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Hemidactylium, ii. 413
Hemidactylus, ii. 399
Hemierges, ii. 397
Hemigalea, ii. 195
Hemignathus, ii. 277
Hemimantis, ii. 419
Hemiodus, ii. 445
Hemiphractus, ii. 420
Hemipimelodus, ii. 443
Hemiprocne, ii. 320
Hemipus, ii. 270
Hemirhamphus, ii. 450
Hemisilurus, ii. 442
Hemisorubim, ii. 442
Hemistilbon, ii. 109
Hemisus, ii. 414
Hemitriccus, ii. 101
Hemizus, ii. 267
Hemicognathus, ii. 328
Henicopernis, ii. 349
Henicophaps, ii. 333
Henicorhina, ii. 264
Henicornis, ii. 103
Heptapterus, ii. 444
Heredia, ii. 413
Herons, ii. 339
Heros, ii. 438
Herpestes, ii. 195
Herpetethiops, ii. 376
Herpetodryas, ii. 376
Herpeton, ii. 376
Herpetoreas, ii. 375
Herpetothcres, ii. 848
Herpetotherium, N. American Tertiary, i. 134
Herpsilochmus, ii. 104
Herring, ii. 454
Hesperia, ii. 480
HESPERIDAE, ii. 480
Hesperomys, N. American Tertiary, i. 140
in Brazilian caves, i. 145
S. American Pliocene, i. 147
ii. 230, 231
Hesperornis, N. American Cretaceous, i. 164
Hestia, ii. 470
Hestima, ii. 501
Heterobranchus, ii. 441
Heterocephalus, ii. 231
Heterocercus, ii. 102
Heterochroa, ii. 474
Heterocnemis, ii. 104
Heterocorys, ii. 289
Heterodactylus, ii. 393
Heterodon, in Brazilian caves, i. 145
ii. 246
ii. 376
Heterogynis, ii. 481
Heterolocha, 287
Heteromorpha, ii. 262
Heteromys, ii. 233
Heteronota, ii. 400
Heteronympha, ii. 471
Heteropelma, ii. 102, 292
Heteropus, ii. 397
HETEROPYGII, ii. 450
Heterospizias, ii. 348
Heterotis, ii. 454
Heterura, ii. 290
Hewitsonia, ii. 477
Heragonia, ii. 491
Hexaprotodon, Indian Miocene, i. 122
Hickman, Mr. John, on a cause of the extinc-
tion of large animals, i là8
Hieracidea, ii. 349
Hierar, ii. 349
Hierococcyx, ii. 310
Hierofalco, ii. 349

Hill-Tits, ii. 266
Himalayas, altitude reached by various groups
in the, i. 329, 333
Himantornis, ii. 352
Himantopus, ii. 353
Himulia, ii. 397
Hipistes, ii. 376
Hipparchia, ii. 471
Hipparion, European Pliocene, i. 112
Miocene of Greece, i. 115
European Miocene, i. 119
N. American Post-Pliocene, i. 180
N. American Tertiary, i. 135
ii. 211
Hippocampus, ii. 457
Hippoglossoides, ii. 441
Hippoglossus, 441
HIPPOPOTAMIDAE, ii. 214
Hippopotamus, Post-Pliocene, i. 112
Europe in Pliocene, i. 113
Indian Pliocene, i. 122
ii. 214
Hipposyus, N. American Tertiary, i. 133
Hippotheritum, European Miocene, i. 119
Indian Miocene, i. 122
HIPPOTRAGINAE, ii. 223
Hippotraqus, European Miocene, i. 120
ii. 223
HIPPURITIDAE, ii. 534
Hirundinea, ii. 101
HIRUNDINIDAE, ii. 280
Hirundo, ii. 281
Hoazin, ii. 345
Holocanthus, ii. 427
Holbrookia, ii. 401
Holochilus, ii. 230
Hologer rhum, ii. 379
HOLOSTEI, ii. 458
Holurophis, ii. 380
Homalorum, S. American Pliocene,
. 146
Homalophis, ii. 376
Homalophus, European Miocene, i. 161
HOMALOPSIDAE, ii. 376
Homalopsis, ii. 376
Homaloptera, ii. 453
Homalosoma, ii. 490
Hombronia, ii. 397
Homocamelus, N. American Tertiary, i. 138
ii. 217
Homorus, ii. 103
ii. 524
Honey-guides, ii. 304
Honeysuckers, birds specially adapted to
Australia, i. 392
ii. 275
Hooker, Dr., on deficiency of odours in New
Zealand plants, i. 464
Hoopoes, ii. 317
Hopladelus, ii. 442
HOPLEGNATHIDAE, ii. 433
Hoplobatrachus, ii. 421
HOPLOCEPHALA, ii. 460
Hoplocephalus, ii. 383
Hoplocetus, European Pliocene, i. 112
Hoplophoneus, N. American Tertiary, i. 134
Hoplophorus, ii. 246
Hoplopterus, ii. 356
Herites, ii. 258
Hornbills, ii. 316
Horses, fossil, in Indian Miocene, i. 121
perfect series of ancestral, in N. America,
i. 1;

i. 136
robable birthplace of, i. 154
i. 211
Horse-shoe bats, ii. 182

[ocr errors]

Hortulia, ii. 381

Howling monkeys, ii. 175

Hudson, Mr., on land-birds of Patagonia, ii. 39

Humming-birds, ii. 321

Huro, ii. 425

Hutton. Capt. F. W., on origin of New Zealand

fauna, i. 461

Huxley, Professor, on zoological regions, i. 59
division of animal kingdom by, i. 85

Hyades, ii. 472

Hyaena, Post-Pliocene, i. 112
Miocene of Greece, i. 115
European Miocene, i. 118
Indian Miocene, i. 121
fossil in N. China, i. 123
ii. 196

Hyaenarctos in European Pliocene, i. 112
European Miocene, i. 118
Indian Miocene, i. 121
S. American Pliocene, i. 146

Hyaenictis, Miocene of Greece, i. 115
European Miocene, i. 118
ii. 196

Hyaenidar, European Miocene, i. 118

HYAFNIDAE, ii. 196

Hyaenodon, European Miocene, i. 118
European Eocene, i. 125
N. American Tertiary, i. 134

Hyaenodontidor, European Miocene, i. 118

HYALEIDAE, ii. 531

Hyalimar, ii. 517

Hyalina, ii. 515

Hualosaurus, ii. 392

Hyantis, ii. 472

Hubocustis, ii. 520

Hyborhynchus, ii. 452

Hudrocent, ii. 521

Hydrochelidon, ii. 364

Hydrochoerus, N. American Post-Pliocene, i. 120

Hydrochoerus, ii. 241

Hydrocissa, ii. 317

Hydrocyon. ii. 445

Hydrogale, ii. 199

Hydromedusa, ii. 408

Hydromys, ii. 230

Hydrophasianus, ii. 355

HYDROPHID.E., ii. 384

Hydrophis, ii. 384

Hydropotes, ii. 219

Hydropsalis, ii. 319

livio European Miocene, i. 162
. .298

Hudrosaurus, ii. 389
Hyetorn is, ii. 309
Hygrogonus, ii. 439
Hyla, ii. 418
Hylactes, ii. 297
Hylambates, ii. 419
Hylaplesia, ii. 415
HYLAPLESIDAE, ii. 414
Hylarama, ii. 419
Hulatomus, ii. 303
Hylella. ii. 418
HY LIDAE, ii. 418
Huliota, ii. 270
Hylobates, ii. 171
Hylocharis, ii. 109
ii. 271
Hylodes, ii. 419
Hylomanes, ii. 313
Hylomys, ii. 186
Hylophilus, ii. 280
Hylorhina, ii. 420
Hylotrupes, ii. 502
Hyloratus. ii. 419
Hymenolaimus, ii. 364

HYODONTIDAE, ii. 453

Huohi, , us, N. American Tertiary, i. 135

Hyonoschus, European Miocene, i. 120
ii. 218

Hyopicus, ii. 303

Hyopotamus, European Miocene, i. 119
N. American Tertiary, i. 187
ii. 216

Huorsodus, N. American Tertiary, i. 133

Hyotherium, European Miocene, i. 119
ii. 215

Hupargos, ii. 287

Hyperantha, ii. 496

Hypergerus, ii. 261

Hupermnestra, ii. 479

Hyperodapedon, ii. 405

Hyperolius, ii. 417

Hyperoodon, ii. 208

HYPEROODONTID.E., ii. 208

Hyperopsius, ii. 448

Hypertrigulus, N. American Tertiary, i. 138

Hophantorn is, ii. 286

Hospheroes, ii. 265

Hypisodus, N. American Tertiary, i. 138

Hypna, ii. 474

Hypnale, ii. 385

Hypochera, ii. 287

Hypochrysops, ii. 477

Hypocista, ii 471

Hupocnemis, ii 104

Hypocolius, ii. 272

Hypodes, ii. 272

Hypogeomys, ii. 230

Hypolais, ii. 25S

Hypolithus, ii. 491

Hypolycaena, ii. 477

Hypomesus, ii. 477

Hypopachus, ii. 416

Hypophthalmichthys, ii. 453

Hypophthalmus, ii. 442

Hypopyrrhus, ii. 2S2

Hyporissus, ii. 190

Hypothymis, ii. 271

Hyporanthus, ii. 304

Hupsipetes, ii 267

livion”. Australian Post-Tertiary, i. 157

. 251

Hypsirhina, ii. 376
Hypsirhynchus, ii. 375
##### N. American Tertiary, i. 136
HYRACIDAF, ii. 228
Hyracodon, N. American Tertiary, i. 136
ii. 214
ii. 248
Hyracoidea, classification of, i. 90
Palaearctic, i. 242
Ethiopian, i. 304
HYRACOIDEA, ii. 228
Hyracotherium, supposed, in European Eocene,
i. 125

European Eocene, i. 126

ii. 216

ii. 229
Horaz, ii. 228
HYSTRICIDAE, ii. 240
Hystricodon, ii. 445
Hystrir, European Pliocene, i. 113

Miocene of Greece, i. 116

N. American Tertiary, i. 140

, 240

Ialments, ii. 774
Ianthornas, ii. 332
Ianthima, ii. 511

[graphic]
[graphic]

Ibidipodia, European Miocene, i. 162
Ibidorhynchus, ii. 353
Ibidorhynchus, figure of, i. 331
Ibis, ii. 360
Ibises, ii. 360
Ibycter, ii. 347
Iceland, zoology of, i. 198
Ichneumia, ii. 195
Ichthyoborus, ii., 445
Ichthyopsis, ii. 4ll
Icteria, ii. 279
ICTERIDAE. ii. 281
Icterus, ii. 282
Icthyornis, N. American Cretaceous, i. 164
Icticyon in Brazilian caves, i. 144
ii. 197
Ictinia, ii. 349
Ictitherium, Miocene of Greece, i. 115
European Miocene, i. 118
ii. 195
ii. 197
Ictonyr, ii. 190
Ictops, N., American Tertiary, i. 133
Ideopsis, ii. 470
Idmais, ii. 478
Iguana, ii. 401
Iguanas, ii. 400
IGUANIDAE, ii. 400
Ilerda, ii. 477
Ilicura, ii. 102

India, Miocene sauna of, allied to that of

Europe, i. 123
geological features of, i. 328
Indian sub-region, description of, i. 321

supposed relation to Ethiopian region, i.
321

[blocks in formation]

334
mammalia of, i. 336
illustrations of, i. 336, 339
birds of, i. 337
remote geographical relations of, i. 339
reptiles and amphibia of, i. 340
fishes of, i. 341
insects of, i. 341
coleoptera of, i. 342
terrestrial mollusca of, i. 343
zoological relations of islands of, i. 345
recent geographical changes in, i. 357
probable origin of fauna of, i. 359
Inia, ii. 209
Insectivora, European Miocene, i. 117
N. American Post-Pliocene, i. 129
N. American Tertiary, i. 133
Insectivora, classification of, i. 87
of the Palaearctic region, i. 181
of N. China and E. Thibet, i. 222
range of Palaearctic genera of, i. 239
of Madagascar, i. 273
range of Ethiopian genera of, i. 301
of the Oriental region, i. 315
range of Oriental genera of, i. 372
range of Australian genera of, i. 476
INSECTIVORA, ii. 186

INSECTIVORA, general remarks on the
distribution of, ii. 191
summary and conclusion, ii. 541
Insects, means of dispersal of, i. 32
tenacity of life of, i. 33
adapted to special conditions, i. 33
groups selected for the study of their
geographical distribution, i. 102
antiquity of the genera of, i. 166
fossil of European Miocene, i. 166
European Cretaceous, i. 167
European Wealden, i. 167
Palaeozoic, i. 168
Palaearctic, i. 187
of Central Europe, i. 196
of the Mediterranean sub-region, i. 205
of the Siberian sub-region, i. 220
of the Manchurian sub-region, i. 227
of the Ethiopian region, i. 255
of the E African sub-region, i. 260
of W. African, i. 265
S. African, i. 268
of Madagascar, i. 282
general remarks on, i. 284
of tropical Africa and America, probable
cause of similarities in, i. 291
of Indo-Chinese sub-region, i. 332
of the Oriental region, i. 318
of Ceylon, i. 327
of Indo-Malay sub-region, i. 341
statistics of collecting in the various
islands of the Malay Archipelago, i. 343
of the Australian region, i. 403
of New Guinea, i, 417
of the Moluccas, i. 420
of the Timor group, i. 426
of Celebes, i. 454
of New Zealand, i. 458
scarcity of, in New Zealand, i. 462
intiuence of, on the flora, i. 463
of the Neotropical region, ii. 13
of S. Temperate America, ii. 42
of S. Temperate America, Palaearctio
affinity of, ii. 45
of the Mexican sub-region, ii. 55
of the Antilles, ii. 73
of the Nearctic region, ii. 122
of Canada, ii. 137
distribution of, ii. 468
range of, in time, ii. 469
suminary and conclusion, ii. 550
lines of migration of, ii. 501
Iodopleura, ii. 102
Iolarina, ii. 107
Iolaus, ii. 477
Iole, ii. 267
Iora, ii. 267
Iphias, ii. 478
ii. 394

ii. 39

IPHISADAE, ii. 394

Irena, ii. 269

Iriulina, ii. 534

Iridormis, ii. 98

Irrisor, ii. 318

IRRISORIDAE, ii. 318

Isacis, N. American Tertiary, i 133

Ischeognathus, ii. 375

Ischyromys, N. American Tertiary, i. 140
ii. 236

Islands, N. European, zoology of, i. 197
of the Mediterranean sub-region, i. 206
of the W. African sub-region, i. 265
of the Ethiopian legion, i. 269
Mascarene, i. 280
of the Indo-Chinese sub-region, i. 833
of the Indo-Malay sub-region, i. 345

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[graphic]

Islands, Fiji, o: and Samoa, i, 443
Society and Marquesas, i, 444
New Caledonia and New Hebrides, i. 445
Sandwich, i 446
of New Zealand sub-region, i. 453
Norfolk, i. 453
Lord Howe's, i. 454
Chatham, i. 454
Auckland, i. 455
of Tropical S. America, ii. 29
of the Mexican sub-region, ii. 59
of Eastern United States, ii. 134
peculiar colours of pigeons in, ii. 336
abundance of land-shells in, ii. 525

Isodactylium, ii. 413

Ispidina, ii. 316

Issiodromys, European Pliocene, i. 113
ii. 232

Ithaginis, ii. 840

Ithomia, ii. 470

Ithycyphus, ii. 379

Iralus, ii. 419

Izonotus, ii. 267

Izulus, ii. 366

[ocr errors]

Jacamaralcyon, ii. 311

Jacamars, ii. 311

Jacamerops, ii. 311

Jacanas, ii. 255

Jucchus, in Brazilian caves, i. 144

Jaculus, ii. 232

Jaltris, ii. 375

Jamaicia, ii. 521

Janella, ii. 517

Janthocincla, ii. 261

Japalura, ii. 402

Japan o North China, physical features of,
. 221

southern extremity of perhaps belongs to

the Oriental region, i. 226

Japan, general character of the fauna of, i.
230

former land-connexions of, i. 231
Java, mammalia of, i. 349
roductions of, well known, i. 350
irds of, i. 351
representative species of birds in, i. 352
origin of the anomalous features of its
fauna, i. 352
Sumatra and Borneo, their geographical
contrasts and zoological peculiarities
explained, i. 357
Jays, ii. 273
Jenynsia, ii. 450
Jerboas, ii. 231
Juan Fernandez, Carabidae of, ii. 44
birds of, ii. 49
beetles and land-shells of, ii. 51
Juida, ii. 288
Juliamyia, ii. 109
Junco, ii. 284
Junonia, European Miocene, i. 167
ii. 474

[ocr errors]

Kagu, ii. 359
Kakapoe, of New Zealand, i. 455
Kalophrynus, ii. 415
Kangaroos, extinct in Australia, i. 157

ii. 251
Keneuria, ii. 397

Kerguelen *. apterous insects of, i. 211
note

Kerodon, in Brazilian caves, i. 144
S. Aimerican Pliocene, i. 147
ii. 241

Ketingus, ii. 443

Ketupa, ii. 350

King-fisher, racquet-tailed, of New Guinea,

figure of, i. 415

King-fishers, ii. 315

Kittacincla, ii. 259

Kiwi of New Zealand, i. 455

Kneria, ii. 453

Kobus, ii. 224

Koodoo antelope, figure of, i. 261

Kricogonia, ii. 478

Krynickia, ii. 517

Labeo, ii. 451
Labrar, ii. 425
LABRIDAE, ii. 437
Labrus, ii. 437
LABYRINTHICI, ii 434
Lacerta, ii. 391
LACERTIDAE, ii. 390
Lacertilia, classification of, i. 99
LACERTILIA, ii. 388
general remarks on the distribution of,
ii. 403
fossil, ii. 404
Lacuna, ii. 510
Ladrone Islands, birds of, i. 444
Larmargus, ii. 461
Laemosthemes, ii. 489
Loeosopis, ii. 477
Lafresnaya, ii. 107
Lagenocetus, ii. 208
Lagenorhynchus, ii. 209
Lagidium, ii. 237
LAGOMY IDAE, ii. 242
Lagomys, European Pliocene, i. 113
European Miocene, i. 120
ii. 242
Lagopus, ii. 339
Lagorchestes, ii. 251
Lagostomus, in Brazilian caves, i. 145
S. American Pliocene, i. 147
ii. 237
Lagothrir, ii. 174
Lais, ii. 442
Lake Baikal, seals of, i. 218
ii. 206
Lalage, ii. 269
Laletes, ii. 280
LA MIIDAE, ii. 498
Lamma, ii. 460
LAMNIDAE, ii. 460
Lampornis, ii. 107
Launpreys, ii. 463
Lamprima, ii. 493
Lampris, ii. 429
Lamprocolius, ii. 288
Lamprolorma, ii. 107
Lamrophis, ii. 380
Lampropsar, ii. 282
Lampropygia, ii. 108
Lamprospilus, ii. 477
Lamprospica, ii. 99
Lamprotes, ii. 98
Lancelet, ii. 464
Land-lizards, li. 391
Land and water, proportions of, i. 35
Land and fresh-water shells, antiquity of the
genera of, i. 168

Land-shells, Palaeozoic, i. 169
Palaearctic, i. 190
of Madeira, i. 209
of the Cape Verd Islands, i. 215
of the Ethiopian region, i. 257
of W. Africa, i. 265
of Madagascar and the Mascarene Islands,
i. 285
of the Indo Malay sub-region, i. 344
of the Australian region, i. 407
of the Sandwich Islands, i. 466
of New Zealand, i. 459
of the Neotropical region, ii. 19
of the Antilles, ii. 75
conditions favouring development of, ii. 75
of N. America, ii. 124
general observations on the distribution
of, ii. 522
richness of islands in, ii. 525
their mode of diffusion, ii. 525, 528
comparative distribution of Operculate
and In-operculate, ii. 526
estimated numbers of, ii. 526
Land-snakes, ii. 382
Langaha, ii. 379
Laniarius, ii. 272
Lanicterus, ii. 268
Laniellus, ii. 272
LANIID.E., ii. 272
Lanio, ii. 99
Lanius, European Miocene, i. 161
ii. 272
Laopithecus, N. American Tertiary, i. 133
Laornis, N. American Cretaceous, i. 164
Laprissa, ii. 421
LAR D.E., ii. 364
Larimus, ii. 428
Larks, ii. 289
Larus, ii. 364
Larvivora, ii. 259
Lasiomys, ii. 229
Lasiuromys, ii. 239
Latar, ii. 199
Lates, ii. 425
Lathria, ii. 102
Latonia, ii. 421
Latrunculus, ii. 430
Layardia, ii. 261
Lea, Dr. Isaac, on N. American Unionidae, ii. 125
Lebia, ii. 489
Lebiasina, ii. 445
Legatus, ii. 101
Leiocephalus, ii. 401
Leiolatinus, ii. 401
Leistes, ii. 282
Leistus, ii. 489
Leiuperus, ii. 420
Leiyla, ii. 419
Lemonias. ii. 476
Lemur, ii. 176
Lemur, fossil, ii. 178
Lemuravidar, N. American Tertiary, i. 133
Lemura rus, N. American Tertiary, i. 133
Lemuria, a hypothetical land, i. 76
Lemuridae, European Eocene, i. 124
LEMURIDAE, ii. 176
Lemuroidea, range of Ethiopian genera of, i.
300

range of Oriental genera of, 371
LEMUROIDEA, ii. 176
Lemurs, ii. 176
Leonia, ii. 521
Lepadogaster, ii. 436
Lepictis, N. American Tertiary, i. 133
Lepidocepalichthys, ii. 453
Lepidocephalus, ii. 453

Lepidogrammas, ii. 309

Lepidolaryna, ii. 108

Lepidoptera, cosmopolitan families of, i. 177
table of Palaearctic families of, i. 238
S. African, i. 268
table of Ethiopian families of, i. 299
of the Oriental region, i. 318
table of Oriental families of, i. 369
of the Australian region, i. 404
table of Australian families of, i. 472
of the Neotropical region, ii. 13
of the Antilles, ii. 73
table of Neotropical families of, ii. 90
of the Nearctic region, ii. 122
Nearctic families of, ii. 143

LEPIDOPTERA, ii. 470

Lepidosiren, ii. 458

LEPIDOSTEIDAE, ii. 459

Lepidosteus, ii. 459

LEPIDOSTERNIDAE, ii. 889

Lepidosternon, ii. 389

Lepilemur, ii. 176

Lepistes, ii. 450

LEPORIDAE, ii. 242

Leporinus, ii. 445

Lepricornis, ii. 476

Leprodera, ii. 501

Leptalis, ii. 478

Leptarchus, N. American Tertiary, i. 135
ii. 202

Leptasthen wra, ii. 103

Leptauchenia, N. American Tertiary, i. 138

Leptobarbina ii. 452

Leptobrachium, ii. 421

LEPTOCARD II, ii. 464

Leptocera, ii. 502

Leptochorus, N. American Tertiary i. 137
ii. 215

Leptocircus, ii. 479

Leptodeira, ii. 379

Leptodon, Miocene of Greece, i. 116
ii. 214
ii. 349

Leptognathus, ii. 381

Leptomantis, ii. 419

Leptomeryx, N. American Tertiary, i. 138
ii, 220

Lepton, ii. 535

Leptoneura, ii. 471

Leptonyr, ii. 204

Leptopogon, ii. 101

Leptoms, ii. 520

Leptoptila, ii. 333

*|†. European Miocene, i. 162
ii. 361

Leptorhytaon, ii. 380

Leptorm is, ii. 276

LEPTOSOM II).E., ii. 310

Leptosomus, allied form in European Eocene,

i. 168

ii. 310

Leptosomus of Madagascar i. 278
figure of, i. 279

Leptotherium, in Brazilian caves, i. 144

ll.

Leptotriccus, ii. 101

Leptura, ii. 502

Lepus, in Brazilian caves, i. 145
S American Pliocene, i. 147

Lerista, ii. 395

Leru'a, ii. 339

Lesbia, ii. 108

Lestodon, S. American Pliocene, i. 147

Leucippus, ii. 109

Leitciscus, ii. 432

Leucochroa, ii. 516

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[graphic]
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