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him in McCulloch's Literature of Political Economy (1845, 8vo, p. 46), taken from a note by George Chalmers in his copy of Dobbs's Essay. There is, however, a fuller biography of Arthur Dobbs in George Chalmers's valuable " Lives of the Writers on Trade and Political Economy," which is a storehouse of information on the subject. It is in manuscript in my possession, forming a thick 4to volume, and has never yet been published. Jas. Ceosslet.

The second part of Arthur Dobbs's Essay on the Trade and Improvement of Ireland was published at Dublin in 1731. Both parts of the work have recently been reprinted in vol. ii. of—

"A Collection of Tracts and Treatises illustrative of the Natural History, Antiquities, and the Political and Social State of Ireland, at various Periods prior to the present Century: in Two Volumes." Dublin, 18C1,8vo.

All the above-mentioned works are in the library of Trinity College, Dublin. 'AXuis.


Akms Of Saxont (3rd S. v. 12.) — The writer of the Query entitled "The Prince Consort's Motto," expresses his opinion that the white horse of Saxony is derived from a passage in the Book of Revelations (xix. 11). The armorial bearing in question is, without doubt, of a date long anterior to the era of the Reformation. The Horse was the emblem on the standard of the earliest Saxon invaders of the South of England, and is preserved in the names of the Saxon leaders Hengist (German, Hengst= Stallion) and Horsa (our "Horse" and the German "Ross.") We find it again in the arms of Kent. Those Saxon invaders most probably were of the same race as the present inhabitants of Hanover and Westphalia, if we may judge from their speaking the "Platt-deutsch," or Low German, which is the same branch of the Teutonic from which the Anglo-Saxon was descended. Further, the arms of Hanover, as well as of Westphalia, are, to this day, a white horse. De Leth.

"Est Rosa Flos Veneris" (1* S. i. 458; 3rd S. iv. 453; v. 15.)—The passage sought after in the Rhodologia of Rosenberg is as follows : —

"Kosam Cupido Veneris filius, ut poeta; fabulantur, Harpocrati, silentii Deo, digito labia compescenti, donarit. Unde mos ille cumprimis Septentrionalium, fluxisse videtur, ut in ccenaculis Rosa lacunaribus supra mensarum vertices afEgatur, quo quisque secreti tenax esset, nee facile divulgaret ea, quaj sub rosa, id est, silentii fide dicta. Qua de re elegantissimus Poeta sequentem in modum canit: —" Est rosa flos Veneris," &c. Part 1, cap. 2.

The author of the lines is nut named.

_" Job J. B. Wobkard.

"The Amateur's Magazine" (3rd S. v. 26.) There was yet another monthly periodical called The Amateur, which also had an existence of nine months, having been born in July, 1855, and

having expired in March, 1856, during which time eight numbers were published. It was intended to be a quarterly publication; but "in consequence of the encouragement" that the first number received, it was altered to a monthly. At its fourth issue its price was reduced from 1». to 6d. It was "projected by a small staff of unprofessional writers," and was published at 16, Great Marlborough Street. I believe that its editor was Mr. E. C. Massey, a young and clever writer, whose first published work (anonymous) was The Green-eyed Monster; a Christmas Lesson. By Whatshisname (pp. 101). James Cooke, Fenchurch Street, 1854. Cothbert Bede.

Mad As A Hatter (3rd S. v. 24.) — Colchester and all its natives remonstrate against your correspondent Schin's suggestion as to the origin of this phrase. Even the hatters there are not willing to remove the obnoxious cap from their own heads on such terms. Neither sound nor sense could reconcile them to the notion of making the oyster a symbol of madness. Finding some time ago — I think in Halliwell's Dictionary — that gnattery is used in some parts of England in the sense of irritable, I fancied that in the same places a gnat might be called a gnatter, and hence "as mad as a gnatter." I do not think I was far wrong; though perhaps natter, the German name for adder, points to the true origin. It is easy to trace the progress — a natter, an atter, a hatter.

B. L. Colcestrensis.

Richard Adams (2"1 S. x. 70; 3rd S. iv. 527; v. 42.) — We see no reason to doubt the identity of the Richard Adams, who died in 1661, with the Fellow Commoner of Catharine Hall. At the period in question admission at a college at the age of fifteen was no unusual occurrence, nor is there anything remarkable in Latin verses by a lad of seventeen. We shall be obliged by a copy of the monumental inscription to Richard Adams in Lancaster church.

C. H. & Thompson Cooper.


Madman's Food Tasting Of Oatmeal PorRidge (3rd S. v. 35.) — The following extract from the Noctes Ambrosiana; may enlighten your correspondent Y. P. It is necessary, however, in the first place to observe, that the conversation has been turning on the Letters on Demonology and Witchcrqft,recent\y contributed by Sir Walter Scott to the Family Library, then in course of publication: —

"Shepherd. I'm inclined to gang alang wi' you, Sir.

"North. You must go along with me,

"Shepherd. Na; no unless I like

"North. However, suppose that Sir Walter had stated the real difference. How does he illustrate it?

"Shepherd. Hoocanltell?

"North. By the story of an insane patient in the Infirmary of Edinburgh, who, though all bis meals consisted of porridge, believed that he had every day a dinner of three regular courses, and a dessert; and yet confuted that, tome how or otuer, everything he ate tatted of porridge 1" Works of Professor Wilson, vol. iii. pp. 137, 138.


Sib Edward Mat (3rd S. v. 35.)—Sir Edward May, M.P. for Belfast, was the son of Sir James May, M.P. for the co. Waterford, who was created a baronet June 30, 1763. A few particulars of the pedigree appear in Burke's Extinct and Dormant Baronetcies. Arms: gu. a fess between eight billets, or. R. W.

Sie William Sevenoke (3'* S. v. 37.)—In the "List of Mayors of London," compiled by Paul Wright, B.D., F.S.A., 1773, appended to Heylin's Help to English History, the arms are described—" Az. seven acorns or," and are engraved three, three, and one. This is probably correct.

R. W.

LoNGEVITT OP Cl.EEGTMEN (3rd S. V. 22, 44.)—

The Preston Chronicle of Jan. 9, 1864, records the demise on Jan. 3, of the Rev. Joseph Rowley, incumbent of Stalmine, Lancashire, for sixty-four years; having been appointed thereto in the year 1799. The reverend gentleman was for fifty-four years—viz. from 1803 to 1858, chaplain of Lancaster Castle, during which period he attended the execution of no less than 170 persons.


Paper Mabks (3rd S. iv. 515.) — The Rev. Samuel Dunne, son of the archdeacon, an antiquary of some eminence, communicated in 1795 to the Archaologia a very interesting and valuable article on Paper Marks. It is chiefly drawn up from some materials collected by Mr. Thomas Fisher, printer, of Rochester, and is illustrated with six plates exhibiting various marks from 1473 to 1712. The size and form of the paper bearing the mark is shown, and the substance of the material is described as far as it can be. Altogether it is a very curious document. X. A. X.

The Laird Op Lee (3rd S. v. 34.) — The Laird of Lee is commonly understood to be Lockhart of Lee. Wodrow (vol. i. p. 282), says that Sir James Lockhart of Lee was the only sober man at the drunken meeting of Council at Glasgow, 1662, which ejected so many ministers, and that he alone opposed it. This was more than twenty years before the Mauchline Martyrdom; so that, however likely, it cannot be quite certain either that he is the person alluded to in the inscription on the Mauchline Monument, or, supposing he is, that it does him justice. J. R. B. Edinburgh.

Frith Silver (3rd S. iv. 477, 529.)—Fee-farm rents are payable to Lord Somers in most parts of the North Riding of Yorkshire; and regular audits held at certain market towns, and collections made by Mr. Samuel Danby, of 7, Gray's

Inn Square. The devisees of a Mr. Robinson have also a similar claim upon all estates which once

Possessed a deer park, surrounded by a bow rake, believe frith silver is in lieu of underwood. Although I apprehend Mr. Danby is our best authority. Euoracum.

Potato And Point (3rd S. iv. 496.) — "I was indebted for my first glimmering knowledge of history and antiquities to those evening converzationi round our small turf fire, where, after a frugal repast upon that imaginative dish, 'potatoes and point,' my father used to talk of the traditions of other time*.

"When there is but a small portion of salt left, the potatoe, instead of being dipped into it by the guests, is merely, as a sort of indulgence to the fancy, pointed at it."—'Memoir* of Captain Rock, London, 1824, p. 243.

W. D.

Greek And Roman Games (3rd S. v. 39.) — It may be added that the Nomocanon of Photius, and the Scholia of Balsamon, were republished in Voelli et Justelli Bibliotheca Juris Cnnonici Veteris, Gratce et Latine, Paris, 1661, 2 voll. fol. In loc. cit. Tit. xiii. c. 29, Balsamon supplies no further illustration than what has already been quoted. He only adds : —

"Videtur etiam mihi quoque alterum hunc ludum a lege aversabunde vitari et puniri; utpote qui cottum confirmet."—P. 1131.

For Kottos, see Ducange, Olossarium Media et Infima Latinitatis: "Tbv Kmov, <jtoi Top Kottw."

BlBLlOTHECAR. Chetham.

Chdbchwarden Quebt (3rd S. v. 34.) —The sidesmen appointed last Easter at the meeting of the parish of St. Michael's, Lichfield, were thirteen in number; and were designated to the eight out-townships included in that parish. They are only assistants to the churchwardens, in reference to their respective townships. Their duties in recent times appears, from Canon 90 of the Constitutions of 1562, to be to prevent absence of parishioners from church, and disturbance to the congregations by absentees. In Canon 89, the word "churchwarden" is made equivalent to questman (say inquestman or inquirer); but prior to these Constitutions, there was a distinction, for —

"In the ancient episcopal tynodt, the bishops were wont to summon divers creditable persons out of every parish, to give information of, and to attest the disorders of clergy and people. These were called iettet tynodalet; and were in after times a kind of impanncled jury, consisting of two, three, or more persons in every parish, who were upon oath to present all hereticks and other irregular persons (Ken. Par. Ant. 64!)). And these in process of time became standing officers in several places, especially in great cities; and from hence were called tynodt-men, and by corruption sidesmen. They are also sometimes called questmen, from the nature of their office, in making inquiry concerning offences."

By Canon 90, if the minister and parishioners cannot agree in the choice of these sidesmen, or questmen, in Easter week, the ordinary of the diocese is to appoint them (Burn's Eccles. Law, i. 399). T. J. Buckton.

Sie Edwabd May (3rd S. v. 35.) — I have several old letters in the autograph of Sir Edward May in my possession, and Carilfobd might, perhaps, communicate with me direct in his own name. J. Reardon.

Stillorgan, co. Dublin.

Chaiqneac (y* S. v. 11.)—The name has revived my boyish remembrance of a story, strangely illustrating the social habits and feelings of the last century; as I heard it narrated more than seventy years ago, by a then elderly aunt of mine, a lady as well nurtured and as kindly hearted as any of her time.

The Mr. Chaigneau whom it commemorates was nn eminent laceman in Dame Street (the Regent Street of) Dublin, where his speciality, though less expansive, was more expensive than are our wives' and daughters' crinolines. One day, a titled lady honoured his shop with a visit in her sedan chair; during her explorations, the shopman observed her "conveying" a card of lace into her muff. On her departure, he informed his master of this leze-boutiaue, who posted after her ladyship, and, with the requisite bows and begging pardons, suggested her having— unconsciously, of course — taken, &c. &c. Of course, also, Madam was indignant. That a personage of her fortune and position could condescend to the vulgarity of shoplifting! The laceman persisted in the "mistake": would she be good enough to order her sedan back to the shop? would she allow it to be examined? Growing desperate, he insisted on the search; whereupon, drawing the card of lace out of her muff, she exclaimed (well do I remember my aunt's words and tone), "There, fellow; there is your lace; and it shall be the dearest lace to you that ever came out of your shop." The promise was duly kept: the esprit de corps was too strong for the tradesman: from one of the richest of his calling he gradually became one of the poorest; dwindled down into bankruptcy, and obtained his discharge by cutting his throat.

Such was my aunt's story; she never mentioned the lady's name, and, if she had, I would not disentomb it. E. L. S.

iHtdtclInnrou*. NOTES OX BOOKS, ETC.

Post Office London Directory For 1864. — When Macaulay's much-talked-of New Zealander takes his seat upon the ruins of St. Paul's, he will get but a very imperfect notion of what the great city was, of which the remains lie spread before him, unless he has the good fortune to pick up from among them an old Post Office

London Directory. There he would be told in nnmistakeable characters the true history of London's greatness,—a volume of nearly 3000 closely, yet clearly printed, pages, pointing out not only every mart where men do congregate, but the quiet homes to which the hundreds and thousands of those busy men retire when the day's work is done, would speak more clearly of the wealth, intelligence, and vast extent of London than acres of crumbling ruins. For sixty-five years has the l'ost Office London Directory gone on increasing in size, accuracy, and utility until it has reached a completeness commensurate with the labour and expense which have been bestowed upon it, and which makes it a Commercial Annual Register of the metropolis of England. If the reader would wish for evidence of the progress of commerce and manufactures in London, and how the Post Office Directory keeps pace with this progress, he will find it in the simple fact that about fifty new trades have been added to the present volume.

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8. (Edinburgh.) Forthe orioin of the none of the. " Domesday-liook" consult " N. & Q." 1st S. xi. 107 i 2nd S. xi. 102, 108.

T. Bsntlst. Has our Correspontlent consulted Iriihop Jf"oni''< I.ifa of Dr. Richard Bcntley, the second edui»n,t roh. too. fdls? A'ijoovs BiogranhiaBritannica, ii. 224—247, contain* alto a tcell-vritten lije of this distinguished critic.

"notii And Ql-bhixi" is published at noon on Friday, and in also issued in Montblv Parts. The Sulurription for Stampso Copifs for Six Months forwarded direct from the rublisher I imhulitoi the Halfyearly Iwnxx) is lis. id., which may he paid hy Post Office Order, payable at the Strand Pott Office, in favour of William ti. Smith. ?x, Wblli.voton Stnp.ft, Stuano, W.C., to whom all Communications rps raa Editor should be addressed.

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NOTES:—Tho Resurrection Gate, St. Gilcs'-in-the Fields 67 — Decay of Stone in Buildings, 68 — Curious Modern Greek and Turkish Names, lb.—" The Temple," by George Herbert, 09 — Inoditcd Letter from Lord Jeffrey to Bernard Barton, 70 —Book Hawking. lb.— The Owl— Early Works of living Authors —Origin of Names — "County Families of England," Ac, 71.

QUERIES: — Richardson Family, 72 — A Fine Portrait of Pope, lb. — Baro Urbigcrus, Alchemical Writer — Samuel Burton — "The Cork Magazine" 1817-8 — Dowdcswell Family — Nathaniel Eaton — Fingers of Hindoo Gods — Heraldic — " Heraclitus Ridens " — Tho Holy House of Loretto—Rev. Edward James, A.M., Vicar of Abergavenny from 1709 to 1719 — " Massacre of tho Innocents " — "William Mitchcl, " Tho Groat Tinclarian Doctor " — Oratory of Pitt and Fox: "Sans Culotides"—Petrarcha—Portrait of our Saviour — Mrs. Parker the Circumnavigator — Perkins Family — Quotation — Sussex Newspapers — Passage in Tennyson — J. G. Wille, 78.

Queries With AK8WEB8: — William Dell, D.D. —" Lingua Tersaucta," by W. F. — Leonartius Pauiingerus — Miss Bailey — Sundry Queries — Mottoes and Coats of Arms — "Tho Athenian Mercury " — " Notes to Shakspeare," 75.

REPLIES: —Tho Lapwing: Churchwardens' Accounts, 77

— Parish Registers: Tombstones and their Inscriptions, 78

— St. Patrick and the Shamrock, 79 — John Shurley, 80 — French Coronets — Baroness — Tho Bloody Hand — Arms of Saxony—Satirical Sonnet: Gozzo and Pasquin— Bullbull — Salden Mansion — Madman's Food tasting of Oatmeal Porridge — Churchwarden Query — Devil a Proper Name —Watson of Lofthouse, Yorkshire — Longevity of Clergymen— Arthur Dobbs, 4c, 80.

Notes on Books. 4c.



I notice with regret that this gate, with its interesting old carving, has recently been removed. Whether it is the intention of the vestry to restore it remains to be seen.

The gate-entrances to churchyards were formerly designated by carvings in wood, of which only a few remain: one of these was the semicircular basso-relievo of the "Last Judgment," within the pediment of the north gate of St. Giles'-in-the-Fields. Another on the same subject, but much inferior, is preserved in the east gate of St. Stephen, Coleman Street. A figure of Time was formerly to be seen over the north gate of St. Giles', Cripplegate. It has been taken down and set up within the church, over the west entrance.

The "Resurrection Gate," by which name it is commonly known, was originally erected in 1687. In the previous year the vestry made an order:—

■ That a substantial gate, out of the wall of the churchyard near the round-house, should be made; and also a door answerable to it, out of the church, at the foot of the stairs, leading up to the north gallery."

In pursuance of this resolution, the gate was erected and adorned with the curious piece of


wood-carving, representing, with various alterations and additions, Michael Angelo's "Last Judgment."

In Edward Hatton's New View of London, 1708, speaking of the gate and wall, the author says: —

"The churchyard is fenced with a good brick wall; and under a large compass pediment over the gate, near the west end, is a prodigious number of carved figures, being an emblem of the Resurrection, done in rdino, very curiously, and erected in the year 1687."

The erection of the gate, and connected with it, cost the parish wards; out of which, 27/. was paid work. The several other items of ing to Parton, were as follows : —

"Tht Ntw Gait. Mr. Hopgood's bill

— Wheatley's bill

— Woodman, the mason

— Bailey, bricklayer - .

— Townsend, painter

— Sands, plumber ...
Gravel for walk -
Spreading ditto, and rubbish -
Love, the carver's, bill - - -

Total - - .

This gate was of red and brown brick, and stood near the centre of the churchyard wall. It was taken down in 1800; and the Tuscan gate, recently removed, erected in its place — tho carving being placed in the new gate in the same situation it occupied in the old one.

The author of the second edition of Ralph's Critical Review of the Public Buildings, Statues, and Ornaments, in and about London and Westminster, 1783, speaking of St. Giles' Church, says: —.

"The bas-relief of the Resurrection, which is over the north gate of the churchyard, is a remarkably bold and characteristic piece of carving, and is in good preservation. This lost circumstance is, perhaps, owing to the narrowness and hurrv of the street, which prevents its being taken notice of. But the subject is unhappy even for a painter, and much more for a sculptor, as it is impossible for the most creative fancy to imagine the small number in this piece can represent the ' multitude of all nations gathered from all the corners of the earth.' The faces seem to want variety."

Malcolm also commends the carving. Speaking of the church, in his Londinum Redivivum (in. 491), he says: —

"A very neat Tuscan gate has recently been erected; and the arch is filled by the celebrated representation of the Resurrection—a performance of infinite labour and mnch merit, carved about 1687."

J. T. Smith, however, was of a different opinion to that just expressed. Speaking of the old gateway, in his Book for a Rainy Day (1845, p. 20), he adds: —

"Over this gate, under its pediment, was a carved composition of the 'Last Judgment,' not borrowed from Michael Angelo, but from the workings of the brain of some ship-carver."

Who shall decide upon the merits of a work, when sages differ? Some Tears ago, examining the carving with a powerful glass, I was much pleased with its execution. It appeared to me to be a work above the ordinary degree of merit. I may add that I discovered, cut upon a small square in the middle of the lower group of figures, the following inscription: "A. P. 3°." What does this mean? The entry in the old accounts informs us that the sculptor's name was Love.

Edward F. Uimbault.


At a time when so much is said and thought of the decay of stone in our public buildings, the following passage from a letter to King Henry V. from au ollicer having the charge of public works at Calais, may not be read without interest, as showing the precautions taken in earlier times to preserve them. It is to be found in a late publication of the Camden Society, entitled Letters of Queen Margaret of Anjou, Bishop Beckington, and others, p. 20: —

"Souvekaink Lorde, &c, ns touching the stone of this cuntre, that shuld be for the jnnibes of your doores and windowes of your said cbapeli, I dare not take upon me to sett any more therof upon your workes, hit freteth and freeth to fauh with himself, that, had I not ordained lynneaede oyle to bed [bathe?] hit with, hit wolde not have endured, or plesed your Higlinesse. VVherfore I have paveyed xiij tons tight [ weight ? ] of Cane stone, for to spede youre workes withal."

From this it will be seen that, at that early period, linseed oil was applied to stone to preserve it, and whatever those who consider only the henefit of trade may say, it did and still does answer the purpose;. but not unless properly applied. For stone should be duly kept and seasoned before being used in a building, especially if intended for carving, just as much as timber; for the stone which is positively the hardest to cut is by no means, as an invariable rule, the most durable; but the best is that which, after being cut, hardens, and forms itself an exterior coat; and this is the case with the Caen stone, which is soft when first taken out of the quarry. But if expected to form itself a coat, it must not be cut, and then exposed at once to the inclemency of the weather, but should be placed for a time in the dry, under a shed, constantly exposed to the air, but not to rain or tempests. When this has been properly done, and the stone is thoroughly dry, linseed oil may be applied, and will preserve it; not making streaks, as might be apprehended, unless very carelessly laid on, but producing a pleasing and subdued gray tint. There is value, I conceive, in the suggestion often made of placing

the stone as it lay in its natural bed; but to cut it out of the quarry, and use it green (so the workmen term it), as is too often done at present, what is it but a knavish practice of the builder to provide for a second job? For, in this state, the sun affects, and the winds and frosts crack and shiver it; and if oil be applied, this makes the matter still worse by confining that moisture which ought to be permitted to ooze out, and thus hastening instead of preventing the decay of the stone, which, as a general rule, should have been quarried for some time, and have become perfectly dry before being used in the construction of buildings. It is no uncommon thing among small churches to find the clusters of pillars in the interior composed simply of hard chalk, which answers the purpose very well. But let us suppose these to have been put together while the chalk was yet damp, and what would have been the consequence? That the first frost would have shivered and broken them; but the chalk being quite dry when put together, frost does not at all affect it. And something analogous to this may be observed in the use of much of our stone.

I have before me an instance of linseed oil applied more than twenty years since to ornamental carving in stone out of doors, and deeply cut, which it has preserved. W.


I have devoted some spare hours to many pages of "N. & Q.," where, especially of late, have appeared lists of Christian names and surnames, curious and otherwise, together with their supposed derivations. It was my good fortune, when in Asia Minor, &c, to be intimate with many scores of Greek and Turkish better class peasants, and acquainted with perhaps as many of the other sex of both nations; indeed, to use their own phrase, "Was I not their good brother?" It struck me, a few days ago, that as I had collected the names of most of these old friends of mine, and given, moreover, some time and attention to their derivations, a list of them might, if printed, amuse your readers. It would at all events perhaps help some one writer of our Eastern fictions to a few unstereotyped names for their heroes and heroines; for really we have had only about a dozen proper names in these Eastern novels for this last half century. If agreeable, I may, at some other time, give the historiographs of Armenian names—a thing totally uncared for, it seems; meanwhile, I append a few bona-fidc modern Greek and Turkish names, common to all ages, and with the orthography best allied to their ti ue pronunciation.

The following are a few classical names; the»e.

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