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confined to Equatorial America. The distribution of the genera is as follows :

Aryes (2 sp.), Andes of Peru and Ecuador; Stygogenes (2 sp.), Andes; Brontes (1 sp.), Andes; Astroblepus (1 sp.), Popayan; Callichthys (11 sp.), Tropical South America east of Andes, and Trinidad ; Plecostomus (15 sp.), Tropical South America east of Andes, and Trinidad ; Liposarcus (3 sp.), Surinam and Brazil ; Chatostomus (25 sp.), Tropical America, Trinidad, and Porto Rico; Pterygoplichthys (4 sp.), Brazil ; Rhinelepis (1 sp.), Brazil; Acanthicus (2 sp.), Equatorial America; Loricaria (17 sp.), Tropical South America east of Andes ; Acestra (4 sp.), Brazil and Guiana ; Sisor (1 sp.), Northern Bengal; Erethistes (1 sp.), Assam; Psculecheneis (1 sp.), Khasya Hills; Exostoma (2 sp.), Assam and Tenasserim; Bunocephalus (2 sp.), Guiana; Bunocephalichthys (1 sp.), Rio Branco, North Brazil ; Aspredo (6 sp.), Guiana.

Sub-family 7 (SILURIDÆ OPISTHOPTERA) consists of two groups: Nematogenyina (2 genera), and Trichomycterina (3 genera), and is confined to South America. The distribution of the genera is as follows :

Heptapterus (2 sp.), South America; Nematogenys (1 sp.), Chili; Trichomycterus (7 sp.), South America to 15,000 feet elevation; Eremophilus (1 sp.), Andes of Bogota; Pariodon (1 sp.), Amazon.

Sub-family 8 (SILURIDÆ BRANCHICOLA) is confined to Tropical South America. It consists of one group, Stegophilina, and 2 genera : Stegophilus (1 sp.), Brazil; and Vandellia (2 sp.), Amazon Valley

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FAMILY 60. CHARACINIDÆ. (47 Genera, 230 Species.)

Fresh-water fishes, with scaly bodies and without barbels.”

DISTRIBUTION.— The Neotropical and Ethiopian regions. This extensive family is divided by Dr. Günther into 10 groups, viz. : Erythrinina (5 genera), South America; Curumatina

(6 genera), South America; Citharinina (1 genus), Tropical Africa; Anostomatina (3 genera), South America ; Tetragonopterina (16 genera), South America and Tropical Africa; Hydrocyonina (9 genera), Tropical America and Tropical Africa ; Distichodontina (1 genus), Tropical Africa ; Icthyborina (1 genus), Africa ; Crenuchina (1 genus), Equatorial America; Serrasalmonina (4 genera), South America.

The following is the distribution of the genera :

Macrodon (4 sp.), Tropical America; Erythrinus (5 sp.), Brazil and Guiana ; Lebiasina (1 sp.), West Equatorial America ; Pyrrhulina (1 sp.), Guiana ; Corynopoma (4 sp.), Trinidad only ; Curimatus (15 sp.), Tropical South America and Trinidad; Prochilodus (12 sp.), South America to the La Plata ; Cæntropus (2 sp.), East Equatorial America ; Hemiod'us (8 sp.), Equatorial America east of Andes; Saccodon (1 sp.), Ecuador; Parodon (1 sp.), Brazil; Citharinus (2 sp.), Tropical Africa; Anostomus (8 sp.), Tropical America; Rhytiodus (2 sp.), Equatorial America; Leporinus (14 sp.), South America East of Andes; Piabucina (2 sp.), Guiana ; Alestes (4 sp.), Tropical Africa : Brachyalestes (5 sp.), Tropical Africa ; Tetragonopterus (32 sp.), Tropical America ; Scissor (1 sp.), South America; Pseudochalceus (1 sp.), West Ecuador ; Chirodon (2 sp.), Chili; Chalceus (1 sp.), Guiana; Brycon (10 sp.), South America east of Andes; Chalcinopsis (4 sp.), Central America and Ecuador; Bryconops (2 sp.), Tropical America; Creagrutus (1 sp.), Western Ecuador; Chalcinus (4 sp.), Tropical South America; Gastropelecus (8 sp.), Tropical South America; Piabuca (2 sp.), Equatorial America ; Agoniates (1 sp.), Guiana; Anacyrtus (7 sp.), Central and South America; Hystricodon (1 sp.), Equatorial America; Salminus (3 sp.), South America ; Hydrocyon (3 sp.), Tropical Africa ; Sarcodaces (1 sp.), West Africa ; Oligosarcus (1 sp.), Brazil; Xiphoramphus (7 sp.), South America east of Andes; Xiphostoma (5 sp.), Equatorial America east of Andes ; Cynodon (3 sp.), Tropical America East of Andes ; Distichodus (7 sp.), Tropical Africa ; Icthyborus (3 sp.), Nile; Crenuchus (1 sp.), Guiana ; Mylesinus (1 sp.), Equatorial America ; Serrasalmo (13 sp.), Tropical South America east of Andes ; Myletes (18 sp.),

Tropical South America east of Andes; Catoprion (1 sp.), Brazil and Guiana.

FAMILY 61.-HAPLOCHITONIDÆ. (2 Genera, 3 Species.)

“Fresh-water fishes, with naked or scaly bodies and without barbels.”

DISTRIBUTION.—Temperate South America and South Australia.

The genera are, Haplochiton (2 sp.), Tierra del Fuego and the Falkland Islands; Prototroctes (2 sp.), Southern Australia and New Zealand.

FAMILY 62.-STERNOPTYCHIDÆ. (6 Genera, 12 Species.)

"Marine fishes, with very thin deciduous scales or none, and with a row of phosphorescent spots or organs on the under surface of the body."

DISTRIBUTION.-Mediterranean and Atlantic.

These are deep-sea fishes found in the Mediterranean sea, and in the deep Atlantic from the coasts of Norway to the Azores and the Tropics.

FAMILY 63.—SCOPELIDÆ. (11 Genera, 47 Species.) “Marine fishes, somewhat resembling the fresh-water Siluridæ.”

DISTRIBUTION.- Almost universal, but most abundant in warm and tropical seas.

These are deep-sea fishes, abounding in the Mediterranean and the great oceans, a few extending north to near Greenland and south to Tasmania.

FAMILY 64.–STOMIATIDÆ. (4 Genera, 8 Species.)

“Small marine fishes, naked or with very fine scales.”

DISTRIBUTION.—The Mediterranean and Atlantic.

These are deep-sea fishes, ranging from Greenland to beyond the Equator.

FAMILY 65.—SALMONIDÆ. (15 Genera, 157 Species.)

* Fresh-water fishes, many species periodically descending to the sea and a few altogether marine :-Salmon and Trout.”

DISTRIBUTION.— The Palæarctic and Nearctic Regions, and one genus and species in New Zealand. A considerable number of species are confined to single lakes or rivers, others have a wide distribution,

The genera are distributed as follows:

Salmo (83 sp.), rivers and lakes of the Palearctic and Nearctic Regions, as far south as Algeria, Asia Minor, the HindooKoosh and Kamschatka, and to about 38° North Latitude in North America, many of the species migratory ; Onchorhynchus (8 sp.), American and Asiatic rivers entering the Pacific, as far south as San Francisco and the Amur; Brachymystax (1 sp.), Siberian rivers, from Lake Baikal and the Atlai Mountains northwards; Luciotrutta (2 sp.), Caspian Sea and Volga; Plecoglossus (1 sp.), Japan and Formosa; Osmerus (3 sp.), rivers of temperate Europe and North America entering the Atlantic, and one species in California ; Thaleichthys (1 sp.), Columbia River, Vancouver's Island; Hypomesus (1 sp.), coasts of California, Vancouver's Island, and North-eastern Asia; Mallotus (1 sp.), coasts of Arctic America from Greenland to Kamschatka; Retropinna (1 sp.), fresh waters of New Zealand; Coregonus (41 sp.), fresh waters of northern parts of temperate Europe, Asia and North America, many of the species migratory: Thymallus (6 sp.), fresh waters of temperate parts of

Europe, Asia, and North America ; Argentina (4 sp.), Mediterranean and deep seas of Western Europe ; Microstoma (2 sp.), Mediterranean, and seas of Greenland; Salaric (2 sp.), China and Japan, in seas and rivers. Salmo, Osmerus, Coregonus, and Thymallus, are British genera.

Family 66.—PERCOPSIDÆ. (1 Genus, 1 Species.)

“ A fresh-water fish covered with toothed scales."

DISTRIBUTION.–Lake Superior, North America.

FAMILY 67.-GALAXIDÆ. (1 Genus, 12 Species.)

Fresh-water fishes, with neither scales nor barbels.”

DISTRIBUTION.—The temperate zone of the Southern Hemisphere.

The only genus, Galaxias, is found in New Zealand, Tasmania, and Tierra del Fuego, ranging north as far as Queensland and Chili; and one of the species is absolutely identical in the two regions.

FAMILY 68.-MORMYRIDE. (3 Genera, 25 Species.)

“ Fresh-water fishes, with scales on the body and tail but not on the head, and no barbels."

DISTRIBUTION.—The Ethiopian Region.

Most abundant in the Nile, a few from the Gambia, the Congo, and Rovuma. The genera are :

Mormyrus (1 sp.), Nile, Gambia, West Africa, Mozambique, Rovuma ; Hyperopsius (2 sp.), Nile and West Africa; Mormyrops (4 sp.), Nile, West Africa and Mozambique.

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