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The Amphisbaenidae, which, in the opinion of Dr. Günther, are all comprised in the genus Amphisbeena, inhabit Spain and Asia Minor, North and Tropical Africa, South America as far as Buenos-Ayres and the West Indian Islands.
FAMILY 29–LEPIDOSTERNIDAE (3 Genera, 6 Species.)
NEOTROPICAL NEARCTIC PALEARctic ETHIoPIAN ORIENTAL AUSTRALIAN
SUB-REGIONS. | SUB-REGIONS. SUB-REGIONS. | SUB-REGIONs. | Sub-REGloss. | SUB-REGIONs. | - -
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The small family of Lepidosternidae has nearly the same distribution as the last, indicating a curious relationship between the Tropical parts of Africa and America. Lepidosternon and Cephalopeltis are American genera, while Monotrophis is African.
The Waranidae, or Water Lizards, are most abundant in the Oriental region, whence they extend into the Austro-Malay Islands as far as New Guinea, and into Australia. Several species are found in Africa. Psammosaurus (1 sp.), is found in North Africa and North-western India; Monitor (18 sp.), has the range of the family; while Hydrosaurus (8 sp.) ranges from Siam to the Philippines, New Guinea, and Australia.
FAMILY 31–HELODERMIDAE (1 Genus, 1 Species.)
N Eotropical N EARCTIC PALEARCTIC Ethiopian ORIENTAL AUSTRALIAN SUB-REGIONS. SUB-REGIONs. | Sub-REGIONs. SUB-REgions. | SUB-REGloss. | Sub-REGIons. ----|--|--|--|--|---- |----|--|-
The genus Heloderma, which constitutes this family, is found in Mexico.
The Teidae, or Teguexins—a group of Lizards allied to the European Lacertidae, but with differently formed superciliary scales—are highly characteristic of the Neotropical region, abounding almost everywhere from Patagonia to the Antilles and Mexico, and extending northwards to California on the west and to Pennsylvania on the east. The most extensive genus is Ameiva, containing nearly 60 species and having the range of the entire family; Teius (3 sp.), inhabits Brazil and Mendoza; Callopistes (2 sp.), Chili; Centropya (3 sp.), Paraguay to Alabama; Dicrodon (Peru); Monoplocus (Western Ecuador); with Acrantus, Acanthopyga, Emminia, Crocodilurus, Custa, and Ada, which each consist of a single species, and all inhabit Tropical America.
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The Lacertidae, or Land Lizards, are small-sized, terrestrial, non-burrowing lizards, very characteristic of the Palaearctic region, which contains more than half the known species, and of the adjacent parts of the Oriental and Ethiopian regions, but extending also to South Africa, to Java, and even to Australia. The best-defined genera are the following:—
Lacerta (10 sp.), ranging over all Central and South Europe to Poland, and farther north in Russia and Siberia, eastward to Persia, and southward to North and West Africa; Zootoca (8 sp.), has nearly the same range in Europe as the last genus, but has representatives in Madeira, South Africa, and Australia; Tachydromus (7 sp.) is widely scattered in Chinese Asia, Japan, Borneo, and West Africa; Acanthodactylus (10 sp.) is most abundant in North Africa, but has a species in South Africa, and two in Central India; Eremias (18 sp.) is found all over Africa, and also in the Crimea, Persia, Tartary and China; Psammodromus (2 sp.), is confined to Spain, France, and Italy; Ophiops (6 sp.), inhabits India, Persia, and Asia Minor to South Russia. Less strongly marked and perhaps less natural genera are the following:—
Thetia (1 sp.), Algiers; Teira (1 sp.), Madeira; Nucras (4 sp.), Caucasus and South Africa; Notopholis (4 sp.), South Europe and South Africa; Algira (3 sp.), North and South Africa; Scrapteira (1 sp.), Nubia; Aspidorhinus (1 sp.), Caspian district ; Messalina (4 sp.), North Africa, Persia, and North-west India Cabrita (1 sp.), Central India; Pachyrhynchus (1 sp.), Benguela.
The Zonuridae, or Land Lizards, characterised by a longitudinal fold of skin on each side of the body, have a very remarkable distribution. Their head-quarters is the Ethiopian region, which contains more than half the known genera and species, most of which are found in South Africa and several in Madagascar. Next to Africa the largest number of genera and species are found in Mexico and Central America,with a few in the Antilles, South America, and California, and even as far north as British Columbia. Three of the genera form a distinct sub-group—the Glass Snakes, the four species composing it being located in North Africa, North America, South-eastern Europe, and the Khasya Hills. The prominent fact in the distribution of this family is, that the mass of the genera and species form two groups, one in South Africa, the other in Mexico, countries between which it would be difficult to imagine any means of communication. We have here, probably, an example of a once much more extensive group, widely distributed over the globe, and which has continued to maintain itself only in those districts especially adapted to its peculiar type of organization. This must undoubtedly have been the case with the genus Pseudopus, whose two species now inhabit South-eastern Europe and the Khasya Hills in Assam respectively. The genera are, Cordylus, Pseudocordylus, Platysaurus, Cordylosaurus, Pleurostrichus, and Saurophis, confined to South Africa; Zonurus, South and East Africa and Madagascar; GerThosaurus, ranges over the whole Ethiopian region; Cicigma is confined to Madagascar; Gerrhonotus (22 sp.), ranges from British Columbia, California, and Texas, to Cuba and South America, but is most abundant in Mexico and Central America; Abromia and Barissia, are two genera of doubtful distinctness, peculiar to Mexico; Ophisaurus (the Glass Snake) is found in the Southern United States as far as Virginia; the allied genus Hyalosaurus in North Africa; and Pseudopus, as above stated, in South-east Europe and the Khasya Hills.
FAMILY 35–CHALCIDAE (3 Genera, 8 Species.)
N roTRoPICAL NEARCTIC PALEARCTIC FTII topian ORIENTAL A USTRALIAN SUB-REGIONS. | SuB-REGIONS. SUB-REGIONS. | SUB-REGIONS. | Sub-REGIONs. SUB-REGIONS. 1.a.s---is- ----|----|--|--| - - -
The Chalcidae are a small group of Lizards characteristic of Tropical America, one species extending into the United States.
The genera are Chalcis (6 sp.), ranging from Central America to Chili; two other species, which have been placed in distinct genera, inhabit North America and Peru.
The single species of Anadia, constituting this family, inhabits Tropical America.
The genus Heterodactylus, which constitutes this family, inhabits Brazil.