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cosmopolitan; Chaulelasmus (2 sp.), Palaearctic region and North America; Spatula (5 sp.), all Temperate regions; Malacorhynchus (1 sp.), Australia; Cairina (1 sp.), Tropical South America; Branta (1 sp.), Palaearctic region and India; Fuligula (5 sp.), North Temperate regions and New Zealand; AEthya (5 sp.), Palaearctic and Nearctic regions, India, Australia, and South Africa; Metopiana (1 sp.), South Temperate America; Bucephala (4 sp.), Nearctic and Palaearctic regions; Harelda (2 sp.), Northern Palaeartic and Nearctic regions; Hymenolaimus (1 sp.), New Zealand; Camptolaimus (1 sp.), North-east of North America; Micropterus (1 sp.), Temperate South America; Somateria (5 sp.), Arctic and sub-arctic regions; OEdemia (5 sp.), Nearctic and Palaearctic regions; Biziura (1 sp.), Australia; Thalassornis (1 sp.), South Africa; Erismatura (6 sp.), all America, Southeast Europe and South Africa; Nesometta (1 sp.), Auckland Islands; Mergametta (3 sp.), Andes of Columbia to Chili; Mergus (6 sp.), Palaearctic and Nearctic regions, Brazil, and the Auckland Islands.

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The Laridae, or Gulls and Terns, are true cosmopolites, inhabiting the shores and islands of every zone; and most of the genera have also a wide range. They are therefore of little use in the study of geographical distribution. The genera are as follows:—

Stercorarius (6 sp.), cosmopolitan, most abundant in cold and temperate zones; Rhodostethia (1 sp.), North America; Larus (60 sp.), cosmopolitan; Xema (1 sp.), North Temperate zone; Creagrus (1 sp.), North Pacific ; Pagophila (1 sp.), Arctic seas; Rissa (3 sp.), Arctic and Northern seas; Sterna (36 sp.), cosmopolitan ; Hydrochelidon (12 sp.), Tropical and Temperate zones; Gygis (1 sp.), Indian Ocean and Tropical Pacific Islands; Anous (6 sp.), Tropical and Temperate zones; Narnio (1 sp.), South Temperate America; Rhynchops (3 sp.), Tropical America, Africa, and India.

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The Procellariidae, comprising the Shearwaters, Petrels, and Albatrosses, are universally distributed, but some of the genera are local.

Puffinus (20 sp.), Procellaria (18 sp.), and Fulmarus (40 sp.), are cosmopolitan; Prion (5 sp.) and Pelecanoides (3 sp.), belong to the South Temperate and Antarctic regions; Diomedia (10 sp.), comprises the Albatrosses, which are tropical, occasionally wandering into temperate seas.

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The Pelecanidae, comprising the Gannets, Pelicans, Darters, and Frigate-Birds, although universally distributed, are more abundant in tropical and temperate regions.

Sula. (8 sp.) and Phalacrocoraz (35 sp.), are cosmopolitan ; Pelecanus (9 sp.) is tropical and temperate; Fregetta (2 sp.) and Phaeton (3 sp.) are confined to Tropical seas; Ptotus (4 sp.) to Tropical and warm Temperate zones.

FAMILY 122—SPHENISCIDAE (3 Genera, 18 Species.)

GENERAL DISTRIBUTION.

NEOTRopical PALEARCTIC

NEARCTIC Erhiopian ORIENTAL AUSTRALIAN SUD-REGIONS. SUB-REGIONS. SUB-REGIONs. SUB-REGIONs. SUB-Regions. SUB-Regions.

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The Penguins are entirely confined to the Antarctic and South Temperate regions, except two species which are found on the coast of Peru and the Galapagos. They are most plentiful in the southern parts of South America, Australia, New Zealand, and most of the Antarctic islands, and one or two species are found at the Cape of Good Hope. The genera as given in the Hand List are:—

Spheniscus (1 sp.), South Africa and Cape Horn; Eudyptes (15 sp.), with the range of the family; Aptenodytes (2 sp.), Antarctic Islands.

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The Northern Divers are confined to the Arctic and North Temperate Seas. The only genus, Colymbus, has one species confined to the West Coast of North America, the others being common to the two northern continents.

FAMILY 124.—PODICIPIDAE. (2 Genera, 33 Species.)

GENERAL DISTRIBUTION.

AUSTRALIAN
SUB-REGIONS.

ORIENTAL
SUB-REgions.

Ethiopian
SUB-REGIONs.

PALEARCTIC
SUB-REGIONS.

NEARCTIC
SUB-REGIONS.

NEOTRoPICAL
SUB-REGIONS.

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The Grebes are universally distributed. The genera are Podiceps (26 sp.), cosmopolitan; and Podilymbus (2 sp.), confined to North and South America. Some ornithologists group these birds with the Colymbidae.

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The Alcidae, comprising the Auks, Guillemots, and Puffins, are confined to the North Temperate and Arctic regions, where they represent the Penguins of the Antarctic lands. One of the most remarkable of these birds, the Great Auk, formerly abundant in the North Atlantic, is now extinct. The genera are as follows:— Alca (2 sp.), North Atlantic and Arctic seas; Fratercula (4 sp.), Arctic and North Temperate zones; Ceratorhina (2 sp.), North Pacific; Simorhynchus (8 sp.), North Pacific ; Brachyrhamphus (3 sp.), North Pacific to Japan and Lower California; Uria (8 sp.), Arctic and North Temperate zones; Mergulus (1 sp.), North Atlantic and Arctic Seas. The last three genera constitute the family Uriidae, of some ornithologists.

General Remarks on the Distribution of the Anseres.

The Anseres, or Swimmers, being truly aquatic birds, possess, as might be expected, a large number of cosmopolitan families and genera. No less than 5 out of the 8 families have a worldwide distribution, and the others are characteristic either of the North or the South Temperate zones. Hence arises a peculiarity of distribution to be found in no other order of birds; the Temperate being richer than the Tropical regions. The Nearctic and Palaearctic regions each have seven families of Anseres, two of which, the Colymbidae and Alcidae, are peculiar to them. The Ethiopian, Australian, and Neotropical regions, which all extend into the South Temperate zone, have six families, with one peculiar to them; while the Oriental region, which is wholly tropical, possesses the five cosmopolitan families only.

There are about 78 genera and 552 species of Anseres, giving 69 species to a family, a high number compared with the Waders, and due to there being only one very small family, the Colymbidae. The distribution of the Anseres, being more determined by temperature than by barriers, the great regions which are so well indicated by the genera and families of most other orders of birds, hardly limit these, except in the case of the genera of Anatidae.

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The Ostriches consist of two genera, sometimes formed into distinct families. Struthio (2 sp.) inhabits the desert regions of North, East, and South Africa, as well as Arabia and Syria. It therefore just enters the Palaearctic region. Rhea (3 sp.) inhabits

Temperate South America, from Patagonia to the confines of Brazil.

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The Cassowaries and Emeus are confined to the Australian region. The Emeus, Dromaeus (2 sp.), are found only on the

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