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CONTENTS.

Aboriginal Funereal Customs in the United States. ....... Edwin A. Barter.......

.......

Aboriginal Money of California. Notes on the............. Lorenzo G. Yales.....

Aboriginal Shell Money..................................R. E. C. Stearns......

........ 344
Aboriginal Shell Ornaments and Mr. L. A. Barber's Paper
thereon............

........R. E. C. Stearns....

... 478
Estivation, Variation in.....

W. J. Beal........................... 251
Amblvobila Hunting...........

......F. H. Snow....
American Naturalist. The Second Decennary of........... Editor............
America, On the Peopling of.....

...... Aug. R. Grote......

... 221
Animals and Plants, The Colors of.......... ........Alfred Russel Wallace. ..... ....

..... 641
Animals, The Geographical Distribution of: General Con-
cinsions..............

.. Alfred Russel Wallace............. ..... 157

Antelope, The American.........

.... S. W. Williston................

Barnacles .................

.....J. S. Kingsley.....

102

Biology, On the Study of .......

......T. H. Huxley....

210

Catastrophistn and Evolution.......

..... Clarence King....

... 449
Chinese Loess Puzzle, The..........
..............J. D. Whitney....

705
Colorado, Explorations made in, Under the Direction of
Prof. F. V. Hayden in 1876........

...............

Darter, The Sand.....

...... D. S. Jordan and H. E. Copeland.....

Digital Reduction, On the Laws of..........

...John A. Ryder, .....

Earth, The Age of this................
........H. P. Malet......

286

Evolution in the Netherlands: Testimonial to Mr. Darwin.................

295

Fanning Group of Islands, Some Account of the Natural
History of the ....

... Thomas H. Streets..........

.... 65
Fishes, Traces of a Voice in ....

....Charles C. Abboll.....

................. 147
Fleus, Educated ........

.... W. H. Dall......
Forida Keys, Hints on the Origin of the Flora and Fauna
of the................ ................................1

....L. F. De Pourtales.............. ... 137

Foot-Prints, Concerning

.......I. C. Russell.............

406

Freab-Water Algæ, Reproduction in........... .......... Byron R. Halsted.....

513

Fresh Water Fishes. On the Distribution of.. ............. Darid S. Jordan ......
Glacial Marks on the Pacific and Atlantic Coasts compared A. S.

... 674
Goby, The Long Jawed............

....... W. N. Lockinglon........ .... 474
Golden-Winged Woodpecker, Notes on the Breeding Hab-
its of the..........

....... Darid A. Lyle...

...... 747

History of the Earth, On Critical Periods in the, and their

Relation to Evolution ; on the Quaternary as such a Pe-

riod...............................................

............... Joseph Leconte......

.................. 540

Indians, Remarks concerning Two Divisions inhabiting
Arizona, New Mexico, Utah, and California............ Eduard Palmer .........

....... 785

Inserts, The l'se of the Antenna in.......

....L. Trourelol..........

Land Mollusks, Oa the Vitality of Certain............ ... Robert E. C. Stearns.............

Locust of the West. The Migrations of the Destructive.... A. S. Packard, Jr.........

Lorust, The Rocky Mountain .........
.......C. V. Riley........

663

Microt me, The Sledge........

.... Charles Sedgirick Minot....

204

Mind in Birds, Glimpses of............................ Charles C. Abbott ................

Moqui, Seven Towns of............

...........E. A. Barber..........

Mountain Axes in the Neighborhood of Cumberland Gap, .

Notes on the Age and the Structure of the several....... N. S. Shaler. ........

.... 885

Museum Mite, The...............

.... ... Andrew Murray.........
Natural Selection? Is Protective Mimicry due to..........Alfred W. Bennell......

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Nevada and Arizona, The Distribution of Vegetation in
Portions of...........
...............................W. J. Hoffman.....................

.... 336

New Hampshire and Vermont, Observations upon the Dis-

tribution of Plants in............ ............... William F. Flint......

89

New Zealand, The Giant Birds of.......................I. C. Russell.........

North America, The Suessonian Fauna in .... .....E. D. Cope. .....

... 95

Pangenesis, A Provisional lIypothesis of..... .......W. K. Brooks .....

144
Philosopher's Stone, The.................... ... Willliam E. Hagen....
Polar Colonization Plan, The.........

....H. W. Hougate.....
Pseudis, "the Paradoxical Frog”........

.....S. W. Garman....
Pueblo Tribes of the Pacific Slope of the United States, On

the Ancient and Modern .............................. Elvin A. Barber.................... 591

Saltatory Evolution, On a Provisional Hypothesis of...... W. H. Dall.....

......139

Scavengers, A Few Words about......................... Sanborn Tenney................ 125

Sense Organs of Insects, Experiments on the....... ....... A. S. Packard, Jr....

Stone Implements and Ornaments from the Ruins of Colo-

rado, Utah, and Arizona............................... Edwin A. Barber......

..... 264

Surface Geology of Eastern Massachusetts, Notes on the... W. 0. Crosby.......

..... 577

Surface Geology of the Merrimack Valley................. Warren Uphum.....

.... 524

Turkey and its Domestication. The Wild..... ......J. D. Caton .......

.... 321

Utah Indians, Gaming among the....

.. Edwin A. Barber....

Woodpeckers, Ou Changes of IIabit among............... Samuel Calvin.....

Zoology in Germany, The Study of...

......... Charles Sedgwick Minot.......... 330, 392

RECENT LITERATURE.

American Insectivorous Mammals, 613; America, Wild Flowers of, 40,763; Animal Morphology,

Macalister's, 111; Baird's Annual Record of Science and Industry for 1876, 483; Birds, Boucard's
Catalogue of, 40; Bobretzky's Researches on the Development of Cephalopoda, 681; Brehm's An-
imal Life, 557; Caton's Deer of America, 354 ; Cope's Vertebrate Palæontology of New Mexico, 750 ;
Dolbear's Art of Projecting, 301 ; Echinoids, Lovén's Studies on the, 110 ; Ganin's Metamorphoses
of Insects, 423; Geological Survey of Kentucky, Memoirs of, 105 ; llaeckel's History of Creation,
167; Hyatt's North American Sponges, 560; Insects, Glover's Illustrations of, 110; Johnson's
Cyclopædia, 168; List of the Vertebrated Animals in the London Zoological Garden, 681; Mivart's
Lessons from Nature, 300; Murray's Econoinic Entomology, 482; Naturalist, Gurney's Rambles of
&, 38, Ninth Annual Report of the U. S. Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories,
691; North American Fur-Bearing Animals, 617; Recent Ornithological Papers, 615; Science,
The Warfare of, 168 ; Transmutation, Weismann's Fjual Causes of, 109; United States Commis-
sion of Fish and Fisheries, 559; Wallace's Geographical Distribution of Animals, 232 ; Wheeler's

Survey, Zoology of, 108.

GENERAL NOTES.

Botany. --- Absorption of Carbonic Acid by the Vegetable Cell Wall, 240; Acer Dasycarpum, 485;

Algæ, sets of, 366; Alpine Plants, 683; Analytical Tables, 306 ; Austrian Woody Plants, The Size
of the Leaves of, 684 ; Botanical Club at Providence, R. I., 43; Botanical Directory, 684; Botanical
Papers in Recent Periodicals, 13, 115, 178, 241, 307, 366, 434, 490, 564, 621, 685 ; Catalogue of Wis.
consin Plants, 684; Celtis occidentaiis, 490; Chlorophyll-Granules, The Effect of Frost on, 176 ;
Cross-Fertilization of Aristolochia, 303; Crystallizable Sugar, On the Transformations of, into Cel-
lulosic l'roducts, 305; Dichogamy of Agave, 176; Double Saxifrage, 432; Fertilization of Genti-
ana Andrewsii, 113; Fertilization of Flowers by Birds, 754; Fluorescence of Calycanthus, 304 ;
Fungi, The Sexual Reproduction of, 43; Gentiana Amarella L. var. Acuta (G. Acuta Mx.), 620;
fleather in Nova Scotia, 305 ; Ilomogone and Heterogone Flowers, 42; Illustrations of North
American Ferns, 485; Ipomoea setosa, 114; Iris, 306; Kew Herbarium, The New Building for the,
621 ; Large Trunks of Kalmia latifolia, 175; Lichenes found growing within Twenty Miles of Yale
College, A List of, 170 ; Vinot's New England Birds ; Additions, 175; Modification of the Glumnes
of Grasses depending on the Sex of the Flowers, 240; Notes on some Injurious Fungi, by Professor
W. G. Farlow, 620; Oak, A Madrona swallows an, 42: Oaks, Living and Fossil, of Europe com-
pared by De Saporta, 240 ; Objects of the Diversities in the Mode of Arrangement of the Floral
Organs, 115; Observations on Silphium laciniatum, the so-called Compass Plant, 486; Onion
Smut, 305; Orchis rotundifolia, 431; Origin of Varieties ; Two Illustrations, 113; Ostrya Vir-
ginica, A Remarkably Large, 683 ; Phellodendron, 239; Phyllotaxis of Cones, 177; Pipus mitis,
301; Plants, How they guard against Animals and Bad Weather, 683; Plants of Brazil and Ger-

many, 490; Plasına, On the Passage of, through Living Upperforated Membranes, 239; Poisonous

Grasses, 682; Porosity of Wood, Ou the, 306, 364 ; Precocity of Blossoming in the Orange, 489;

Respiration of Roots, 305 ; Salix candida in Essex County, 432; Sarracenia variolaris, 432, 564 ;

Saxifraga Virginiensis, 366; Scientific German, 684 ; Silphium laciniatum, 564 ; Starch in Chloro-

phyll-Granules, The Production of, 175; Three Feet of Fern-Spores, 305 ; Three-Flowered San-

guinaria, 431 ; Two-Flowered Arethusa, 431; Vegetable Digestion, 360, Violets, 561.

Zoology. — Amphioxus in the Bermudas, 367; Animals, A New Sub-Kingdom of, 178; Arkan-

As, Winter Birds of, 397; Beaver, Notes on the, 371 ; Black Rattlesnake, 623 ; Black Squirrel, The,
242 : Butterflies, A Flight of, 244 ; Cockroach, The Phenomena of Digestion in the, 243 ; Criticisms
of Haeckel, 358 : Deer, Note on the Deformed Antler of a, 242; Destruction of Birds by Telegraph
Wires, 685; Development of Unfertilized Eggs of Vertebrates and Mollusca, 622; Embryo Pipa,
The Branchiæ of, 491 ; Entomological Works, 367; Food of the Skunk, 687; Jigger Flea, The,
156: Hawaiian Islands, The Common Crab at the, 241: Mammals new to the United States Fauna,
492: Mountain Boomer, or Showt1, 434; Northern Range of the Bison, 621; Note on the Mexican
Spermophilus, 658; Oregon Birds, Notes on some, 41 ; Paper Argonaut captured at Long Branch,
N. J., 243: Papilio Cresphontes in New England. 688: Partiality of White Butterflies for White
Flowers, 243; Rare Soakes from Florida, 565; Raven and the Sooty Tern in Williamstown, Mass.,
The, 243; Red-Bellied Nut-Hatch (Sitta Canadensis) nesting on the Ground, 565; Red-Ileaded
Woodpecker Carnivorous, 308; Restoration of the Sivatherium, 435 ; Serpents and Lizards, On a
Transitory Fætal Structure in the Embryos of, 566; Spontaneous Adaptation of Color in the
Lizard, 433; Supposed Development of Pickerel without Fecundation, 494 ; Tenacity of Life
shown by some Marine Mollusks, 687; Thelyphonus giganteus poisonous, 367; Titicaca, Lake,
The Crustacea of, 116; Whistler, Habits of, 44.

Anthropology. - Anthropological News, 46, 118, 181, 245, 308, 436, 496, 567, 621, 690, 756 ; An-
tiquities near Naples, 119; Archæological Exchange Club, 180; Christening Ceremony of the
Seminole Indians, 689 ; Cordate Ornament, 45, 118; Cremation among the Sitka Indians, 372;
Examination of Indian Mounds, on Rock River, at Sterling, Illinois, 688; Man in the Pliocene in
America, 69; Stone Implements, Classification of, 495.

Geology and Palæontology. – Alleghany Division of the Appalacbian Range within the Hudson
Valley, On the Existence of the, 627; Brain of Coryphodon, 375; Cretaceous Period, The Sea-
Serpents of the, 311 ; Discovery of Jointed Limbs in Trilobites, 692 ; Fossils, New Vertebrate, 628 ;
Genus Beatricea in Kentucky, On the Occurrence of the, 628; Geological Survey, 47; Geology of
Itbaca, New York, and the Vicinity, 49 ; Glaciers, The Greenland, 694; Herbivorous Dinosauria of
the Lignitic Period, The Dentition of the, 311; Influence of Geological Changes of the Earth's Axis
of Rotation, 499; Lælaps in Montana, The Discovery of, 311; Limestone, Trenton, at Minneapolis,
247 ; Mammalian Brain, The Lowest, 312; Nature of the Legs of Trilobites, 439 ; Newberry's Geol-
ogs of Parts of New Mexico and Utah, 120 ; Palæontology of the Western Territories, M. M. Gaudry
and De Saporta on the, 184; Pan-Ice Work and Glacial Marks in Labrador, 568; Recent and Fossil
Fishes, On the Classification of the, 501 ; Recent Paläontological Discoveries, 756 ; Recent Pa-
læontological Dircoveries in the West, 500 ; Remains of a Huge Saurian in Pennsylvania, 628 ;
Rominger's Fossil Corals of Michigan, 249 ; Saurian, The Largest Known, 628 ; Scudder on Fossil
Insects from British Columbia, 374 ; Whiteaves' Mesozoic Fossils of British Colu
ing, New Fossil Fishes from, 570.

Geography and Exploration.- Exploration in Patagonia, 630; Explorations of the Polaris Ex-
pedition to the North Pole, 51 ; Geographical News, 375, 440, 571, 630, 696, 757 ; Geographical
Progress in 1976, 249 ; Great Salt Lake, Recent Changes of Level of the, 121; Great Salt Lake,
Rise of, 570; Heights in the Bolivian Andes, 630 ; Ludlow's Reconnaissance in Montana, 376; New
York, Topographical Survey of, 313; Recent Geographical Progress, 377; Simpson's Explorations
across the Great Basin of Utah, 120 ; Stanley, Farther news from, 313; Stanley's Journey across
Africa, 695; United States Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories, the Geographical
Work of, 439; Warren's Improvements of the Fox and Wisconsin Rivers, 120.

Microscopy. - American Microscopy, A Foreigo View of, 314; Boston Microscopal Society, 379;
Caproscheelite, 122 ; Detection of Criminals by Hand Marks, 441; Diatoms, Cleaning with Gly.
oerine, 121 ; Diphtheria, 377; Exchanges, 442, 503, 572, 634; Eye-Piece, E. Gundlach's New
Periscopic, 631: False Light Excluder, 188: Finger. Another Mechanical, 571; Fingers, The New
Mechanical, 697; Fossil Diatoms from South Australia, 377; Keith's Heliostat, 758; Identity
of the Red Blood Corpuscles in Different Hunan Races, 188; Illuminating Adjustment, The New
Model, 501: Illumination in Connection with Polarization, 53: Laboratory Work in Microscopy,
254 ; Microscope, A New Students', 379; Microscope, New Physician's, 572; Microscopical Struc-
ture of Amber, 187; Microscopist's Annual, 698; Microscopy at Nashville, 440; Mounting in
Dammar, 633; Obituary, 318; Objectives as Uluminators, 633; Objects, New, 188; Opaque Glass
Slides, 634 ; Organisms in Rochester Hydrant Water, 441; Personal, 378; Pollen Tubes for the
Microscope, 51; Powdered Sulphur, 442; Practical Microscopy, 379; Printed Labels, 254; Rock

Sections, 378; San Francisco Microscopical Society, 55, 252 ; Second-Hand Microscopes, 254
Shell Sand from the Bermudas, 441 ; Schrauer's Microscopes, 757; Spencer's Objectives, 503;
Tin Cells, 572; Wenhan's Reflex Illuminator, A Modification of, 697; Zentmayer's Turn-Table,

449.
SCIENTIFIC News, 55, 122, 190, 254, 318, 380, 442, 504, 573, 634, 699, 759.
PROCEEDINGS OP SOCIETIES, 57, 124, 190, 255, 352, 445, 510, 636, 703, 758
SCIENTIFIC SERIALS, 64, 128, 191, 256, 320, 384, 448, 512, 576, 639, 703

THE

AMERICAN NATURALIST.

Vol. Xl. JANUARY, 1877. — No. 1.

THE SECOND DECENNARY OF THE AMERICAN NATU

RALIST. IN entering upon the second decennial period of the existence

of the American Naturalist, we may be pardoned for looking with some pride upon the success that has attended its establishment. If the reader will turn to the introductory words stating our aims in the first number, published in March, 1867, we think he will agree with us that the promises there given have been fulfilled as completely as could reasonably be expected.

Our aim has been to popularize the best results of the study of natural history, and thus serve as a medium between the investigator on the one hand and the teacher and student on the other. Thus, while we have attempted to inform the science-teacher of the latest discoveries in biology and geology in their broadest sense, including the theories of the origin of plants and animals, and the history of the earth and man, we have endeavored to attract and sustain the interest of the young. We know that a number of young naturalists have made their debut in the scientific world in our magazine, while some of the most important results of the investigations of our leading scientists have first seen the light in its pages.

The progress in biology during the past ten years has been greater than is generally imagined. Text-books become superannuated within a decennary. Teachers and even working naturalists need the presence and stimulus of a monthly journal reaching beyond the limits of their specialties to keep them from nodding at their work. If we have failed to record all the new discoveries, it has been due in great part to lack of space.

Copyright, A. S. PACKARD, JR. 1876.

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