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in his Image o/bothe Churches, printed by Richard Jugge, London, no date (circa,, 1550), B b viii. recto. Among other things he enumerates, —

"All shrynes, images, church-stoles, and paces that are well payed for, all banner stares, Fater-noster scores, and peces of the holy crosse."

I say nothing of the spirit or taste which pervades the work, but it is impossible that such things as pews and pew rents could have entered into the bishop's head if they never existed. The first edition is placed by Watt 1550, only two years after Grafton printed the first Primer, and long before the Reformation had time to influence the " manners and customs" of the people.

A. A.

Longevity or Clergymen (3rd S. v. 22.)—The Rev. Peter Young, minister of Wigton, was appointed to that charge in 1799, and is now the only minister in the Church of Scotland who dates from the last century. G.

Mat: Tri-milchi (3rd S. iv. 516.) —As an illustration of the milk-producing qualities of the month of May, I may mention that when my housekeeper expressed surprise to the fish boy, who brought her shrimps one May morning, that they were so early, he answered: "Oh, yes, ma'am, shrimps always come in in May with the fresh butter." kent

Pholeys (3'd S. v. 12.)—These people are clearly the Fulas, otherwise called Fulani, or Fellatahs. The description of their character by Edward Cave, in 1733, is singularly in accordance with what modern travellers have stated of them. The works of Clapperton and Dr. Barth should be consulted by E. H. A., if he is curious to learn more. p_ Q

&ulrellaiumur. NOTES OX BOOKS, ETC.

The Life and Correspondence of George Calixtus, Lutheran Abbot of Konigshutter, and Professor Primarius in the University of Helmstadt. By the Rev. VV. C. Dowding, M.A. (J. H. &. Jas. Parker.) B

We heartily thank Mr. Dowding for introducing as to as ripe a scholar, as good a Christian, and as kind-hearted a man as ever breathed. And we hope our readers will lose no time in making acquaintance with so pleasing a biography. Here they may read of College life at Helmstadt, out-heroding the worst bullying of our public schools — of conversions to Rome among his old fellowcollegians, which were grief of heart to onr Protestant Professor—of the thirty years' war scattering his 600 academics to the winds —of the abortive conference at Thorn—of his yearnings and strivings to heal over the wounds of disunited Christendom. It is a touching story; troubles abroad, but peace always at the heart. J\18 a.b'0?raPhy which will always be pro6table to the thoughtful reader. Just now it possesses an additional interest, as taking us into the debatable ground of Holstein and Sleswig. which Mr. Dowding puts well before the eyes of his readers. Calixtus was a Sleswiger.

Narratives of the Expulsion oftlu English from Normandy, Jiccccxlix—Mccocl. Bobertus Blondellus de Reduction Normunnia-; Le Recovvrement de Normendie par Btrry, Herault du Boy; Conferences between the Ambassadors of France and England. Edited by the Rev. Joseph Stevenson. (Published under the Direction of the Master of the Rolls ) (Longman.)

The learned editor of the present volume remarks, with great truth, thnt there could be no more appropriate accompaniment to the volumes which trest of The Wars of the English in France—which have already appeared in the present Series of Chronicles—than the tracts here printed from MSS. in the Imperial Librarv at Paris; which enable us to trace, day by day, and step by step, the causes which led to the expulsion of the English from Normandy. Blondel's narrative records with considerable minuteness the events which occurred from the capture of Fougeres, when the truce between England and France was broken, to the final expulsion of the English after the loss of Cherbourg—and is the most important record which we have of this interesting period. The work of Jacques le Bouvier, surnamed Berry, the first King of Arms of Charles VII., closely follows that of Blondel in its arrangement and details; but contains some particulars not recorded by him. The negotiations between the Ambassadors of France and England, which extended from the 20th June to 4th July, 1449, give completeness to the work, on which the editor has bestowed his wonted diligence and learning.

A Spring and Summer in Lapland; uritlt Notes on the Fauna of Lukii Lapmark. By an Old Bushman. (Groombridge.)

Originally published in The Field, where thev were favourably received, these Notes on Lapland and its Fauna will be very acceptable to lovers bf natural history, and particularly so to students of ornithology.

The Brown Book: a Book of Beady Reference to the Hotels, Lodging and Boarding Houses, Breakfast and Dining Booms, Libraries (Public and Circulating), Amusements, Hospitals, Schools and Charitable Institutions, in London; with full Information as to Situation, Specialty, Sec.; and a handy' List, showing the nearest Post Office, Money Order Office, Calistand, Police Station, Fire-Engine, Fire-Escape, Hospitals, §-c, to One Thousand of the Principal Streets of the Metropolis. (Saunders & Otley.)

A book containing the information detailed in this ample title-page cannot but be very useful, if the information be correct; and we arc bound to state that, as far as we have been able to test it, The Brown Book is as correct, and consequently as useful, as any of its Red or Blue contemporaries.

The Common Prayer in Latin. A Letter addressed to the

Rev. Sir W. Cope, Bart. By William John Blew.

With a Postscript on the Common Prayer in Greek.

(C. J. Stewart.)

A learned and temperate pamphlet on a subject deserving the serious attention of all Churchmen.

Morning, Evening, and Midnight Hymns, by Thomas Ken, D.D. With an Introductory Letter by Sir Roundel! Palmer; and a Biographical Sketch by a Layman. (Sedgwick.)

This edition of Ken's Hymns, with Sir Roundell Palmer's introductory examination into the authenticity of the text of them, and the biographical sketch of the good Bishop's Life, form one of the most interesting parts of Mr. Sedgwick Library of Spiritual Songs.

The Shakspeare Celebration.—Whatever may be the result of the present movement for a Tercentenary Celebration of Shakspeare's Birth—whatever form the Memorial, which is to spring out of it, may assume— the most remarkable tribute to the memory of the great poet is the simple List of the Members of the Committee. Here we see at a glance the representative men of all classes—social, literary, professional, artistic, and scientific—throwing aside ill distinctions of creed, politics, or rank, to do homage to the memory of the one whom they all agree to honour. This is a fitting tribute to him whose large-hearted Catholicity found "good in everything."

One word as to the fittest form for a Shakspeare Memorial. Looking to what Shakspeare has done for English literature—how he has enriched and moulded it, and made it known throughout the world — A Free Puiilic Libbaby Of English Literature would, in our opinion, be a worthy memorial of him who tells us —

"A beggar's book outworth's a noble's blood."

Few would refuse to contribute, both in money and books, to such a second National Library, the keepership of which would be a post of honour for a man of letters— a library of which the shelves should be in the first place fitted with all the various editions of the poet's works, and all the writings of his commentators, and which would justify its founders in inscribing on its wall—




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A. W. D. The custom on All Souls' Day in Shropshire is noticed in our 1st 8. ir. 381,506

G.'Edinburgh.) On consulting seven articles in our 1st 5. (iceGen* Index, p. 10) our correspondent will find several conjectures why the A'iw of Diamond* is cttltcd the Curse ofScotlontl. The explanation supplied by the game of Voyc Joan uii. -I >, is probably the correct one.

Jos. Hargkovs. Sonic particulars of the llev. Wm. Gut-nail, may be found in our 1st S. X. 404.

J. C. Lindsat. For notices of the Mappa Mundi consult our 2nd S. lv* 434,478.

Oxonisnsis. The custom of iilaeing salt on the breast of a corpse has been discussed in our 1st S. IT. 0,43, 10J| X. 393.

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New Hall China. A History of the New Hall Porcelain Works at Shelton. ByLLeweLlynnJewitt,F.S.A. Illustrated..

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Also three Line Engravings, vlx. :_ "Alice Lisle." By F. Heath. From the Picture by E. M. Ward,

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NOTES: — Mr. Froude in Ulster, 47 — Shakspeariana: Stephano — "Hamlet" — Hamlet's Grave, 49 — "Tho Grand Impostor, 60 —St. Mary's, Beverley, 51—Fantoccini, 6!J — "One Swallow does not make a Summer" — Pruidical Remains in India — Anagrams —A Note on Notes — Zachary Boyd, 63.

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Notes on Books. Ac.



In two chapters of the eighth and last published volume of his History of England, Mr. Froude has sketched the leading events of the struggle with Shane O'Neill at the commencement of Elizabeth's reign; but the theme was worthy of a much larger space, and indeed required an ampler treatment, to render it intelligible to English readers. In that struggle the Scots formed a principal clement, and, in connection with their settlements in Ulster during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, Mr. F. had rare and plentiful materials at hand. The whole story of these Scottish settlements, however, is told at page 10, in the following words: "The Irish of the North, and the Scots of the Western Isles, had for two centuries kept up a close and increasing intercourse." This intercourse, practically speaking, began with the marriage of John Mor Macdonnell to Marjory Bisset, sole heiress to the Glynns or Glens of Antrim, about the year 1400, and a simple recital of facts in the history of their descendants, the Clan Ian Vdr, or Clandonnell South, ■would have been highly important in reviewing the leading parties throughout Ulster during the sixteenth century.

But without any previous knowledge of these Scots, the reader is introduced to a company of them thus, at page 10: —

"James M'Connell (Macdonnell) and his two brothers, near kinsmen of the House of Argyle, crossed over with 2000 followers to settle in Tyrconnell, while to the Callogh O'Donnell, the chief of the clan, the Earl of Argyle himself gave his half-sister for a wife."

James Macdonnell had not only two, but seven brothers, the sons of Alexander of Isla, all of whom were leaders of greater or less note in the ranks of the Clan Ian Vor, and all of whom were probably born and brought up on the Antrim coast, where their father resided from the year 1493, having been then banished from Scotland by James IV. They were not, however, "near kinsmen of the house of Argyle," neither had they any immediate family relationship with the Campbells, farther than that James Macdonnell, the eldest brother, was married to a daughter of Colin Campbell, the third Earl of Argyle. James Macdonnell and two of his brothers may have gone on some expedition into Tyrconnell (Donegal), as the allies of the O'Donnells, but they never went there for the purpose of settling permanently, although their movements may have been so represented, or misrepresented, by English officials. James Macdonnell, when in Ulster, had his own well-known town and castle at Red Bay, on the Antrim coast, and his two brothers, Colla and Sorley (who no doubt went with him into Tyrconnell on the occasion referred to by Mr. Froude), dwelt respectively at Kinbann and Ballycastle, on the same coast. Mr. Froude always speaks of Calvagh O'Donnell as "the Callogh," thus adopting the phraseology of English emissaries. By them he is no doubt also misled, in supposing that Argyle gave his "half-sister" to the '" Callogh" as wife. The fact that the lady in question is always termed Countess of Argyle naturally enough puzzles Mr. F., seeing that, had she only been the Earl's half-sister, she could not have had the title of Countess. This lady, however, has been hitherto regarded as the step-mother only, of Archibald, fourth Earl of Argyle, having been his father's second wife, and consequently Countess dowager of Argyle. She afterwards became the second wife of Calvagh O'Donnell, but continued to retain her Scottish title. She was one of the seven daughters of Hector Mor Maclean, Chief of .the house of Dowart, in Mull. Her mother was Mary, daughter of Alexander of Islay, and sister to James Macdonnell. After her abduction by Shane O'Neill, Sussex wrote to Elizabeth that "Thre of the Mac 11 lanes (Macleans), Kynsmen of the Countess of Oirgyle" had offered great services to her captor for her release. It must be admitted, however, that the lady is still somewhat of a genealogical puzzle, but it is certain she could not have been half-sister to the then Earl of Argyle. The latter is represented as being a wonderful match-maker, for he is described as proposing to marry James Macdonnell's widow (" another half-sister of Argyle," page 395), to Shane O'Neill, after the latter had repudiated or put away James Macdonnell's daughter; and, again (page 387), as making arrangements with O'Neill for marrying two of his children by the Countess of Argyle, with two of the children of James Macdonnell! This business was mooted in 1565, when O'Neill's children by the Countess could not have been more than three and four years of age respectively!

The following is Mr. Froude's account (p. 380) of Shane O'Neill's celebrated expedition against the Scots, in the spring of 1565 : —

"O'Neill lay quiet through the winter. With the spring anil the fine weather, when the rivers fell and the ground dried, he roused himself out of his lair, and with his galloglassc and kern, and a few hundred 'harquebnssmen.' he dashed suddenly down upon the 'Redshanks' and broke them to pieces. Six or seven hundred were killed in the field; James M'Connell and his brother Sorleboy were taken prisoners; and for the moment the whole colony was swept away."

In this brief space, Mr. Fronde compresses all the stirring events of that remarkable campaign; the mustering of O'Neill's force in Armagh after the solemnities of Easter—his march into Clandeboye, and the gathering of the gentry in that territory, with their adherents, around the standard of their great chief—the battle of Knockboy, near Ballymenn, where Somhairle Macdonnell withstood, for a time, the overwhelming force of O'Neill—the sieje and capture of Red Bay Castle (Uaimdergh)—the landing of the Scots at Cushindun under James Macdonnell, and their union with Sorley Boy's small force —their retreat before O'Neill northward along the coast to Baile Caislean (now Ballycastle) — the furious battle of Gleanntaisi, in that district, commencing at five o'clock on the morning of the 2nd of May—O'Neill's halt at Ballycastle, where he listened to, but rejected, the despairing proposals of the Scots, and from which he addressed his celebrated letter to the Lords Justices, informing them of his victory — his subsequent capture of the Castles of Downesterick and Dunluce — his sending James and Sorley Macdonnell, together with nineteen other Scottish leaders, captured on the field of Gleanntaisi, to dungeons in Tyrone — and his own triumphant return into Armagh.

In selecting the season of spring for this "dash" against the Scots, Shane was not so much concerned about "when the rivers fell and the ground dried" as about the necessity of having the blow dealt before the period when reinforcements began generally to arrive from Scotland. The Scots were known to leave Antrim each season in October, or early in November, except such numbers as were necessary to hold certain positions along the coast, and as regularly to return in the

spring, after they had sown their own barren patches of soil with bere or barley, throughout Cantire and the Isles. If an emergency arose, however, reinforcements were summoned by the simple means of lighting a great fire on TorrHead, which is the nearest point of the Antrim coast to Cantire, the Channel here being only eleven miles and a half in breadth. Mr. Froude asserts that the Warning Fire was lighted on the "gigantic columns of Fairhead," but local tradition invariably assigns that distinction to TorrHead; and in Norden's Map of Ulster prefixed to vol. ii. of the State Papers, we have the following announcement at the latter headland: " At this marke the Scotts used to make their Warning Fires." It is not unlikely, however, that Fairhead, which is much higher and more prominent, although further from Cantire, may have been also used for the same purpose; but on what authority Mr. Froude's statement rests, I do not know.

At page 418, Air. Froude thus describes the place of Shane O'Neill's assassination : —

"In the far extremity of Antrim, beside the falls of Isnaleara, where the black valley of Glenariff opens out into Red Bay, sheltered among the hills and close upon the sea, lay the camp of Ailaster M'Connell (Alexander Oge Macdonnell) and his nephew Gillespie."

The county of Antrim extends along the coast from Belfast to Coleraine, but the point here so indefinitely referred to is neither at one extremity nor the other. Shane O'Neill was slain in the present townland of Ballyteerim, overlooking Cushindun Bay, and still containing traces of the building in which his last fatal interview with the Macdonnells took place. In Norden's Map prefixed to the State Pa/urf. vol. ii., the name of this townland is Halle Teniae, and it is accompanied with the following note: "Here Shane O'Neale was slayne." Mr. Froude has, no doubt, some authority for associating that chieftain's death with the "falls ot Isnaleara" and the "black valley of Glenariff." We are told, also, that O'Neill's lifeless body was "flung into a pit dug hastily among the ruined arches of Glenarm," and if so, the assassins must have carried the corpse a distance of at least twelve miles! Local tradition affirms that the mutilated remains were buried in an old church enclosure at, or near, the place of assassination, and Campion tells us that O'Neill's last resting-place was "within an old chapell hard by."

The Scottish leader whom Mr. Froude designates as " Gillespie" was the eldest son of James Macdonnell, and, as such, was naturally more interested than any other in avenging his father's death, and repudiating the false story of his mother's proffered marriage with O'Neill. Mr. Froude, misled by others, represents Gillaspick Macdonnell as nephew of James Macdonnell, but Campion is correct in stating that "Agnes

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