epitaph of Richard Nordcll. (Weever's Fun. Mon. pp. 19, 413.)

Edward J. Wood.

Tout (3r4S. v. 211.) —Is not this word derived from "to out," that is to go out hunting for employment, instead of sitting in the usual place of business waiting for clients to come in, as professional men mostly do. A. A.

Poets' Corner.


The Works of William Shakespeare. Edited by William
George Clark, M.A, and William Aldis Wright, M.A.
Volume IV. (Macmillan.)

This new volume of The Cambridge Shakespeare—which contains King John; Richard II.; The First and Second Parts of Henry IV., and Henry V.,—exhibits the same patient industry in collecting and arranging the various readings to be found in the different editions of the plays here reprinted, and the various amendments and corrections in those plays suggested by their numerous editors and commentators, which characterised the preceding volumes. This accumulation of critical materials gives a special value to this edition, and points it out as one peculiarly suited to those who desire to study for themselves the text of our great dramatist. How great this labour must have been, the reader will easily perceive when he is told that, of the Richard II., no less than four quarto editions were printed before it appeared in the first folio; while, of the First Part of Henry IV., no less than six quartos were printed; and, although Henry V. appeared in its present form first in the Folio of 1623, it was printed surreptitiously in quarto, in 1600, under the title of The Chronicle History of Henry the Fifth; which Chronicle History, with the various readings of the two reprints of it. printed in 1602 and 1608, is given in the Appendix. The editors hope to issue their next volume in August; and announce as in preparation, and to be published uniformly with The Cambridge Shakespeare, a Commentary, Explanatory and Illustrative.

Catalogue of the Books of the Manchester Free Library. Reference Department. Prepared by A. Crest adoro, Ph D. of the University of Turin, Author of " The Art of Making Catalogues of Libraries." (S. Low.)

We may well congratulate the good people of Manchester on the Literary Treasures within their reach. We

• Holy doom.

have recently had occasion to notice the admirable Fourth Volume of the Catalogue of the Chetham Library, to which the inhabitants of the great manufacturing metropolis have free access; and now our attention is called to a very valuable Catalogue of that most useful portion of a Library, The Reference Department of the Manchester Free Library. This Catalogue seems to us extremely well adapted for the purpose of enabling the frequenters of that Library tc turn it to good account, for it includes the two great desiderata in all Catalogue?, the alphabetical and the classified arrangement; and we can scarcely doubt, from the examination which we have been able to make of the book before us, that Mr. Crestadoro is justified in congratulating those who use the Library in its being "for practical utility and adaptation in its purpose, and for just distribution among all the Department) of Science and the Art?, a Library that may challenge comparison with any of its size in the world." Tlie Library, we may add, is no less rich in pamphlets than in larger works; and those who founded it and maintain it well deserve all the praise which Mr. Crestadoro bestows upon them, and the additional praise of having turned a fine library to the best account by printing an extremely useful Catalogue of it.

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RxeUr; Bishop Firming at Lincoln; Bishop* Fox ami Gardiner at Winchester. FtVfe**N. a Q." lit B. v. 901, *&

C. Holm*. For the, etymology of the local name Flan, tee tmr let S. xli. 74.112, 150, 175, X3tj ami fur that of Caterpillar, 2nd 8. i. 4U, 143. 302,347.

•«• Cases for binding the volumes o/ " N. A Q." may be had of the Publisher, and of all Booksellers and A'ewsmen.

"not** And Qcmnu" is published at noon on Friday, and is al+o issued in M liwritLv Part*. The Subscription for Stamped Copies for Six Months forwarded direct from the Publisher {inrlutling the Halfyearly Indsx) is lis. *d„ which may be paid hy Post Office Order, payable, at the Strand Post Office, in favour of William G. 8m Its, *J, Willi Votoi* 8tr**t, Stxamd, VV.C, to whom all Communicat-iovs warn •turn. Editor should be addressed.

"Notei a Qciribs" ii registered for transmission abroad.

Notices' to CarrcrfpatirjeiitB*.

Family Q»sm**. The increasing number of these Queries compels us to infnrm our Correspondents, that where such Queries relate to Persons ami Families not of general interest, the Querist must in all etses state in his communication where the Rrpli's una roach him; as, though willing, as far as possible, to give facilities for such inquiries. We cannot give up our space for Replies which are worse than useless to the majority if our Header*.

To our Correspondents generally let us here suggest, though We do not in*i*t upon it

1. That C 'ontributors to "N. A Q." append their name, and address.

2. That, in writing anonymously, they give the same guarantee privatebi to the Editor.

3. That quotations be certified by naming edition, and chapter or page; references to"N. at Q."&tf series, volume, and page.

4. That in all cases Proper Barnes, at least, be clearly and distinctly written.

J. O. 9. will find, in Gray's Education and OOTernment. the couplet—

** When Love couM teach a monarch to be wise.
And gospel-light first dawn'd from Bullcn'i eyes."

L. Handicap, or " hand {the cap," was a game originally played by three persons. The application of the term to horse-racing has arisen from one, t<r more persons being chosen to make the award between parties who put down equal sums of money on entering horses for a race.

J. H. D. The Bible printed by Christopher Barker, small *tot 1W9, usually fetches about IBs.

H- C. The Chronicle of Gregoru of Tours has not been translated

into English. Mr. fiohn's Antiquarian Library is now the proj>erfy of Messrs. Sell fy Daldy.

Enquirer. The quotatwn,** A thing of beauty is a joy for ever** occurs in Meats's Endjmion, line 1.

C. S. W. The lines a/ldrexsed to Liberty are in Addison's poem** A Letter from Italy." See Chalmers's edition of the EngUih Poets, ix. Ml,

Grime. There is no English translation of the Papilla Oculi ofjoh. Ae Burgo.

St. Rwrmm. If we may believe the verger* t*» many of our cathedrals, *Aetom6s of Bishops, said to have died by attempting to fast during the forty days of Lent, are by no means uncommon, e. g. Bishop Lacy at

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, The original invention, established 1621, for marking CRESTS, AMES, INITIALS, ui>on household linen, wearing* appvrt-I, Ac

N.B Owing to the great repute in which this Ink li held by Ian ilies,

outfitters, SiC. inferior imitations are often sold to the public, which do not possess any of Its celebrated qualities. Purchaser* should therefore be careful to observe theaddres* on the label, to. BISUOPSGATESTREET WITHIN, E.C., without which the Ink is not genuine. Sold by all respectahle chemists, stationers, 4tc, in the United Kingdom, price In. per bottle; no id. size ever made.

NOTICc-. — REMOVED from tt, Long Lane (where it has been established nearly half a century), to



\J with all the newest improvements. Street-door Latches, Cash and
Deed Boxes. Full illustrated price lists sent free.
CHUBB * SON, 57.St. Paul's Churchyard, London; V, Lord Street,
Liverpool! is. Market Street, Manchester; and HorseJer Fields,


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The Daily Telegraph (Feb. 19, 1864,) remarks, by way of contrast with an act of the Sultan for promoting greater religious freedom within his dominions, that —

"The twelve or fourteen thousand wealthy, or well-to-do Protestants, who flock to Rome for the winter, are obliged to worship in a barn-like building outside the gates of the town. . . ."

Why "obliged"? Does the writer mean to pretend that the building, used as their church, was not deliberately chosen by the English themselves? Does he affect to believe that the selection was in any way enforced or suggested by the Romish authorities? At all events, this I can say: It was the Rev. Mr. Woodward himself, who related to me the circuuistances connected with the establishment of the church. I had been asked to write a short notice of it; and, accordingly, I called (April 20, 1848,) on the chaplain, as the person most qualified to furnish correct particulars. In giving me these, Mr. Woodward said, that he hoped I would make a point of stating how unfair were the remarks which often appeared in the English newspapers on this subject. He wished it to be publicly known that the greatest courtesy and forbearance had been uniformly practised towards him by the authorities.

When it was determined, on account of increased demand for space, and by reason of inconvenience caused by the private occupation of the house in an upstairs room of which the service was held, to make considerable alterations for the purpose of uniting this private dwelling with the adjoining house, Cardinal Antonelli sent unofficially to him, and requested, while entire freedom was allowed within, that nothing should appear on the exterior of the building, so altered, which could offend the religious feeling of the inhabitants of Rome. The church is outside the Porto del Popolo, solely because at that spot was to be had a suitable house at a moderate rent—most positively, for no other reason.

"And," said Mr. Woodward, "you know, as a visitor of Rome, that a more convenient place could not be found, being so exactly in the English quarter of the town, unless, indeed, we could get the Piazza di Spagna; but that is out of the question, on account, not only of the enormous rents, but because the houses let so well for' apartments."

Those who have not visited Rome, may perhaps picture the English furtively slinking out of the gates to their weekly service. But what is the actual state of things? I venture to say that, in the matter of dress and equipages, there is (or was in 1858) more display than can be seen at any church in Rome. Eight or ten carriages in waiting outside, is quite an ordinary sight. Nay, the Roman youths (mass being concluded some half hour or so before the English service) are drawn up in the Piazza del Popolo to see the English ladies pass on their way home.

No worthy object can be gained by continually suggesting, that the English have been thrust beyond the walls of Rome, when they went there, as I have said, of their own accord. If such a topic is suited to this publication,.I hope that these remarks may be allowed to appear: the rather, as nothing came of the proposition before mentioned.

When I had written the above, it occurred to me that my note would derive additional force from the sanction of Mr. Woodward. On the receipt of a copy, that gentleman favoured me with the following reply : —

"Sir,—I am glad you wrote to me, as I am thus enabled to correct some circumstantial inaccuracies in the paper which you sent me.

"The history of the English Service being performed in its present locality is exactly this. In the year 1824, a notion having got about that the government of the day looked with jealousy at the performance of the English Service, the proprietor of the room then used for the purpose refused to renew the Lease, which had just expired. For the same reason the Committee of Management failed in several attempts to procure a Lease elsewhere, till at length they succeeded in finding a room just outside the Porta del Popolo, which they at once took on Lease, and which in their minutes of March 23, 1825 they describe as 'eligible in all respects for our purpose.' Up to this date the Service had been always within the walls. But in all the transactions referred to, which were spread over many months, it does not appear from the records that the difficulty encountered by the Committee was in any way connected with that circumstance. There is no trace whatever of the question between insidt and outside the walls having been raised. So that the jealousy of the Government (if it existed, of which there is no kind of proof,) had regard, not to the Service being performed inside the walls, but to its being performed at all!

"In this room, chosen by the English themselves, and considered 'eligible in all respects for their purpose,' close to the English Quarter, and within two or three minutes' walk of the principal Hotels, the English Service continued to be held for upwards of thirty years; when, from circumstances too intricate to detail, it was transferred to the building next door, of which the Proprietor offered to build a chapel within its walls. It was with reference to this chapel that Cardinal Antonelli, most considerately, sent a private warning, not to me, but to Lord Lyons, that it could not be permitted to have externally the appearance of a church or public jnititution of any kind.

"It is hardly accurate to say that 'the utmost courtesy and forbearance have been uniformly practised by the authorities towards me,-'.for I have never directly been brought into contact with them: but they certainly have been practised towards the English generally. In fact, in regard of this matter of public worship, the English are treated as the most highly favoured nation, being the only non-Roman Catholic nation that is allowed to have public worship without an embassy. Moreover the Authorities always have Gensdarmes in attendance both to keep order among the Carriages which are in waiting in great numbers, and to prevent the great annoyance which I am told used to exist, of people crowding round the doors to see the congregation coming out.

"The Daily Telegraph's estimnte of the number of Protestants who come to Rome for the winter is preposterous. I do not suppose the Protestants of all nations and denominations amount to near half the number specified. And of these, all are not 'obliged,' as the writer says, to worship in the English Chapel, seeing that there are two Protestant Chapels within the walls, one in the American Embassy,* the other in that of Prussia. To represent our Chapel as a ' barn-like building,' is simply ridiculous. But if it were, it is strange that, in making such a statement, the writer does not see that he is casting reproach on the English themselves; for I am sure they have money enough to make their Chapel internally what they please.

"I am, your obedient Servt. "F. B. Woodwaed. "Rome, March 11,18C4. "P.S. You may use this letter as-you please."

* This account scarcely tallies with further statements in the same article of the Telegraph to the effect, that "not more than a year ago, half-a-dozen Americau families, who used to assemble every Sunday in the drawing-room of a fellow-countryman residing in Rome, for the purpose of worship according to the Presbyterian form, were visited by the police, and told that any repetition of this 'offence' would cause all persons joining in the act to be at once sent away." Formerly, as I can say from personal experience, there was afternoon service at the Palazzo Braschi according to the Church of England; and it would appear that, at least, there is no truth in the assertion, that the morning service in the Presbyterian form has been abolished.

I had intended to incorporate any comments which Mr. Woodward might be pleased to make; but, on reading his letter, I judged that by giving it entire and verbatim, I should not only best serve my purpose, but also follow the use of "N. & Q." and the natural order in which such subjects as the present are entertained.

John A. C. Vixceht.


It is said there is nothing new under the sun. Possibly. If this be so, there must be plagiarisms diurnally to an extent not to be mentioned. Two authors may hit on one idea, but to work it out identically, if not in the same words, looks something more than a coincidence, particularly when one may have written a long time in advance of the other. I have met with literary men who have no faith whatever in originality; and one, whose opinion I value, goes far to convert me to his notion. Some time ago, I confess, I was particularly struck by his arguments, and since that time I have made many notes of what look uncommonly like plagiarisms; but I only mention one or two at present, trusting that will be enough to evoke further opinion on this, to literary men, all important question. Up to a recent period I was under the impression that the world-wide known song of " The Groves of Blarney," was certainly original. I presume the readers and correspondents of "N. & Q." are well aware of the history of that famous piece of doggrel; but it will, no doubt, surprise many to hear that it is not only not original, but stolen from another very famous doggrel song called " Castle Hide." Can anyone furnish a copy of the latter? I believe it is known in Cork who was the author. It commences —

"As I roved out on a summer's morning
Down by the banks of Blackwater side.
To view the groves and meadows charming.
And lovely gardens of Castle Hide."

So much for that. There is something more than a coincidence in a passage in the Deserted Village by Goldsmith, and Highland Mary by Burns: —

"When smiling spring," &c.—Goldsmith.

"When summer first," &c—Burns.

Goldsmith wrote before "Rob the Ranter" was born. It may be saifl one is descriptive, and the other an invocation; be it so. How will that alter the great fact?

In the ballad of " Lochinvar" in Marmion will be found the following lines : — "She looked down to blush. And she looked up to sigh, With reproof on her lip, But a smile in her eye."

In Samuel Lover's song of " Rory O More," we find the following : —

** Oh! Kory be easy, sweet
Kathleen would cry,
With reproof on her lip,
But a smile in her eye."

Rather more than coincidence this, and Scott wrote before Lover.

_ In reference to Mr. Lover I rony observe, that his last collection of Irish songs, ballads, &c, is a very faulty one; but it is not worse than the many that preceded it, from the time that the Hon. Charles G. Duffy, late M.P. for New Ross, and now a member of the Australian legislature, when editor of the Dublin Nation, maile a very worthless collection, which he dignified with the title of the Ballad Poetry of Ireland! But it bore no more likeness to the ballad poetry of Ireland, than a nigger does to Hercules.

On the subject of Irish songs I may add, that Mr. Lover, in his last collection, does not exhibit any great research, for in reference to the famous song of " Molly Brallaghan," he says the author is not known, but supposed to be a lady. Now, the author of " Molly Brallaghan " was a person named Murray, a very comical genu*, who kept a publicLouse and singing-room in Temple Bar, Dublin, some thirty-four years ago. He also wrote several others. A good, and well-selected volume of Irish songs, ballads, &c, is much wanted; those in print at the present are, for the most part, the veriest trash, badly selected, and worse noted.

Can anyone inform me where I can get acollection of Irish songs, ballads, &c, made before the opening of the present century f S. Redmohd.



I have often wondered why none of your correspondents who are natives of, or residents in, Kilkenny have given you the real version of the tale of the Kilkenny cats. I have seen the subject fiequently noticed in the columns of "N. & QV but I have never seen the following accurate version of the occurrence, which led to the generally-received and erroneous story of the Kilkenny cats. That story has been so long current that it has become a proverb, " as quarrelsome as the Kilkenny cats,"—two of the cats in which city are asserted to have fought so long and so furiously that nought was found of them but two tails! This is manifestly an Irish exaggeration; and when your readers shall have learned the true anecdote connected with the two cats, they will understand why only two tails were found, the unfortunate owners having fled in terror from the scene of their mutilation.

I am happy in being able to state that neither

Ireland nor Kilkenny is at all disgraced by the occurrence, which did take place in Kilkenny, but which might have occurred in any other place in the known world. During the rebellion which occurred in Ireland in 1798 (or it may be in 1803), Kilkenny was garrisoned by a regiment of Hessian soldiers, whose custom it was to tie together in one of their barrack rooms two cats by their respective tails, and then to throw them face to face across a line generally used for drying clothes. The cats naturally became infuriated, and scratched each other in the abdomen until death ensued to one or both of them, and terminated their sufferings.

The officers of the corps were ultimately mode acquainted with these barbarous acts of cruelty, and they resolved to put an end to them, and to punish the offenders. In order to effect this purpose, an officer was ordered to inspect each barrack room daily, and to report to the commanding officer in what state he found the room. The cruel soldiers, determined not to lose their daily torture of the wretched cats, generally employed one of their comrades to watch the approach of the officer, in order that the cats might be liberated, and take refuge in flight before the visit of the officer to the scene of their torture. On one occasion the " look-out-man " neglected his duty, and the officer of the day was heard ascending the barrack-stairs while the cats were undergoing their customary torture. One of the troopers immediately seized a sword from the arm-rack, and with a single blow divided the tails of the two cats. The cats of course escaped through the open windows of the room, which was entered almost immediately afterwards by the officer, who inquired what was the cause of two bleeding cats' tails being suspended on the clothes line, and was told in reply that "two cats had been fighting in the room; that it was found impossible to separate them; and that they fought so desperately that they had devoured each other up, with the exception of their two tails" which may have satisfied Captain Schummelkettel,-but would not have deluded any person but a beery Prussian.

I heard this version of the story of the Kilkenny cats in Kilkenny, forty years ago, from u gentleman of unquestioned veracity, and I feel happy in submitting it to your numerous readers.



Amongst the various meanings given to this word by Rabbinical and Christian writers, such as Aben Ezra, Kimchi, Gesenius, Ewuld, Herder, De Wette, Tholuck, Hengstenberg, and RosenmUUcr, there are two which seem to me to include nearly all the arguments which etymology and grammar appear to require.

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