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thought. Hengstenberg observes, that the word 'cannot signify a conversation, a tale: for it always denotes something inward, and is never used of a conversation with another. As little can it denote a pure thought, for the noun in the other two passages where it occurs stands for something loud; and the verb properly denotes, not the pure thought, but what is intermediate between thought and discourse. The Psalmist compares human existence, as regards its transitory nature, to a soliloquy, which generally bears the character of something transitory and broken. The mind does not advance beyond single half-uttered words and sentences, and soonretires again into the region of pure thought. To such a transitory murmur and ejaculation is that human life compared, which stupid dreamers look upon aa an eternity.*

"The word occurs twice: in Job xxxvii. 2,—' Hear attentively the noise of his voice, and the sound that goeth out of his mouth;' and Ezekiel ii. 10,—' And there was written therein lamentations, and mourning, and woe.' In the first passage, the reference is to the thunder, the loud and sudden claps of thunder, which is the voice, the utterance, the grand soliloquy of God. In the second passage, the word describes the broken accents of grief— the abrupt and incomplete exclamations of deep and overwhelming sorrow. So when life is described in the text: the meaning is, that it is a brief and broken exclamation, a hurried voice, a short and startling sound, which soon is lost in the silence of eternity."

Alfred Ainger.

Alrewas, Lichfield.

Quotation: "Aut Tu Morus Es," (3rd S. iv. 515; v. 61.) — The story mentioned by your correspondents is of very doubtful authority. Jortin ignores it. Knight knows nothing of it. It is nowhere noticed in Erasmus's own works. The German writers, Hess and Miiller, do not even allude to it. Burigni narrates the tale on very doubtful evidence. His words arc :—

"Des Auteurs, dont le suffrage a la verite" n'est pas d'nn grand poids, ont pre'tendu que la connaissance de Morus et d'Erasme avait commence d'une facon singu4iere," etc

And he refers, for the origin of the incident, to "Vanini et Garasse, Doctrine curieuse, lib. i. s. 7, p. 44." (Vie d'Erasme, i. 184.) There is one circumstance which seems at once to render the story incredible. The scene of it is laid in London, after More had become famous. Now Erasmus was at Oxford in 1479, probably at the very time that More was resident there. He distinctly mentioned More (ep. 62) among the friends whoje acquaintance he had made at Oxford, Charnock and Colet. It is scarcely likely that two such men should have been residing at the University at the same time; and have possessed mutual friends, and yet have never met till a later period in London. But if the date of the story be referred to the time when More had become Chancellor, i. e. in 1529, or even after he had been knighted, i. e. about 1517, its absurdity is manifest; as it is quite certain, from numerous letters, that Erasmus and More had often met before these dates; and we know that the En

comium Moria was completed, in 1510, in More's own house. W. J. D.

Sir Edward Mat (3'd S. v. 35, 65.) — R. W. should have mentioned where, in Burke's Extinct and Dormant Baronetcies, the pedigree of this baronet is given. From his arms, " Gu. a fesse between eight billets or," he was clearly of the family of the Mays of Kent, of which one of the late representatives, the eccentric but amiable and worthy Walter Barton May, Esq., built Hadlow Castle, near Tunbridge, a singular and "handsome structure, after the fashion of Beckford's Fonthill Abbey. It is now the property of Robert Rodger, Esq., J. P. A.

Scottish Games (3"1 S. iv. 230.) — Permit me to help in the elucidation of my own queries on this subject. I would remark that I naturally thouglit it needless to refer to Jamieson's Dictionary, when one so learned in Scottish matters as Mr. Fraser Tytler indicated ignorance; but I have done so, and the following is the result: — Prop = a mark or object at-which to aim (only reference, Dunbar's Poems, Bannatyne ed. p. 53.) Sax. Prap. It means a thing supported, propped up. This justifies my "Aunt Sally" conjecture. "Lang Bowlis," = " a game much used in Angus, in which heavy leaden bullets are thrown from the hand. He who flings his bowl furthest, or can reach a given point with fewest throws, is the victor. It is not" Golf" then; but" Row-bowlis," as distinguished from " Lang Bowlis," is likely to be our modern game of bowls — the bowls used in it resembling (and perhaps originally they were) bullets. There is no trace of the game in Jamieson. "Kilos" are referred to in Jamieson as " Keils," not, however, as Scotch; and the definition given of cognate words supports my suggestion that " nine pins" is meant. There is no trace, so far as I can see, of " Irish Gamyne" in Jamieson. "Tables" must be chess or draughts. Jamieson quotes " Inventories, A 1539, p. 49," in which distinction is made between " table men" and " chess men," but he thinks " tables" never meant draughts, only chess and dice. Perhaps Mr. Tytler's construction misled me in thinking he asked the meaning of " Tables." He must have known. J. D. Campbell.

Cenotaph Of The 79Tn Regiment At Clifton (3"1 S. v. 11.) — In compliance with the suggestion of your correspondent M. S. R., I send you the following, copied from the cenotaph in front of Manilla Hall, Clifton : —

Officers Of The 79th Reo. Who Fell In ASIA.

Field Officers.—C. Brereton, J. Moore.

Captains. — Huntcall, Stewart, YVingfield, Delaval, Chisholm, Cheshvre, Upfield, Strachan, Muir, Moore.

Lieutenants.—Whaley, G. Browne, Hopkins, Robinson, T. Browne, Le Grand, VVinchelsea, Boston, Campbell, Fryer, Turner, Richbell, Bouchier, Bristed, Hardwick.

Ensigns.—Collins, Paslette, La Tour, Hosier, M'Mahon.
Surgeons.—Smith, Atherton.

As your correspondent points to the particular volumes of the Annual Register and Gentleman's Magazine, in which the Latin inscription and a translation are to be found, I do not send them with this, but the names and dates of the battles (of which he desires to be informed) inscribed on the cenotaph are as follow : —

The lines of Pondicherry stormed, Sept. 10, 1760.

Pondicherry surrendered, Jan. 16, 1761.

Carricall taken, April 5, 1760.

Siege of Madras raised, Feb. 17, 1759.

Battle of Wandewash, Jan. 22,1760.

Arcot recovered, Feb. 10, 1760.

Manilla Hall, which was built on Clifton Downs by Sir Wm. Draper soon after his return from the capture of Manilla from the Spaniards, is now the Boarding School of C. T. Hudson, M.A. of St. John's College, Cambridge, for some years Head Master of the Bristol Grammar School.

The cenotaph in question stands on the rightband of the portico (as you come out of the hall), and on the left-hand is a handsome obelisk, some twenty-five or thirty feet high, to the memory of Lord Chatham, bearing this inscription : —

" Pitt, Com. dc Chatham: Hoc Amicitix private Testimonium, simul et Honoris publici Monuuientum posuit Gulielmus Draper."

J. C. H.

i; i.i.i \m,n (3"1 S. v. 58.)—The strictures of J. C. J. on the uew-cuuud word "reliable," arc more confident than convincing.

As I have not had the advantage of seeing what he may have previously written on the subject, I cannot judge whether he has shown that it is "a mistake to consider the terminations -ble and -able equivalent to Passive Infinitives," but as the word under discussion is intended by those who employ it to come under that rule, this is immaterial. The objection to its construction is obvious. It expresses only " to be relied," whilst it is meant to express "to be relied upon." It may possibly be that other words in common use have an equally defective formation, but that is no justification for encumbering the language with more of such awkwardnesses. "Dependable" is, to use J. C. J.'s phrase, an "exactly corresponding word" with reliable, which "credible " (to be believed) is not.

J. C. J. maintains that the word supplies a deficiency in the language, and he rests his plea on the broad allegation that "trust" and its derivatives are " properly" limited to personal application. I altogether demur to so arbitrary a restriction. To " trust a tale," "trust his honesty," "trust his heels," &c. &c, vide Shakspeare, passim.

"He might in some great and trusty business in a main danger fail you."—All's Well that Ends Will,

In what old romance does the valiant knight fail to boast of his " trusty blade "?

"Trustworthy data" — " trustworthy facts," "trustworthy documents," &c. &c, are phrases of everyday occurrence-, and I must take leave to assert not less correct than common.

"Trustworthy" itself is not a word of great antiquity; but as I consider it, till better proof be offered to the contrary, to answer every purpose for which " reliable" or "dependable" can be required, I must unite in the protest against the intrusion of adjectives —

"... Scarce half made up,
And that so lamely and unfashionably; "—

and it is a satisfaction to me to observe that the use of " reliable" is hitherto confined to a class of writers little likely to influence aspirants to a pure English diction. X.

Lewis Morris (3rd S. v. 12.)—I have amongst my books a large-paper copy of the first edition of Cambria Triumphans, by Percy Enderbie, which was once the property of Fabian Philipps, the author of Veritas Inconcussa, and has his autograph on the title-page. One hundred and two years after its publication, the book became the property of Lewis Morris, the antiquary; whose autograph, with the date 1753, is also on the titlepage. ,On one of the fly-leaves is the following note: —

"This copy of Cambria Triuniplians belonged to that distinguished antiquary, Lewis Morris; the marginal notes are in his own handwriting. This book was given to mo by his son William Morris, of Gwaelod. near Aberystwilh, Cardiganshire, S. VV.—Kohl. P. Greville."

This very rare book passed into my hands after the dispersion of the library of the Hon. Robert Greville about two years ago. I wish that I could afford H. II. more information on the subject of Lewis Morris; but I have shown that, not many years ago, he had a son living at Gwaelod, who is perhaps yet alive.

John Pavin Phillips.


Socrates' Dog (3'd S. iv. 475.)—G. R. J. will find the following in Bryant's Mythology, vol. ii. p. 34: —

"It is said of Socrates that he sometimes made use of an uncommon oath, fju\ rhsr Kvva Holi Top X'lva, by the dog ami gooset which at -first does not seem consistent with the gravity of his character. But we are informed by Porphyry, that this was not done by way of ridicule: for Socrates esteemed it a very serious and religious mode of attestation: and under these terms made a solemn appeal to the son of Zeus."

Thus far the learned Bryant; what reference the oath has to Bible matters, I cannot now discuss; but Daniel, xii. 1, has reference to it.*

Le Chevalier Du Cigne.

"And at that time shall Michael stand up," &c/



The Psalms interpreted of Christ. By the Kev. Isaac Williams, B.D. Vol. I. (liivingtous.)

Those of oar readers who are acquainted with Mr. Williams's volumes on the Gospels, will know what to expect in this Interpretation of the Psalms. They will And the same accumulation of patristic learning, the same devotion to the very letter of Holy Scripture, the same vein of kindly thoughtful piety. Mr. Williams (as might be expected) adopts that system of interpretation, which supposes all the Psalms of David to be spoken in the

{icrson of Christ, which St. Augustine has worked out in lis Enarraliones, and with which English readers have been familiarised by the Exposition of Bishop Home. It is matter of interest to see this old patristic interpretation rising up now-a-days, and not afraid to confront the rude trenchant spirit of modern criticism.

Alcvandri Neckam De Naturis Serum Libri Duo. With the Poem of the same Author, De Iymdihus Divinte Sapienlitv. Edited by Thomas Wright, Esq., M.A., &c. Published under the Direction of the Master of the Rolls. (Longman.)

The present volume furnishes a very carious addition to the Series of Chronicles and Memorials of Great Britain nnd Ireland during the Middle Ages, now publishing under the direction of Sir John KomiUy, for it supplies us, iu Neckam's Treatise De Naturis Rerum, with a manual of the scientific knowledge of the close of the twelfth century, made yet more interesting and instructive by the contemporary anecdotes so freely introduced by its author. Alexander Neckham, for so was the author of the two documents now first published generally designated, was foster-brother of Richard Ccour do Lion, having been, moreover, born on the same day in the month of September, 1157. lie was educated at St Albans, then became a distinguished professor at Paris, and afterwards, according to Mr. Wright (p. xii.), proceeded to Italy, though that gentleman seems subsequently (p. Ixxiv.) to doubt such visit. Ncckam eventually became Abbot of Cirencester, and, dying at Kempsey in 1217, was buried in Worcester Cathedral. Mr. Wright's intimate knowledge of Mediasval Literature and Science, pointed him out as a fitting editor for this very curious Mediaeval Encyclopaedia.

The Divine Week; or. Outlines of a Harmony of the Geologic Periods with the Mosaic Days of Creation. By the Kev. J. II. Worgan, MjY. (Rivingtons.)

Mr. Worgan's title sufficiently explains the subject of his work and the method by which (in his judgment) the Mosaic Account of the Creation is best squared with the discoveries of geology. Instead of understanding the sacred writer to be describing the preparation of the globe for man, its present highest occupant, and to ignore (as not coming within the compass of his design) the previous revolutions which it had experienced—a view adopted by the late Dr. Buckland—our author maintains the theory which at one time found favour with the late Hugh Miller, that the Mosaic Narrative exactly covers the geological period, each "day " coinciding with some well-marked epoch in the formation of the crust of our earth.

The Quarterly Review, No. 229.

Tho new Number of The Quarterly opens with a paper on "China," to which tho recent ill-judged proceedings of Prince Rung givo peculiar interest. It is followed

by one on "New Englandors and the Old Home," in which we are vindicated from the sneers of Mr. Hawthorne. The paper on Forsyth's " Life of Cicero," like that book, holds a mean between the excessive adulation of Middleton and the unwarrantable aspersions of Drumann. A good paper on " Captain Speke's Journal" is followed by one on " Guns and Plates," which goes to show that we arc a-head of all other nations in respect of artillery. The writer of the paper "On Eels" has certainly "caught the eel of learning by the tall." A learned paper on " Rome in the Middle Ages " next follows, and the Quarterly winds up with a long paper on that most intricate and vexed question, "Tho Danish Duchies."

Journal of Sacred Literature. By B. Harris Cowper. No.
VIII., New Series. (Williams & Norgate.)
Among the more interesting articles are, "A few Days
among the Slavonic Protestants of Central Europe,"
"Oriental Sacred Traditions," and a translation of selected
.Ethiopic Hymns, Liturgies, &c, by Mr. Rodwell.

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CONTENTS. —N°. 109.

NOTES:—JErroneous Monumental Inscriptions in Bristol Ac, 87 — Rt-dllction of Rathlin in 1575, 89 — Fashionable Quarters of London, 92 —John Frederick Lampe, lb. — PHlindromical Verses: Jani de Bisschop Chorus Musarum, 83 — Esquire — Lord Gardenston — English Wool in 1682

— A Testimony to our Climate, 94.

QUERIES: —Milton's Third Wife and Roger Comberbach of Nantwich, 95 — American Authors — An Aldine Book — Balloons: their Dimensions—Beech Trees never struck by Lightning—John Bristow—British Gallery and British Institution — Curious Essex Saying — To Compete — Earldom of Dunbar — Elma, a new Female Christian Name — Freemasons — Gainsborough Prnyer-Book — Haccombo and its Privileges —The Halght Family — IronoeUs quotod

— Thomas Leo of DarnhalI, co. Cheshire — Lepel — Col. James Lowther — Wm. Russell M'Donald — Sir Wm. Pole's Charters —Poor Cock Robin's Death —"Li Setto Salmi" — Stamp Duty on Painters' Canvass — Mr. Thackeray's Literary Journal — Colonel Robert Venables — Mr. Wise — Words derived from " jEvum," 96.

Qberjes With: Answers:— Royal Arms — Bacon Queries —" Hermippus Redivivus: or, the Sage's Triumph over Old Age and the Gravo " — Maiden Castle — Horses first Shod with Iron—Bishop of Salisbury, 100.

REPLIES: —Mutilation of Sepulchral Monuments, 101 — Psalm xc. 9, 102—Sheridan's Greek — Quotation Wanted

— Enigma — Cruel King Philip — Orbis Centrum — Greek Proverbs — The Shamrock and the Blessed Trinity — Trade and Improvement of Ireland —Arthur Dobbs —

— Kindlie Tenants — Quotations Wanted — Baptismal Names — Passage in Tennyson —Alfred Buun, 103.

Notes on Books. Ac.




Beneath an arch cut in the wall which separates the Elder Lady Chapel from the north aisle of Bristol Cathedral is an altar tomb, which is usually ascribed to Robert Fitz-Harding, the founder of the Berkeley family, and Eva his wife. Mr. Britton, however, says (Bristol Cathedral, p. 57), it "may with more certainty be referred to the third Maurice, Lord Berkeley, who died in 1368, and Elizabeth his wife." Both of which statements are, I believe, incorrect.

At the foot of this tomb is a modern inscription on a plain marble tablet, which records that it is—

"The Monument of Robert Fitz-Harding, Lord of Berkeley, descended from the Kings of Denmark; and Eva his wife, by whom he had five Sons and two Daughters: Maurice, his eldest Son, was the first of this Family that took the Name of Berkeley: This Robert FitzHarding laid the Foundation of this Church, and Monastery of St. Augustine, in the year 1140, the fifth of King Stephen; dedicated and Endowed it in 1148. He died in the year 1170, in the 17th of King Henry the Second."

On the summit of this tomb repose the effigies of a male and female; the former habited in "the mixed armour of the fourteenth century, and the latter in the female attire of the same period.

From this circumstance it is clear that these figures conld not be intended to represent Robert Fitz-Harding and his lady, who flourished two centuries before; and it will appear also upon examination that it is equally incorrect to appropriate them to a warrior who died in 1368, and his wife.

The head of the male figure is covered with a conical skull-cap or helmet which is attached to a haw berk or tippet of mail by an interlaced cord. Chain mail also appears oh the lower part of the body and the feet; but the upper portion, as well as the front of the arms and legs, are covered with plate armour. This kind of mixed bodyarmour was introduced in the reign of Edward II., who ascended the throne in 1307. The dress of the female effigy also refers to the same period —namely, the beginning of the fourteenth century, when the attire of ladies of rank was composed of the coif, hood, or veil, and wimple covering the head, neck, and chirt; whilst the body was enveloped in a long loose robe, over which was worn a cloak or mantle. This fashion appears to have changed early in the reign of Edward III., who succeeded his father in 1327, when the loose dress was superseded by the tight-bodied gown conforming to the shape of ihe person.

These particulars clearly decide the age of this monument, and fixes the date of its erection at the commencement of the reign of the last-named monarch. If additional evidence were required, we find it in the tomb itself on which these effigies repose, for the sides are embellished with a series of recessed canopied niches and buttresses, of a style clearly indicating that the monument belongs to the same period as the figures resting upon it.

A comparatively recent inscription on a small brass plate, on the south side of this tomb, records that it " was erected to the memory of Maurice, Lord Berkeley, ninth Baron, of Berkeley Castle, who died the 8th day of June, 1368. Also of the Lady Margaret, his mother, daughter of Roger Mortimer, Earl or March, and first wife of Thomas, eighth Lord Berkeley. She died the 5th day of May, 1337." Why a female should in this case be represented on a tomb by the side of a mart who was the husband Of another, it is difficult to conceive. Mr. Britton is assuredly wrong in assigning these effigies to so late a period as 1368, when the fourth, atld not as he says, the third Maurice, Lord Berkeley, died; for the attire of both figures is too early for that date. The third Maurice, Lord Berkeley, died in 1326. He was twice married, his first wife being buried at Portbury, a manor belonging to the family, about Seven miles from this city, and in the county of Somerset; but his Second wife, who was Isabel, daughter of Gilbert de Clare, whose arms Appear over the high altar of the church, is, I have no doubt, the female represented with this third Maurice, her husband, on the monument referred to.


On a chantry tomb in the Newton Chapel also in the cathedral, is the following inscription, which was placed there "by Mrs. Archer, sister to the late Sir Michael Newton of Barrs Court, 1748 "—

"In memory of Sir Richard Newton Cradock of Barrs Court, in the County of Gloucester, one of his Majesties Justices of the Common Pleas, who died December the 13th, 111), and with his Lady lies interr'd beneath this monument."

The above inscription remained undisputed by any writer until the meeting of the Archaeological Institute for 1851 was held in this city, when, in a paper by the Rev. H. T. Eixacombe, M.A., F.S.A., the statement it contains was completely refuted. It was there shown that, although its erection " may have been to the memory of a Cradock, the notion that the judge was buried there must have arisen from some misapprehension, and it is not true that he died in 1444; (for) the last fine levied before him was in November, 1448."

Mb. Ellacombe then proceeds " to prove, beyond a doubt, that Judge Cradock and his lady rest in Yatton church, Somerset;" where, in the centre of the De Wyck Aisle, or north transept, stands a very handsome alabaster altar tomb. Its sides are enriched with five beautifully-wrought niches, within which are full-length figures of angels holding shields, which Collinson says (Hist, of Somerset, vol. iii. p. 619), were once charged with the arms of Newton and Shirburn, impaled with Perrott; but they are now almost entirely obliterated. The east and west ends of the tomb have each two niches, with figures and shields corresponding with those on the sides. On the summit, the venerable judge is represented in the costume of men of his rank at the time in which he lived — a skull-cap (beneath which his hair is seen) tied under his chin, and his person is covered with a robe reaching to his feet; over his shoulders he wears a tippet extending halfway down his arms. Covering all is a cloak or mantle, falling nearly to the ankles. This is fastened on the right shoulder by a button, and beneath it round the neck is a collar of esses. This cloak hangs gracefully on the left side, and is passed over the left arm after the manner of the chesible on that of ecclesiastics. Round the middle is an ornamental girdle, from which depends a short sword in an enriched scabbard; and' also the gypciere or purse, common in the reigns of Henry VI. and Edward IV. The head of the judge rests on what appears to have been a helmet, surmounted with a wreath crowned with a ducal coronet, from which issues a garb, the crest of the family; his feet rest against two dogs.

On the left side of the judge lie the effigies of a slender female habited in a flowing robe, reaching to the feet; but to the upper part of the person it fits tight down to the wrists, where it is laced, leaving however the breasts exposed. Over this is another robe reaching to the knees, and terminating with a broad hem; it is suspended from the neck by narrow bands, passing over the chest, and leaving the under robe, which sits close at the hips, exposed below the waist, which is encircled with a small ornamented girdle. From a curb-chain round the neck was apparently suspended a cross, beneath which a cord, reaching to the knees, terminates with small tassels. Higher up in the neck is an ornamental collar or band, from which hangs a jewel. A cloak or mantle, fastened across the breast by a cordon and jewels, extends to the feet, which it nearly envelopes. The head, once supported by angels, is covered with the mitred head-dress, the front having a broad turned-up lappet above the forehead, from whence the mitre issues. On each side at the feet is a small dog, and the hands of both figures are raised as in supplication; but the entire monument, with its effigies and beautiful sculpture, is much mutilated.

"This tomb (says Mr. Ellacombe) is by tradition ascribed to Judge Cradock. The female figure is supposed to represent Emma de Wick. The inscription is gone. There can be no doubt, from the costume, that the male effigy is that of a judge. That it is a Cradock is confirmed by the garb or wheat-sheaf, on which his head is laid. Besides, in the interesting accounts of the churchwardens of Yatton, anno 1450-1, among the receipts there is this entry: 'It. recipimus de D'no de Wyke per manu' J. Newton, filii sui de legato Dn'i Kici. Newton, ad—p' Campana Ii1.'

"That this date is nearer the time of his death than 1444, as stated on the monument in the Cathedral, is confirmed by the fact of the fine levied in 1448."

Mb. Ellacombe then proceeds to give other reasons for his opinion, and finishes his remarks as follows: —

"I conclude, therefore, that Judge Cradock's tomb ia in Yatton Church, and that the tomb in Bristol Cathedral is not his. 1 have not been able to assign that tomb to any other of the family, unless it be to Richard Newton, a grandson of the judge, the time of whose death, 1500, would accord well with the design of the monument; and it is not known where he was buried. If my view be correct, the circumstance of his being called Richard, after his grandfather, might have led to the mistake."—(Proceedings of the Archaological Institute, 1851, pp. 237—242.)

A third erroneous monumental inscription in Bristol Cathedral is that to the memory of


which is chiselled on a pedestal of marble, after the manner of the Perpendicular style of English architecture, beneath a bust of the poet laureate, and is as follows : —'

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