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THE

ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA

A

DICTIONARY

OF

ARTS, SCIENCES, AND GENERAL LITERATURE

WITH NEW MAPS AND ORIGINAL AMERICAN ARTICLES BY EMINENT WRITERS

WITH AMERICAN REVISIONS AND ADDITIONS

By W. H. DEPUY, D.D., LL.D.,
BRINGING Each VOLUME UP TO DATE.

VOLUME XI.

CHICAGO
THE WERNER COMPANY

1895

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Encyclopædia Britannica.

VOL. XI.- (GOU- HIP).

Total number of Articles, 908.

PRINCIPAL CONTENTS.

GOUT. J. O. AFFLECK, M.D.
GOVERNMENT. EDMUND ROBERTSON, LL.D., M.D., Pro-

fessor of Roman Law, University College, London.
GRADUATION. Professor JAMES BLYTII.
GRAIL, THOMAS ARNOLD.
GRAMMAR. Rey, A. H. SAYСE.
GRANITE. F. W, RUDLER, Registrar, &c., Royal School

of Mines, London, GRASSES. Dr. H. TRIMEN. GRATTAN. T. F. HENDERSON. GRAVITATION. R. S. BALL, LL.D., F.R.S., Royal Astron

omer of Ireland. GREECE

GEOGRAPHY. JOHN RAE.
HISTORY. Prof. JEBB, H. F. TOZER, and Principal DON-

ALDSON.
LANGUAGE. A. S. WILKINS, Professor of Latin in ()wens

College, Manchester. LITERATURE. Prof. JEBB and Principal DONALDSON. GREEK CHURCH. Rey. T. M. LINDSAY, D.D., Professor

of Divinity, Free Church College, Glasgow. GREELEY. Rt. Rev. SAMU'EL FALLOWS, D.D., Presiding

Bishop, Reformed Episcopal Church. GREENLAND. ROBERT Brown, Ph.D. GREUZE. Mrs. PATTISON. GREY, EARL. E. J. PAYNE. GREY, LADY JANE. JAMES GAIRDNER. GRIMM. HENRY SWEET. GRISONS. D. W. FRESHFIELD. GROSSETESTE. Rev. H. R. LUARD, D.D. GROTE. WILLIAM SMITH, D.C.L., Editor of “ Dictionary

of Greek and Roman Biography," &c., &c. GROTIUS. Rev. MARK PATTISON, B.A., Rector of Lincoln

College, Oxford. GROUSE. ALFRED Newton, F.R.S., Professor of Zoölogy,

&c., Cambridge. GUANO. Professor A. F. CH'RCH. GUIANA, J. L. OHLSEN and II. A. WEBSTER. GUICCIARDINI. J. ADDINGTON SYMONDS. GUILD, Miss L. TOULMIN SMITII, GUISE. Rev. G. W. KITCHIN, M.A. GUIZOT. HENRY REEVE, C.B. GUM. Dr. J. STORER, GUN-COTTON. F. A. ABEL, C.B., F.R.S., Director of

Chemical Establishment, War Department, Wool.

wich, GUNMAKING AND GUNNERY. Col. E. MAITLAND, R.A. GUNPOWDER. Major W. H. WARDELL, Royal Gun

powder Factory, Waltham Abbey. GUTTA PERCHA. JAMES COLLINS. GUYON, MADAME. Rev. J.S. BLACK. GYMNASTICS. Dr. H. A. HUSBAND, GYROSCOPE. JAMES BLYTII, Professor of Natural Phi

losophy, Andersonian University, Glasgow. HABAKKUK. Rev. WM. LINDSAY ALEXANDER, D.D. HADRIAN'S WALL. JAMES MACDONALD, LL.D. HAFIZ, Prof. E. H. PALMER. HAGGAI. W. ROBERTSON SMITH, LL.D., Lord Almoner's

Professor of Arabic, University of Cambridge. *HALL, ROBERT. T. F. HENDERSON. HALO. F. E. SAWYER. HAMBURG. H. A. WEBSTER. HAMILTON, ALEX. ELLERY C. HUNTINGTON, B.A., Pro

fessor in University of Nashville, Tenn. HAMILTON, SIR WILLIAM. Miss E. HAMILTON. HAMILTON, SIR W. ROWAN. P. G. TAIT, Professor of

Natural Philosophy, Edinburgh University. HAMMER. C.P. B. SHELLEY, Professor of Manufacturing

Art, &c., King's College, London. HAMPDEN. S. R. GARDINER, Professor of Modern His

tory, King's College, London.

HANDEL. F. IIUEFFER, Author of "Musical Studies."
HAND TOOLS. Professor SJELLEY.
HANNIBAL. Rev. W. J. BRODRIBB.
HANOVER. Dr. E. Ju'so and Jis. SIME.
HANSEATIC LEAGUE. RICILARD LODGE.
HARBOURS. THOMAS STEVENSON, C.E.
HARE. JOIN GIBSOX.
HARMONIC ANALYSIS. Prof. J. ('LERK MAXWELL.
HAROLI). E. A. FREEMAX, D.C.L.
HARP. A. J. HIPKINS.
HARVEY. Dr. P. II. PYE-SMITII, M.D., F.R.S., Lecturer

on Physiology, &c., Guy's Hospital, London. HASTINGS, WARREN. J.S. ('OTTON. HASTINGS, MARQUIS of. Sir JLEX. GRANT, Bart., Prin.

cipal of Edinburgh University. HAWAIIAN ISLANDS. J. Y. JOHNSON. HAWTHORNE. E. P. WHIPPLE, and Rt. Rev. SAMUEL

FALLOWS, D.I). HAYDN. F. IIUEFFER. IIAYDON. W. M. ROSSETTI. HAYTI. Rev. WALTER WITTEN. HAZLITT. RICHARI) GARNETT, British Museum. HEART DISEASES. Dr. G. W'. BALFOUR. HEAT. J. CLERK MAXWELL, LL.I)., F.R.SS., L. & E., and

Prof. Tuomas Box, Author of " Practicel lIydraulics.” HEATING. Capt. DOUGLAS GALTON, C.B., F.R.S. HEBREW LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE. Prof. W.

ROBERTSON SMITH. HEBREWS, EPISTLE TO THE. Prof. W. R. SMITH. HEGEL. W. W’ALLACE, LL.D. HEINE. J. W. FERRIER. II ELIGOLAND. ROBERT BROWN, Ph.D. IIELLEBORE. F. H. BUTLER, B.A. HELPS. Sir THEODORE MARTIN, K.C.B. IIEMANS, JRs. Viss FLORA VASSON. HEMP. Prof. A. II. CH'RCH. HENRY I.-VIII. G. W. I'ROTHERo and T. KIRKUP. HENRY, JOSEPH. Prof. SI'ENCER F. BAIRI), LL.D. HERALDRY. G.T. CLARK. HERAT. Major-Gen. Sir II. C. Rawlinson, K.C.B., F.R.S. HERBARIUM. E. M. HOLMES. HERBART. JAMES WARD. HERCULANEUM. Prof. E. BARNABEI, Government

Archæological Department, Rome. HERCULES. C.A. M. FENSELL. HERDER. JAMES SULLY, LL.I). HIEREFORD, Rev. Prebendary DAVIES. HERESY. Professors LINDSAY and E. ROBERTSON. HERMANN. R. ADAMSON, LL.I)., Professor of Logic, &c.,

Owens College, Manchester. HERMENEUTICS. Rev. S. I). F. S.ULMOND, Professor of

Systematic Theology, F.('. College, Iberdeen. HERMES. Prof. W. M. RAMSAY. HERNIA. JOIN CHIESE, M.1)., Professor of Surgery,

University of Edinburgh. HERODOTUS. Rev. Canon RAWLINSOY, Professor of

Ancient History, Oxford. HIERON. Prof. VEWTOX. HERSCHEL. Rev. C. PRITCHARD, M.A., F.R.S., Savilian

Professor of Astronomy, Oxford. HERZEGOVINA. ARTHUR J. EVANS. IIESIOD. Rer. Prebendary DAVIES. HIBERNATION. W. F. KIRBY, Joint-Author of " Intro

duction to Entomology." HIEROGLYPHICS. REGINALD S. POOLE, British Museum. HIMALAYA. Lieut.-Gen. R.STRACHEY, R.E.,C.S.I., F.R.S. HINDI' KI'SI. Col. YULE, C.B. HINDI'STANI. J.T. PLATTS. HINDI'STANI LITERATURE. C. J. LYALL, C.S.I. HIPPOCRATES. J. BATTY T['ke, M.D. HIPPOPOTAMUS. JOHN GIBSON.

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