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the line of demarcation between the county and the high sea in harbours, or below the bridges in great rivers. The question is

often more a matter of fact than of law, and determinable by local General rules. evidence: but some general rules upon the point are collected by

Mr. East. He says, that “in general it is said that such parts of
“ the rivers, arms, or creeks, are deemed to be within the bodies
« of counties, where persons can see from one side to the other.
“ Lord Hale, in his treatise De jure maris, says, that the arın or
“ branch of the sea which lies within the fauces terræ, where a
“ man may reasonably discern between shore and shore, is, or at
“ least may be, within the body of a county. Hawkins, however,
“ considers the line more accurately confined by other authorities,
" to such parts of the sea where a man, standing on the one side
of the land, may see what is done on the other; and the reason
“ assigned by Lord Coke in the Admiralty case (s) in support of
“ the county coroner's jurisdiction, where a man is killed in such
“ places, because that the county may well know it, seems rather
" to support the more limited construction. But at least, where
“ there is any doubt, the jurisdiction of the common law ought to
“ be preferred.(t)

The question, whether the fact were committed on the sea or within the body of a county, is of main importance. For if it turn out that the goods were taken any where within the body of a county, the commissioners under the statute of Hen. 8. can have no jurisdiction to enquire of it; and if it should appear that the goods were taken at sea and afterwards brought on shore, the offender cannot be indicted as for a larceny in that county into which they were carried, because the original felony was not a taking of which the common law takes cognizance. (u) And the statute 39 Geo. 3. c. 37. (U) relates only to offences committed on

the high seas, and out of the body of any county. Shooting from It was decided that where A., standing on the shore of a harthe land, and

bour, fired a loaded musket at a revenue cutter, which had struck upon a sandbank in the sea, about one hundred yards from the shore, by which firing a person was maliciously killed on board the vessel, it was piracy; for the offence was committed where the death happened, and not at the place from whence the cause of death proceeded. (w) And if a man be struck upon the high sea, and die upon the shore after the reflux of the water, the Admiral, by virtue of his commission, has no cognizance of the offence.(x) And as it was doubtful whether it could be tried at common law, it is provided by statute that the offender may be indicted in the county where the party died..(y)

The second section of the 28 Hen. 8. c. 15. introduces “manslaughters ;” and uses the words “ havens, &c.” without the qualification in the first section, where the Admiral has a jurisdiction. One of the mischiefs recited in the first section is, that the wit


(8) 13 Co. 52.

(w) I Hawk. P. C. c. 37. S. 17. (1) 2 East. P. C. c. 17. s. 10. p. 803, Coombes's case, 1 Leach 388. | East. 804.

P. C. c. 5. s. 131. p. 367. (u) 2 East. P. C. c. 17. s. 12. p. 805. (x) 2 Hale 17, 20. 1 East, P. C. c. s lost. 113.

5. s. 131. p. 365, 366. (v) Ante, p. 106.

(g) 2 Geo. 9. c. 21. . . . .

nesses being commonly mariners and shipmen, depart without long tarrying or protraction of time. This statute is almost in terms with 27 Hen. 8. c. 4., except that it adds “ treasons” to the offences.

It seems that the stat. 27 Hen. 8. does not authorize the trial of felonies created by subsequent statutes, for which provision was therefore made by the 39 Geo. 3, c. 37.(x) The prisorier was indicted for maliciously shooting, and the offence was within a few weeks after the passing of the 39 Geo. 3., and before notice of it could have reached the place where the offence was committed : and, 'upon a case réserved, none of the Judges supposed that the party could have been tried if the 39 Geo. 3. had not passed ; and as he could not have known of that act, they thought it right that he should have a pardon.(a) And it was decided that a party was not triable under both or either of these statutes for maliciously shooting, within 43 Geo. 3. c. 58.: but this decision proceeded upon the terms of the 43 Geo. 3., which confined its operation to England and Ireland.(b)


rd Chane meri hat the Amor

of the Court by which the Offence of Piracy may be tried. The offence of piracy was formerly cognizable only by the Admiralty Courts, which proceeded without a jury, in a method much conformed to the civil law. But it being inconsistent with the liberties of the nation that any man's life should be taken away, unless by the judgment of his peers or the common law of the land, the statute 28 Hen. 8. c. 15. established a new jurisdiction. By that statute it was enacted, that this offence should be tried by commissioners nominated by the Lord Chancellor, the indictment being first found by a grand jury of twelve men, and afterwards tried by another jury as at common law; and that the course of proceedings should be according to the law of the land. Amongst the commissioners there are always some of the common law Judges; (c) and by the Admiralty Court thus constituted the offence of piracy, and other marine offences, are now tried. But the statute 28 Hen. 8. merely altered the mode of trial in the Admiralty Court; and its jurisdiction still continues to rest on the same foundations as it did before that act. It is regulated by the civil law, et per consuetudines marinas grounded on the law of nations, which may possibly give to that court a jurisdiction that our common law has not. (d)

(z) Ante, 106. Rex v. Snape, East. tended by i Geo. 4. c. 90. s. 1. See P. C. 807.

post, Book III. Chap. x. (a) Rex v. Bailey, Hil. T. 1800. MS. (c) Generally two. 4 Bla. Com. 269. Bayley, J. and Russ. & Ry. 1.

(d) By Mansfield, C. J. Rex v. De* Rex v. Amarro, Mich. T. 1814. pardo, 1 Taunt. 29. Russ. and Ry. 286. The act was ex

the great seal,

Times for The statute 32 Geo. 2. c. 25. s. 20. for the more speedy bringing holding the

of offenders to justice, &c. enacts, that a session of oyer and tercourt. 32 Geo. 2. miner and gaol delivery for the trial of offences committed upon c. 25. s, 20.

the high seas, within the jurisdiction of the Admiralty of England, shall be holden twice at least in every year; viz. in March and October, at the Old Bailey; (except when the sessions of oyer and terminer and gaol delivery for London and Middlesex shall be there holden) or in such other places in England as the Lord High Admiral, &c. shall, in writing under his hand, directed to the Judge

of the Court of Admiralty, appoint. Offences com- The statute 11 and 12 W. 3. c. 7. s. 1. made provision for the mitted on the trial of piracies, felonies, &c. committed upon the sea, or in any sea, &c. may be tried in any da

haven, &c. and a later statute 46 Geo. 3. c. 54. enacts, that all of his Majes- treasons, piracies, felonies, robberies, murders, conspiracies, and ty's islands, other offences of what nature or kind soever, committed upon the &c. by virtue of his com- sea, or in any haven, river, creek, or place, where the admiral or mission under admirals have power, authority, or jurisdiction, may be enquired directed, &c.'

, of, tried, &c. according to the common course of the laws of this

realm used for offences committed upon the land within this realm, and not otherwise, in any of his Majesty's islands, plantations, colonies, dominions, forts, or factories, under and by virtue of the King's commission or commissions, under the great seal of Great Britain, to be directed to any such four or more discreet persons as the Lord Chancellor of Great Britain, Lord Keeper, or Commissioner for the custody of the great seal of Great Britain for the time being, shall from time to time think fit to appoint; and that the said Commissioners so to be appointed, or any three of them, shall have such and the like powers and authorities for the trial of all such murders, &c. within any such island, &c. as any commissioners appointed according to the directions of the statute 28 Hen. 8. by any law or laws then in force would have for the trial of the said offences within this realm. And it further enacts, that all persons convicted of any of the said offences so to be tried, &c. shall be liable to the same pains, &c. as by any laws then in force persons convicted of the same would be liable to, in case the same were tried, &c. within this realm, by virtue of any commission according to the directions of the 28 Hen. 8.

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Of neglecting Quarantine. Tøe performance of quarantine, or forty days' probation, when ships arrive from countries infected with contagious disorders, having been considered as of the highest importance, with reference to the public health of the nation, has been enforced from time to time by various legislative enactments. These were formerly of considerable severity: but the recent statute 6 Geo. 4. c. 78. repeals all former acts upon this subject, and enforces the performance of quarantine principally by pecuniary penalties. Some offences however subject the offender to imprisonment, and some are of the degree of felony. It may be here observed, that in a case which arose upon a former statute 26 Geo. 2. c. 6. which enacted, that all persons going on board ships coming from infected places should obey such orders as the King in council should make, but did not award any particular punishment, nor contain a clause as to the jurisdiction of justices of the peace, it was holden that disobedience of such an order of council was an indictable offence, and punishable as a misdemeanor at common law. (a)

The seventeenth section of this statute 6 Geo. 4. enacts, that “if 6 Geo. 4. "any commander, master, or other person, having charge of any c.78. s. 17. “ vessel liable to perform quarantine, and on board of which the Penalty o

masters, &c. “plague, or other infectious disease or distemper, shall not then quitting ves“ have appeared, shall himself quit, or shall knowingly permit or sels, or per“suffer any seaman or passenger coming in such vessel to quit mirting per

sons to quit "such vessel, by going on shore, or by going on board any other them, or not 6 vessel or boat, before such quarantine shall be fully performed, conveying “ unless by such licence as shall be granted by virtue of any order

them to the

order appointed “in council, to be made concerning quarantine as aforesaid, or in places, 4004 “case any commander or other person having charge of such ves"sel shall not, within a convenient time after due notice given for " that purpose, cause such vessel, and the lading thereof, to be 'conveyed into the place or places appointed for such vessel and

(a) Rex v. Harris, 4 T. R. 202. 2 Leach 549.

“ lading to perform quarantine; then and in every such case every “ such commander, master, or other person as aforesaid, for every

“ such offence shall forfeit and pay the sum of four hundred pounds; Persons com “ and if any such person coming in any such vessel liable to quaing in such

“ rantine (or any pilot or other person going on board the same, vessels, or going on “ either before or after the arrival of such vessel at any port or board, and “ place in the united kingdom, or the islands aforesaid), shall, quitting them before dis

“ either before or after such arrival, quit such vessel, unless by charged from “such licence as aforesaid, by going on shore in any port or place quarantine, to “ in the united kingdom, or the islands aforesaid, or by going on suffer imprisonment for


66 hoorde

“board any other vessel or boat, with intent to go on shore as six months, 6 aforesaid, before such vessel so liable to quarantine as aforesaid and forfeit “shall be regularly discharged from the performance thereof, it 3001.

“ shall and may be lawful for any person whatsoever, by any kind
“ of necessary force, to compel such pilot or other person so quit-
“ ting such vessel, so liable to quarantine, to return on board the
“ same; and every such pilot or other person so quitting such
6 vessel so liable to quarantine shall for every such offence suffer
“ imprisonment for the space of six months, and shall forfeit and

“ pay the sum of three hundred pounds.” Penalty on The 21st section enacts, “that if any officer of his Majesty's persons em-, “ customs, or any other officer or person whatsoever, to whom it performing

dous « doth or shall appertain to execute any order or orders made or to quarantine, “ be made concerning quarantine, or the prevention of infection, neglecting or " and notified as aforesaid, or to see the same put in execution, deserting their duty, or per

IF “ shall knowingly and wilfully embezzle any goods or articles per

choul lnorrinolo and w mitting per- “ forming quarantine, or be guilty of any other breach or neglect sons, vessels, “ of his duty in respect of the vessels, persons, goods, or articles, without autho

ho. “ performing quarantine, every such officer or person so offending rity, or giving “ shall forfeit such office or employment as he may be possessed of, false certifi- “ and shall become from thence incapable to hold or enjoy the cates, or damaging goods.“ same, or to take a new grant thereof; and every such officer

" and person shall forfeit and pay the sum of two hundred pounds; And officers, “and if any such officer or person shall desert from his duty when &c. deserting employed as aforesaid, or shall knowingly and willingly permit their duty, or“ any person, vessel, goods, or merchandize, to depart or be congiving false certificate of “veyed out of the said lazaret vessel or other place as aforesaid, performance " unless by permission under an order of his Majesty, by and with to be guilty of us

Itine: “ the advice of his council, or under an order of two or more of the felony.

“ lords or others of his privy council ; or if any person hereby au“ thorized and directed to give a certificate of a vessel having duly “ performed quarantine or airing, shall knowingly give a false cer“ tificate thereof, every such person so offending shall be guilty of “ felony; and if any such officer or person shall knowingly or “ wilfully damage any goods performing quarantine under his di“ rection, he shall be liable to pay one hundred pounds' damages,

" and full costs of suit, to the owner of the same.” Publication The publication in the London Gazette of any order in council, of orders of or of any order by two or more of the lords or others of the privy council, &c. in the London Co

ncouncil, made in pursuance of the act, or his Majesty's royal proGazette to be clamation made in pursuance of the same, is to be deemed and sufficient no- taken to be sufficient notice to all persons concerned, of all matters tice.

therein respectively contained.

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