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however, are very scarce: Female—Calliope, Cleopatra, Irene, Penelope, Sophi, Hebi. Male — Dimitri, Bacchyevani, Adoni, Xerxo.

Of modern names palpably allied to ancient ones, take for instance: Female—Angelica, Pipina, Xristalania, Harcondoo. Male—Marco, Apostoli, Manoli, Theofani, Stepbani, Michali, Petrali, Yeoree, Yanako.

As examples of female names made from male names, witness the following. The male roots are in italics: Female Panayotectsa, Athanasoola, Xm/ofooletha, ^Tarfoiroola, SUimateetsa, Costindina, Famvoolo, Photeetsa, Sevasti\

To continue with female names, and as illustrating how, by means of affixes to some female names, other Christian female names are formed, I have noticed: Female — Zoe becoming Zoeteetsa; Helene, Helenika; Sevastee, Sevastalania; Katina, Kateriteena, and Vasili, Vasilikee.

Sometimes again, the various nouns by this German system of addition become female names, thus: Female—Paraskevoola, or born on Friday; Kiriakeetsa, or born on Sunday; Staphelia, or so named from the grape (the red variety of which they will, by-the-bye, not eat on St. John the Baptist's day) ; Triandafooletha, from the numeral SO, and so on in endless variety.

Nor are comical names scarce; and these, as in our own country, seem to have lost their evil power, and are used in common with the less suggestive ones; for instance: Female—Castania, the chestnut-haired; Astrienne, the starfaced; Trnumethela, the onion-headed; and, as illustrating good qualities, Kalee, the good one; and Gramatiche, the writer.

As examples, however, of real nicknames, the mention of which sets the cafe in a roar, but which are nevertheless transmitted to posterity, take these few: Male—Garfelia Faga, or Garpelia the glutton; Alexi Hesti, or Alexi, the open bowelled; Evendria Glegori, or the sharp Evendria. It is noticeable also, that if the poor wight resides in some of the littoral villages where Turks and Armenians "most do congregate," the nickname, to be more effective, will take a Macaronic construction; as for instance, Lefteri Sakalee, or Lefteri with no beard; or again, Anesti Kirkiyelani, or Anesti the forty liars. Neither friend nor foe escapes this tendency to give every one a name that will demonstrate your person to them in a moment. And I may as well add that for two years I certainly had no other name amongst the Greeks than Cochineas Diavolos, and no other amongst the Turkomans than Yapigi Bashi.

When a stranger comes to reside in a village or town large enough to render surnames necessary, he is called after the village or island from which he emigrated, thus: Male—Kireeako Dardanelli; Andoni Nichoretta; Sali Mytilene;

Panayote Tenedeo; Vargheli Gallipolliti, and so on; and if he has been a traveller abroad, in some cases, when he returns, the family name altogether changes, and Nikifori Lala, who has been to England (or says he has), becomes Nikifori Englaiso; and by the same rule, Steliano Gheyikli becomes Steliano Spania.

Other surnames are derived from the occupations of the persons who bear them, and remain similarly permanent in the family. Thus wehave, Male —Ancholi Seece, or Ancholi the Groom; Fotaki Arabajee, or Fotaki the cart driver; Ali Meelona, or Ali the Miller; Adam Caffajee, or Adam the Coffee-keeper; Seraphim Asvesti, or Seraphim the Lime-burner; and Steli Pappuchee, or Steli the Shoemaker.

The above are a few of the rules which these modern Greek proper names, &c. seem to follow. Of course there are scores of other names, which, like irregular verbs, are, so to say, words "in their own right," such as the male names Spero, Pani, Xafi, &c. The first named / hope never to meet again. Of female names of this order, take Reyinee, a matron from Giourkioi; and Marootha, the beauty of El-Ghelmez.

It must be understood that the foregoing names were all noted down in Asia Minor. In Greece Proper, other rules have sway with still more grotesque results. On a future occasion, I may send the more striking combinations found in the larger towns, in comparison with which even the name of Chronontonthologos would surfer.

To conclude, here are the more common Turkish names from the villages in the interior. These rarely alter even in towns, and above all, have no jokes performed upon them; rarely either do they take surnames: Male — Of old favourites, say Mehmet, Mustapha, Magrup, Evrahaim, Mussa, Sulieman, Ishmael, Hussein, Achmet, and Osman. Female — Of old favourite female names, take Fatimeh, Ayesha, Sultanno, Musleumeh, Esmeh, and Gulezer; and amongst those not so common to us, I quote from out of my married friends, Kusoon, Sabuer, Gulu, Nacharlu, Baghdad, Yasgaloo, Mavehlee; and from my single (at least then single) list, take Sheriffeh, Aleef, Ismehan, and Sevier — the last-named being the infinitive mood of the Osmanli verb to love, and a very pretty verb too. W. Eassib.

High Orchard Ilnnse, Gloucester.


"The Church Porch. "Constancy knits the bones, and makes us stowre." Some copies read lower.

"The Tltankagiving. 'Shall I weep blood? Why, thou hast wept such store That all thy body was one door."

Some copies read gore. See this word in "The Agony.

"Repentance. "Man's age is two hours' work, or three." What does this mean? The expression, "Angel's age," is used in the poem entitled "Prayer."

"May no lines pass, except they do their duty
Not to a true, but painted chair t"

What chair is here alluded to?

"Riddle who list, for me, and pull for prime."

What is meant by pulling for prime? It can hardly mean, I presume, ringing for matins. Does it refer to the old game "Primero " ? *

- Sin.
"So devils are our sins in perspective."

Query, Does this mean that our sins in perspective appear to have "some good" in them?

« Tim Quiddity.
"But it [a verse] is that which while I use
I am with thee, and most take all."

Some copies read, "must take all." Does not "take" here mean captivate f It seems to be so used in the poem entitled " Gratefulness."

"Christmas. "We sing one common Lord; wherefore he should Himself the candle hold."

Should there not be a comma after " should" and "candle "; "hold" meaning, as I think, "stay"?

- Virtue.
"Only a sweet and virtuous soul,
Like season'd timber, never gives;
But when the whole world turns to coal,
Then chiefly lives."

Some copies read: "But tho' the whole world turn to coal." Neither reading makes the sense very clear.

All the editions of The Temple I have met with differ materially \n many parts, and I much doubt whether there is one that is free from many errors. J. D.


"Edinburgh, Jan. 28th, 1820. "Dear Sir,—I have very little time for correspondence —especially at this season, or I should have great pleasure in cultivating yours. My answer to your former letter to me makes it less necessary to write at large in this. The novelty of a Quaker poem will rather attract notice and curiosity, I should imagine, than repel it.

[* In the Works of George Herbert, edit. 1859, 8vo (Bell & Daldy), is the following note to this line: "Pull for prime." A French phrase, meaning, * to pull, or draw, for the first place,' especially in sports involving a trial of strength." Vide •• N. & Q.," 2"" S. iv. 496.—Ed.]

But if I can conscientiously promote your notoriety without hurting your feelings I certainly shall do so.

"I confess to the review of Clarkson, and also lay claim to the paper on Prison Discipline. There is some necessary levity in the former—the latter was written from the heart. As to the phrase about honesty to which you object, it was not set down in mere unmeaning wantonness, but was intended as the mild and mitigated Expression of an opinion founded perhaps upon too narrow an observation, but very seriously and conscientiously entertained, that the lower classes and ordinary dealers of your society, were rather more cunning and grasping, and illiberal in their transactions than the associates of other sects. I had recently had occasion, in the course of my profession, to see several instances of this, and was rather shocked and disgusted at finding instances of hurshucss and duplicity that amounted almost to criminal fraud, coolly [raised? iUeg."] and defended by persons of this persuasion. It is possible that our Northern climate may corrupt them, and very likely that the instances may be rare and casual—yet Quaker traders, I learn, are generally reckoned among traders to be sly and stingy, and ready to take advantage, and I cannot believe the reputation to be wholly without foundation. I have said that the body is generally illiterate, and I think you agree with me. That it has contained many eminent men since the days of Penn and Barclay no candid person will dispute I have myself the happiness of knowing several. I am well acquainted with Mr. Walker of London, and flatter myself I may call W. Allen my friend. To the philanthropy and calm and wise perseverance of the body in all charitable undertakings, I shall always be ready to do justice. But I trust I need make no professions on this subject, nor does it seem necessary to discuss further the points of difference between us. I suppose you don't expect to make a convert of me, and I certainly have not the least desire to shake you in your present convictions. There are plenty of topics, I hope, on which we may agree, and we need not seek after the exceptions. I shall lie happy if my opinion of your poem can be ranged in the first class. Being always, with great esteem, your faithful ser*

"F. Jeffrey.

"P.S. Do not let your Quaker Whigs be discouraged by abuse or ridicule. Being Whigs they must have borne abuse whether they were Quakers or not. That circumstance only suggested the [loord illeg.'] topics— abuse is one of the ways and means of electioneering, and cannot be dispensed with. Never mind it-"

The above letter has not, I think, been printed. It is well worthy recording for many reasons. I received the original through Mr. Dawson Turner's sale. The penmanship is as hard to decipher as any MS. in modern English well can be.

J. D. Cakfueix.


I should like you to publish the following as a Note, worthy of remembrance of all literary persons. A man, dressed in a suit of black, with a white neckcloth, called recently at my private residence; and, as I was at my office, he expressed a wish to see my wife. On entering her room, he stated that he had been requested by the rector of the parish to call upon me, and wished to see me personally. My wife told him I returned home to dinner at six, and could be seen soon after that hour; but he stated that the night air was injurious to his health, and asked for my office address, which she gave him. When I returned home, she mentioned the circumstance; and we both concluded that it was the rector's new curate, who wanted my subscription to some local charity. I was, therefore, fully prepared for the "curate," when he presented himself a few days after at my office. However, to my surprise, he stated that his object in calling was to request my subscription to a new work—Bunyan's Life and Writings; which he led me to infer the rector was about to edit- He produced a letter from the clergyman, whose handwriting I recognised; and, as I was very busy, I did not read it, but at once told the man I would subscribe for one copy. He tried to get me to take two; but I told him one would suffice. He then produced an order book, and requested me to write the usual order; and asked me how I would have the work, in numbers or volumes? So I desired him to supply it in volumes, as the work appeared. He produced what seemed to be a "number," and opened it at the middle, where a handsomely engraved frontispiece showed the character of the work. This volume was in violet calf, and in a handsome binding. A few days after, while I was in Ireland, my wife informed me that four volumes of Bunyan's Works, bound in cloth, had been sent, with a demand for '11. 1 i.i.v.—and, luckily, she had not paid the money. On my return home, I found it was an old work undated of Stebbing's, which I subsequently ascertained had been published in 1859. Soon afterwards, the publisher sent me an impudent reply to my letter of remonstrance, that the work was not the same I had ordered, not having been edited by our rector; and the result was, a County Court summons. I was, however, not daunted by this, and told my story to the judge; and he, after hearing my " clerical" friend (who, by-the-bye, appeared in his every-day dress, and had dropped the white "choker"), decided that the man had no claim on me, the order having been obtained under false pretences. I trust, if my Clapham and Brixton neighbours have been similarly imposed on, they will adopt a like course with the " Canonbury" publisher.

N. H. R. Devonshire Road, South Lambeth.

Tns Owx.—I had no idea until I met with the following items in the churchwardens' accounts at St. Mary's Church, Beverley, that the owl was a proscribed bird, but had supposed that he was protected. Such, however, seems not to have been the case at Beverley. I transcribe the text and context for the years 1642 and 1646: —

1642, 26"1 April. To the ringers, when the king

came in and went out - - - xi' viijd „ 0"1 July. Paid the ringers when the king

came in ----- iij" viijd

„ 16th July. For ringing when the king

came from Newwark - - - iiij* viijd Paid to Jas. Johnson for killing three owlet in the Woodhall closes, that he did steadfastly affirme them to belong to this church - xvii*

1646. Paid John Pearson for killing an urchant ijd

Paid John Pearson for catching three urchants vjd

Paid Duke Redman for killing of eight jack

dawes ------- vjd

Paid to the sexton for killing an ovle, and carrying the ammunition in the chamber - j" ijd


Early Works Of Living Authors. — In the year 1809, Mr. E. B. Sugden first published his Letters to a Man of Property; and on Feb. 12, 1863, the 7th edition of the same work, under its new title of A Handy Booh on Property Law, was issued by its author (now Lord St. Leonards), still in the vigour of his faculties.

In the year 1815, Dr. Charles Richardson published his Illustrations of English Philology; and in 1854, published his valuable summary of the Diversions of Parley, with the title of The Study of Language. T. H.

Origin or Names. — The following extract from the letter of an emigrant to Kafferland, is a modern specimen of giving surnames to parties descriptive of some quality or peculiarity in the party named, and as such may be worth recording in "N. & Q.:"—

"Our master, Mr. P , is called E-gon-a-shalaw,

which means broad-shouldered; Mr. D .Emoounyous,

because he rote early when he first came ouf; Mr. T

Umolotagas, that is, thin-faced; Mr. F , Maka-wha,

because his eye-brows meet; Mr. S , Ins-w-bo,

weakly-looking; Mr. N , Mafumbo, stooping; Mr.

R , Is-stop, la»ge nose; Mr. G , El-tabala, very

silent; Mr. W , Mack-ka-coba, because he stoops in


H. T. E.

"County Families Op Engi^nd," Etc.—I accidentally met with the above work a few days since, and am induced, in the cause of heraldry and genealogy, to suggest that in such compilations it would be better that a distinction should be made between claims and descents, founded on documentary evidence or the undisturbed possession of real estate, and those put forth on the mere conjecture of the parties immediately interested. I say this because many are misled by^ a claim, and take it for granted that there is evidence for the same; but in the work referred to several such claims have been inserted without any investigation, and, consequently, Pepper's Ghost is so like a reality, that serious errors arise, when such a record is considered as a book of reference. B.



Conon Richardson, Abbot of Parshore Abbey, married, after the dissolution, a Miss Pates of Bredon, co. Vigorn; and had issue two sons, Conon and Thomas. Conon had issue an only son, Sir William Richardson, Knt., who died s.p. Thomas, by his first wife Elizabeth, had a son Conon, of Tewkesbury; and by his second wife Anne, daughter of Leonard Mazey, of Shechenhurst, Worcestershire, he had further issue: seven sons, and six daughters. The sons were Henry, of London, haberdasher, buried A.d. 1634; who, by his wife Anne, daughter of Anthony Nicholls of MortonHinmars, Gloucestershire, had issue a son Kenelm. The other sons of Thomas were Edmund, Leonard, Rafe, John, William, and Christopher. The arms borne by this family were : "Argent,- on a chief, sable; 3 leopards' heads erased of the 1st."

I find, in the Hail. MSS., the very same arms given to another family of Richardson : — John Richardson of Roskell, or Rostill, co. York, married Isabel Hart of Botrington, and had issue two sons and three daughters. William, the elder son, was of Southwark; and by his wife Jane, daughter of Robt. Harrison of Milton Green, Cheshire, had issue Thomas (at. 17, anno 1623), John, William, Francis, and Mary. George, the second son, had issue by his wife—who was a sister to Sir John King, Knt.—a son Richard.

Sir Thomas Richardson, Serjeant-at-Law (awio 1620), bore the same arms as given at p. 240 of Dugdale's Origines Juridicales. And I find that Capt. Edward Richardson, of Colonel James Castles' Regiment, who was "second son of William Richardson, Esq., descended of the ancient family of the Richardsons of Pershore, in the county of Worcester," was registered May 22, 1647, by "Wm. Roberts," Ulster King, as bearing the same arms, with a crescent for difference. His descendants continue to use these arms.

William, the father of this Edward, may have been a son of Conon of Tewkesbury. I am anxious to know his exact descent. I shall feel greatly obliged to any of your correspondents who will kindly furnish me with any additional information respecting this family; so as to connect the several branches which are named above. I shall be glad to know anything respecting the parentage and descendants (if any) of Sir Thomas, and whether he was the same person as the Chief Justice [of the Common Pleas, 1626, and] of the King's Bench, 1631? whose.arms, however, Hugdale gives, at p. 238, as "Or (instead of argent) on a ch.," &c, quarterly with "ermine on a canton, azure, a saltire gules."

Nash's Worcestershire contains a slight reference to Conon and his issue.

H. Loftus Tottenham.

A FINE PORTRAIT OF POPE. In7%ePKiWerofthisday(Jan.9th,1864),Ifind the following "curious,"or rather marvellous "discovery at Gloucester," in which "a fine portrait of Pope" is concerned, and which, if true, is certainly worth recording in " N. & Q." : —


"It may not be geuerallv known, or it may possibly be forgotten, that in the olden time county families often came into their principal city or town for some of the winter months, where they had their regular town houses; and those who had not, bestowed themselves in lodgings. A visit to the metropolis was then u much more serious business than it is now-a-days. Folks were then content with the amusements the city afforded them: the theatres, the assemblies, parties, &c, were a sufficient attraction; consequently many fine old mansions will be found in our principal towns," now devoted to very' different purposes from what thev were originally built for. One of these abodes, the town house of the Guises, a mansion of about Queen Anne's period, has of late been occupied as a school of art; and in making some alterations for this purpose, the architect observed an unusual, and, as it seemed to him, a needless projection of panelling in a small sitting-room, always called 'Pope's room.' "He made up his mind to remove this projection, and in doing so brought to light a fine portrait of Pope. This led him to suspect that the opposite side might also contain some treasure, and on taking it down a painting was revealed, since said to be the * Temptation,' by Guido. A man in a rich dress of the time of Francois Premier is holding up a string of pearls to a woman, who appears to be resisting his entreaties and tempting offer. It is described to us as a remarkably fine painting.

"Pope was a frequent visitor in Gloucestershire and the neighbouring county of Hereford. His well-known lines to the 'Man of Koss' were written during his sojourn in the neighbourhood. In Gloucestershire he was a guest of the family of the Gnises, who had a scat, Highnam Court, not far from the city; another, called Uendcombe, in the same county; and the house in Gloucester alluded to. He was also a not infrequent visitor at the Bathurats, Lydney Park, near Cirencester.

"Why these pictures were ' walled up' one cannot form any reasonable conjecture: there were no public troubles in Gloucester at that time. Are we justified in attributing their concenlment to some anticipated family dispute respecting them, which might have been avoided, perhaps, hv thus shutting them out from the world? Fortunately they were in a dry place, on each side of a lire-place, and have received no injury from their long imprisonment.

"The pictures arc now in the possession of Mr. Uaylis, Thames liank, Fulham."

Mr. Baylis's very remarkable collection of antiquities and articles of virtu, particularly pictures, is now of long repute; but is it still at Thames Bank, Fulham? I was under the impression that it had for many years left that locality.

And are these pictures from Gloucester now in his gallery, or have they ever been? Even if tbey are so, collectors are liable to be imposed upon by the dealers, and such a tale as the above is surely a most suspicious one. Is it even new, or cut from an old newspaper? Perhaps some correspondent at Gloucester will clear these doubts.


Baeo Ubbigerus, Alchemical Whites. — I ask for information respecting the under-described work and its author. I am unable to find anything about either in ordinary books of reference at hand.

It is a thin 12mo of 86 pages, consisting of two treatises continuously paged. The first title-page is wanting, but the title at the beginning of the 101 Aphorisms of which the first treatise is composed runs thus: —

"Aimiorismi Urbigkhani; Or, Certain Rules, clearly demonstrating the Three Infallible Ways of preparing t/ie Grand Elixir of the Philosophers."

The title-page of the second treatise is as follows :—

"Circulatum minus Urbigeranum, On, Tub PhiloSophical Elixir Of Vegetables; With The Three certain Ways of Preparing it, fully and clearly set forth in One and Thirty Aphorisms. By Baro Urbigerus, A Servant of God" in the Kingdom of Nature. Experto Crede. London, Printed for Henry Faithorne, at the Rose in St. Paul's Church-yard, 1690." •

John Addis.

Samuel Burton. — Wanted, any information respecting Samuel Burton, Esq., whose decease at Seyenoaks, in Oct. 1750, is mentioned in the obituary of the Gentleman's Magazine, lie had served the office of High Sheriff for the county of Derby, and had attained the age of sixty-eight years. ~ E. H. A.

"the Cobk Magazine" 1847-8.—Who was author of an article in this Magazine on George Sand's " Seven Chords of the Lyre," No. I. pp. 3543. R. I.

Dowdeswell Family.—"Rich. Dowdeswell, tctatis sure 46, anno 1726," is written on the back of a portrait in my possession. Can any of your correspondents inform me who this Richard Dowdeswell was? I think he or his son married a Miss Leverton. J. D.

Nathaniel Eaton.—One of my maternal ancestors, Nathaniel Eaton, of Manchester, in 1674, married Christian Vawdry, of "The Riddings," and Bank Hill, Timperly, Cheshire. He was a member of the Society of Friends, but I suspect was a son or grandson of one of the six Nonconformist ministers, of the name of Eaton, who, according to Calamv, were ejected from their livings by the Act of Uniformity in 1662. This conjecture is strengthened by the fact that the mother of Christian Vawdry (Margaret, daughter of Oswald Moseley, of Garratt, near Manchester), after the death of her first husband, Robert Vawdry, father of Christian Vawdry, married the well

[* There ought to be a beautifully engraved frontispiece, which is explained at the end of the volume. A German translation of it was printed at Hamburgh in 1705. The name Urbigirus looks like a pseudonym.—


known John Angier, minister of Denton, Lancashire, who had as intimate friends or coadjutors, several Nonconformist ministers of the name of Eaton.

I shall feel obliged by any information or surmise as to the parents or relations of the above Nathaniel Eaton, at the same time remarking that his marriage in 1674 is inconsistent with his being the Nathaniel Eaton, born in 1609, who, according to Calamy, was the first master of the College at New Cambridge in New England, and who afterwards died in the King's Bench. M. D.

Fingers Of Hindoo Gods.—What is the meaning of the position of the fingers below described, which I have observed in effigies of gods and kings on Hindoo pagodas, as well as in sculptures of saints and abbots on Christian cathedrals? The upper part of the right arm is pressed close to the right side, the lower part of the arm doubled up against the upper part, so that the hand is brought up to the shoulder; the palm of the hand is turned to the front, the fore and middle fingers pointing upwards : the thumb and other fingers being doubled on to the palm.

H. C.

Heraldic.—I shall feel obliged if you can tell me, is there any tradition by which the history or origin of the following arms can be found ? —

"Per cheveron inverted or and sable, a lion rampant. Countercharged crest, a demi-moor holding in dexter hand an arrow, and in sinister a shield or. Motto: Mors potius macula."

J. B.


"Heraclitus Ridens," a weekly fly-sheet, issued in 1681-2, and republished in 1713, runs over with abuse of Whigs and Dissenters. It is in the form of dialogues between Jest and Earnest. The wit is coarse and strong, and the book is altogether a racy specimen of people's English in those happy days. There are some useful historical and literary allusions in it. It lived to be eighty-two numbers old. In his postscript, at the end, the author alludes to his successful preservation of the nominis umbra; wherein he says, "be has had such a felicity (notwithstanding all the conjectures that have been made of him), as that he is not more publicly known than the author of the Whole Duty of Man."

Was Heraclitus llidens ever revealed?

B. H. C.

The Holt House Op Loretto.—Not long since, I read a letter in the Daily Telegraph that the Simla Casa has been removed to Milan. Is this a fact? And if so, what are the circumstances? A Loretto guide-book says, that angels carried this house, in 1291, from Nazareth to Tersatto in Illyria; and, in 1294, from Illvria to Loretto. B. H. C.

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