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A Note on Notes. – The words of Captain Cuttle, “When found, make a note of.” are often quoted, but there is a much older authority for such a quotation: “Note it in a book, that it may be for . time to come.” Is. xxx. 8.-City Press.

ZACHARY Boy D.—The following notice of this Scots worthy, whose poetical version of the Old Testament still remains in MS., occurs in the Commissary Records of Glasgow, end of May, 1625; —

“Elizabeth Fleming, executrix, confirmed to umquhile Robert Fyndley, Merchant, and Mr. Zacharia Boyd, now her spous.”

J. M.



I have before me a bound volume, containing a MS. Chronicle of England; comprising 103 leaves of vellum, written probably by the same hand, and 22 leaves of paper, by another. The vellum is manifestly deficient of a leaf or leaves at the beginning, as it commences in the middle of a sentence, and the first marginal chapter-title, in the (present) first page, is Coxx". It ends also with an imperfect sentence, in C ccxx". The paper appears complete at its beginning. The first chapter-heading is C. ccxxxiij, but it is deficient at the end. The dates of the vellum run from, say, B.c.400 to A.D. 1345. Those of the paper, from 20 Edw. III, (say 1846) to the Battle of Agincourt, 1415. In the vellum, the initial letters of the chapters are fine, and finely illuminated with red and blue ink, the decorations sometimes occupying the entire margin of a page; and the chapter-headings in the outer margin are likewise red and blue, and the chapter-titles red, In the paper continuation the ink is inferior; the , chapter-headings, initials, and paragraph marks are in red ink; the handwriting more current and neat, but less legible, at least to me. The following are extracts, Page 1 begins with these words: — “heir unto the Realme bot he was not of strengthe. Bot neverthelesse this Donebaude ordeyned him a great ower and conquered (loegrins?) and than this Done|. wente into Scotlande for to conquer it. Bot Seatter so the king thereof assembled a grete power of hys people and of Wallshemen whos ruler was one Pudah (Rudah? Rudak?). Bot Seatter and Rudak was slaine and then this Donebaude toke feialte and homage of the cuntree and reigned thair in peace and quiete that many yeres afore it was not soe. [In red ...] “Howe Donebaud was the first king that ev" wered crowne of golde in Britaine wo honour and wurshypp.” (P.102.) “In the yere of our Lorde McCoxxxvii and of King Henry XII. [sic; it was Edw. III.] In the

moneth of Marche, at a Plesfit holde at Westminster, King Edwarde made of the Erledom of of [sic], Cornewalle a Duchie, and gave it unto Sir Edwarde his first sonne, and he gave him also the erledom of Chester, and he made vi erles, that is to say, Sir Henry the Erles son of Lancaster was made Erle of Leyxfar [?Lancaster], William Bouyhon (Bohun), Erle of Northampton, William Mountaleyn [Mountacute], Erle of Salysbury, Hugh of Arundele, Erle of Gloucester, Robert Ufford, Erle of Suffolk, William of Clynton, Erle of Hunteyndon, &c. &c. &c.” [Howe puts this in 1836.] “Howe Kyng Edwarde came to Sleus (?) and discomJyte .#"the power of France. “And in the xy yere of Kyng Edwardys raigne King Edwarde comaunde fro that tyme forthe for to wryte in hys wryttes and all hys other wrytinge the date of hys reygne of France the furste, and so he wrote unto hys lordes of Englonde, sptell and temporell, and thanne he come againe into Englonde with the quene and hyr childn, and soone after yat he wente agayne into France for to warre upon the King of France, the whiche had assembled and ordered to him a grete power of Almane of (potovins?), and at Sluys they mette together and foughte sore, when was killed xxxiij menne of the kinge . [power?] of France, &c. &c. &c.” I should be glad to learn whether the Chronicle is a known one, and whether it has been printed. The handwritings indicate that the MSS. were respectively produced at or soon after the last periods to which they refer; and the style of narrative, in each case, towards the end, would lead to the belief that the writers were contemporaneous with the facts they record. W. P. P.

BARon Ess. –Is the daughter of a Freiherr entitled to be addressed as baroness in England? In Germany the address is Fraulein, or Miss. Which is correct? ABRAch. Berlin.

The BLoody HAND.— James I. granted the arms of Ulster as an honourable augmentation to be borne by “the baronets and their descendants." Out of this concession arise two questions:–Is the word descendants to be interpreted as including those not in tail to the baronetcy—daughters, for example, and their children P. If so to be interpreted, is the concession limited to the descendants of baronets of 1612? For example, a baronet of Anne's creation has a son and daughter: Does the daughter bear the bloody hand within her lozenge? Does her husband retain it in her coat which he impales? Her brother dies, and she becomes her father's heiress: Does her husband bear the bloody hand in the escutcheon of pretence which thereupon he assumes, and does it appear in the children's quarterings? E. STIRPE.

Books of MonumENTAL INscriptions.—Where shall I find a list of the different collections of monumental inscriptions which have been published P Of course, I am well acquainted with such as Weever, Le Neve, Parsons, Gough, &c.

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distance, and Rutland has a citadel and artillery.”—(Torol Notes, by John Ridley, M.A., London, 1762, p. 17. Was Stafford ever walled, or Oakham fortified ? Any fuller account of the book printed at Nuremberg, or information where I can see a copy, will oblige T. P. E Fowls with HUMAN REMAINs.-About twelve years ago, during the construction of the new docks at Great Grimsby, Lincolnshire, I was present at the exhumation of some human remains, on the banks of the Humber. They were found a short distance above the highwater line, beneath six feet of sand, and one or two feet of clay, which appeared to have been the original surface before the deposition of the sand. They consisted of the perfect skeleton of a figure of small stature, and were laid east and west. There were no remains of any metallic or other substances in connection with them; but under the left arm were the bones of a fowl, a cock apparently, from the long spurs on the legs. Can any of your readers inform me, through your columns, whether similar instances have occurred of the bones of fowls being found in juxtaposition with human remains, and to what people and customs they may be referred P J. D. MACKENzie, Captain.

“THE LEPRosy or NAAMAN."—Can any one . with the literary history of Leeds inform me who is author of this sacred drama (by J. C.) Leeds, 1800? It seems to have been the production of a very young author, and contains at the end a few pieces of poetry. The editor of this little book mentions that the juvenile author had written another sacred drama on the subject of Joseph.

Nicholas NEwin.-Can any of your Irish readers give me any information respecting the family, arms, &c. of Nicholas Newland, subseuently written Newlin, of Mount Mellick, §. co. Ireland, afterwards of Concord and Birmingham, in Pennsylvania, Esq.” He was a Quaker and a gentleman of good family, as will appear from books of that time, and came to Pennsylvania in 1683 with William Penn. He was a friend of Penn's, and soon after his arrival was made one of the provincial, or governor's council, and a Judge of the Common Pleas.

The council was at this time (1685) the supreme legislative, judicial, and executive body. His son, Nathaniel Newlin of Concord, Birmingham, and Newlin, Esq., was a Justice of the County Courts, a Member of the Provincial Assembly, Commissioner of Property, Trustee of the General Loan Office of the province, &c. He was one of the largest landed proprietors in the colony.

Newlin township, in Chester county, was first

owned by, and called after, him.

JAMEs W. M. NEwlin. No. 1009, Pine Street, Philadelphia.

Northumbrian (anglo-saxon) Monet.— ]\Ir. Bruce, in his invaluable work on the Roman Wall, says, at p. 433 of the edition of 1851,—

"Saxon money is found in Northumberland of a date coeval with the arrival of that people."

Will Mr. Bruce kindly describe that Saxon money in the pages of" N. & Q." C.

Order Of St. John Op Jerusalem.—Who are the publishers of Sir R. Broun's Synoptical Sketch (3rd S. iii. 270), and Sir G. Bowyer's Ritual of Profession, Ifc. (ib. note to p. 450.) R. W.

Painter To His Majestt. — Not finding any list of those who filled this post, can you inform me who was the person herein referred to ? —

"In 1700. upon a vacancy of the king's painter in Scotland, he (Michael Wright) solicited to succeed, but a shopkeeper was preferred." — Walpole's Anecdotes, §-c, Wornum's edition, 1862, p. 474.

W. P.

Pocket Fender (3rd S. iii. 70.) —

"He travels with a pocket fender."

"Pocket toasting-forks have been invented, as if it was possible to want a toasting-fork in the pocket; and even this has been exceeded by the fertile genius of a celebrated projector, who ordered a pocket-fender for his own use, which was to cost 2001 The article was made, but as it did not please, payment was refused. An action was in consequence brought, and the workman said upon the trial that he was very sorry to disoblige so good a customer, and would willingly have taken the thing back, but that really nobody except the gentleman in question would ever want a pocket fender.

"This same gentleman has contrived to have the whole set of fire-irons made hollow instead of solid. To be sure the cost is more than twenty-fold, but what is that to the convenience of holding a few ounces in the hand when you stir the fire, instead of a few pounds? This curious projector i3 said to have taken out above seventy patents for inventions equally ingenious and important" — Kspriella (Southey), Letters from England, London, 1807, vol. i. p. 185.

Who was the gentleman? Was there any such trial? At that time the plaintiff could not have made the statement as above described, as he could not have been a witness when a party.

J. M. K.

Pumice Stone.—In a note to Garth's Ovid's Art of Love, in vol. iii. of Poetical Translations (no date or editor given), I read on the lines — "But dress not like a fop, nor curl your hair, Nor with a pumice make your body bare "—

"The use of the Pumice Stone is very ancient; the Romans plucked up their hair with it, and the bookbinders now smooth their covers with it ... . The peasants in some parts of England take off their beards with it, instead of a razor."

What date could this have been at? And was it with the pumice stone that the ancient Britons removed their beards? W. P. P.

References Wantrd. — 1. Alexander, being asked where he would lay his treasure, answered, among his friends; being confident that there it

would be kept with safety, and returned with interest.

2. When or by whom was the phrase "Perfervidum ingeninm Scotorum" first employed as embodying a peculiar characteristic of the Scottish nation? Yectis.

Spanish Drought.

"There is a tradition that in the great drought of Spain, which lasted a quarter of a century, the rivers were dried up and the cracks of the earth were Bo wide and deep that the fire of Purgatory was visible through them. Allusions to this are frequent in the old Spanish romances."—Notice of Baretti's Travels in General Magazine, December, 1772.

I wish to know if there is any historical record of this drought, and shall be glad of any reference to the poets who mention it. J. M. K.

Torrington Family. — In the north transept of Great Berkhampstead church is a handsome monument, "whereon," says Weever, "the shape of a man in knightly habiliments, with his wife lying by him, are cut in alabaster." These are said to be the memorials of Richard and Margaret Torrington, who lived early in the fourteenth century. Is anything further known respecting them? C. J. R.

©ucrfrs" rotth. QnsturrS.

Halifax Law. — I find in Motley's United Netherlands (i. 444), the following passage, occurring in a letter written by Leicester to Burghley: —

"Under correction, my good Lord, I have had Halifax law—to be condemned first, and inquired upon after."

I have often heard of that peculiar kind of trial as applicable to Jedburgh, whence the term "Jedburgh justice;" but, with the exception of the gibbet law, I have not read of any peculiarity attached to Halifax, and shall feel obliged by any one referring me to any other instance by any author in which Halifax law is mentioned in the same spirit as Leicester quotes it; and judging by the manner in which he uses the phrase, it would seem to have been proverbial in his time.

T. Wilson.

28, Southgate Halifax.

[There was a Blight difference between the Jedburgh and Halifax law, although the mode of procedure by the latter was not very satisfactory to the poor criminal. The inhabitants within the forest of Hardwick claimed a right or custom, from time immemorial, that if a felon be taken with goods to the amount of 13Jd. stolen within their liberty, after being carried before the lord's bailiff and tried by four frith-burgers, from four towns within the said precinct, he was, on condemnation, to be executed on the next market-day. But after his execution a coroner was to take the verdict of a jury, and sometimes of those who condemned him. The instrument or process of execution, similar to the noted French guillotine, was denominated "Halifax gibbet law." See Bentley's Halifax, and its Gibbet Law placed in a true Light, 12mo, 1761.]

Charles Leftley.—The following elegant lyric was given to me, many years ago, by a person of considerable poetical taste, who told me it was written by "Leftley." I neglected then to inquire who Leftley was; but I should be glad if any of your correspondents could give information as to who he was, and whether any of his writings were published, and are now in existence?

The style of this little lyric is so truly aerial and Shakspearian, that it reminds one of Ariel's song in the Tempest—"Where the bee sucks, there suck I" : —


"Zephyr, whither art thou straying?

Tell me where?
With prankish girls in'gardens playing.

False as fair?
A butterfly's light back bestriding?
Queen bees to honeysuckles guiding?
Or on a swinging harebell riding,

Free from care?
"Before Aurora's car you amble,

High in air!
At noon with Neptune's sea-nymphs gamble;

Braid their hair.
Now on tumbling billows rolling;
Or on the smooth sands idly strolling;
Or in cool grottoes, listless lolling,

You sport there!
"To chase the moonbeams up the mountains,

You prepare;
Or dance with elves on brinks of fountains,

Mirth to share!
Now with love-lorn lilies weeping:
Now with blushing rose-buds sleeping,
While fays, from forth their chambers peeping,

Cry,'Oh rare!"'

C- II.

[Charles Leftley was educated at St. Paul's School, and subsequently employed as parliamentary reporter to The Times, A constitution naturally weak was soon impaired by his constant exertions of mind and body: a decline ensued, and he died in 1797, aged twenty-seven. For farther particulars of him consult the following work: "Sonnets, Odes, and other Poems, by the late Mr. Charles Leftley, together with a short Account of his Life and Writings. By William Linley, Esq., Lond. 12mo, 1815." This work is noticed in the Gent. Mag. for June 1815, p. 536.]

Psalm xc. 9.—Our Prayer-Book version (and the Bible version is to the same effect) runs thus: "We bring our years to an end, as it were a tale that is told." What is the authority for this translation? The Septuagint version is as follows: "ret <nj 4fiw iiaei i-payy!) ipi\rrur? The Vulgate says: "Anni nostri sicut aranea meditabuntur."

De Sacy has this paraphrase: "Nos annees se passent en des vaines inquietudes comme celle de J'araignee." Wycliffe's rendering is curious. Has ireyn found its way into any of our archaic glossaries? He says: "Oure yeris as an ireyn shul be bethoyt." James Dixon.

[The old ireyn is, no doubt, equivalent to irain and arain, aranye and arran, which in our language formerly signified a spider (aranea). It would appear, then, that Wycliffe intended to follow the version of the LXX. and the Vulgate. For this rendering, we are unable to assign a shadow of authority; but the passage is obscure, as it stands in the original Hebrew.

It will be remarked that, in our Authorised Version, the passage stands thus—" As a tale that it told:" where the last three words, being italicised, are intended as explicative, and have nothing that corresponds to them in the Hebrew. Moreover, in the marginal renderings, for " as a tale " we find, " Or, at a meditation,"—which is perhaps the better rendering of the two. In Halliwell we find irain, arain, aranye, and arran, but not ireyn."]

Dissolution Of Monasteries, Etc. — Archbishop Laud, in his Diary, under the date of 1622, June 22, ftc, observes: —

"I saw two books in folio of Sir Robert Cotton's. In the one was all the Order of the Reformation in the time of Hen. VIII. The original letters and dispatches under the King's and Bishop?, &c, own hands. In the other, were all the preparatory letters, motives, &a, for the suppression of the Abbi'es: their suppression and value, in the originals. An extract of both which books I have per capita."

Are these in existence, and have they been printed? W. P.

[The two books consulted by Abp. Laud are now among the Cottonian manuscripts in the British Museum, Cleopatra, E. rv. v., and entitled "A volume of papers and letters (most of them originals) relating to Monasteries, and the Dissolution of them in the time of Henry VIII."—" A collection of papers, chiefly originals, concerning the Reformation of the Church in the reign of King Henry VIII., many of them corrected by the King's own hand." For the contents of each volume see the Catalogue of the Cottonian Library, pp. 589—596. Much of the former MS. has been printed in the volume edited by Mr. Wright for the'Camden Society.]

Hiorne, The Architect. — A tower in Arundel Park is called Hiorne's Tower, from the name of the architect called in seventy years ago by the then Duke of Norfolk to rebuild Arundel Castle. He also built the tower of St. Mary's church, Norwich. Can any of your readers give an account of him, where he was born, where he died, and his Christian name? An Inquirer.

[F. Hiorne, who was architect to Charles, Duke of Norfolk, and built the three-cornered, or triangular tower, in the park, recently used as an armoury for the Arundel Yeomanry, was an architect at Warwick, and then at Birmingham, at the early part of the present century.]

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(2"d S. iii. 28, 93, 155, 216; 3rd S. iv. 437,524.)

The word reliable was so fully discussed in "N. & Q." 2""1 S. that I almost wonder at your reopening the question. Having done so, however, doubtless you will give me a small space to reply to some points in F. C. H.'s letter.

If you remember, Sir, the very same objections, far better put, though with much less strong lan

fuage, were brought against this word as have een now reiterated. The beginning of the discussion rose from a letter by Alpha in the Athenaeum. Then the controversy seemed to be carried on by the Athenaum versus The Times. (" Slipshod newspaper writers.") Now the Athenaum itself comes in for its share of polite language.

First, then, I am at a loss to know how this word can be a vile "compound." I thought that it being a word quite incapable of composition was its one fault; but no, it has another, it appears, for, says F. C. H., such a word as reliable ought to mean "disposed to rely upon," applicable only to such amiable "persons. "It is a gross perversion of language to use it in the sense of anything to be relied upon." So I suppose Credible, which I have proved incontrovertibly to be an exactly corresponding word, of the same form and sense, and suffering from the same acknowledged defect, must mean "disposed to believe "; batable (= debateabfe) disposed to bate or fight; amabilis, disposed to love, not loveable, but amore abundant; cum multis aliis. If it were not for what comes after, I should have thought that a sentence, so unintelligible, must have been incorrectly printed. Alpha and many others have stated that -ble, -able, always are equivalent to passive infinitives. This I showed by numerous examples to be a mistake. Now we are told that it is a gross perversion to make one particular example anything else than a weak future participle active. "Disposed to," F. C. H. should really explain what this sentence means, for to the uninitiated it seems to lock sense altogether.

The reason given by the supporters of the word reliable for its use is, that it is a most convenient word, perfectly intelligible, and now really understood by all, and that it expresses a particular shade of meaning not to be found in any other word. This is uniformly denied, and usually the word trustworthy is proposed as a synonyme ; but this word does not express the exact shade of meaning; for it applies properly to persona, whereas we want a word to express the same of thing*. It is an unthoughtful and inaccurate expression to speak of a thing being worthy of trust; and so thoughtful writers want a word to suit the idea of a "thing to be relied on." F. C. H. waxes very bold upon this point. "We can." says he, "use in the same sense a host of legitimate expressions; in fact, our language abounds with words expressive of the meaning to which this vile compound has been so lamentably applied." And yet I venture to affirm that he has not adduced a single instance. But then in place thereof he has given us a good long string of words which have a perfectly different signification. Quantity must make up for quality. Such as they are, then, let us glance through them. We can proclaim a person or a source of information to be —

1. Trusty.—Yes, of a person; no, of a thing.

2. Credible. —Of a person or fact. True; but the word is in Latin at least as defective as reliable.

8. Veracious.—Applied to a fact would be utter nonsense. Veracious means speaking truth.

4. Authentic—Absurd of persons, and nihil ad rem in any way. The facts might be authentic but quite unreliable,

5. Respectable. — These men are respectable; these facts are respectable. Would anyone translate either expression into worthy of being relied upon?

6. Undeniable. — " The persons I shall next produce, my lud, are undeniable." His lordship would be a clever fellow if he made much out of it. Again: these facts are undeniable, would be sense, but would not mean the same as unreliable.

7. Indisputable.—The same. Witnesses being indisputable is not sense. If it means anything, it must be such as cannot be disputed agairist,—as vile a word, therefore, as reliable.

8. What are we to say of an undoubted witness? Has the word ever been used in the sense of trustworthy? I trow not. We all know what undoubted facts are. We can rely upon them certainly, because they are undoubted and certain, but the reliableness is not even hinted at in the word undoubted.

9. Incotttrovertible can surely never be used of persons. It may well be used of facts, but then it also suffers from the same defect as No. 8. It

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