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pears to be sufficient to state only that the prosecutor was in possession of the premises. (j)

A repugnancy in setting forth the offence in an indictment on Repugnancy; these statutes is an incurable fault: as where it is alleged that statement of

disseisin, &c. the party was possessed of a term of years, or of a copyhold estate, and that the defendants disseised him; or that the defendants disseised J. S. of land then and yet being his freehold, for it implies that he always continued in possession; and if so, it is impossible he could be disseised at all. (k) It seems that an indictment on 8 Hen. 6. c. 9. setting forth an entry and forcible detainer is good, without shewing whether the entry was forcible or peaceable: but it must set forth an entry; for otherwise it does not appear but that the party has been always in possession, in which case he may lawfully detain it by force. (1) The time and place of the disseisin must be sufficiently set forth in the indictment: but it appears to be sufficient to state that the defendant on such a day entered, &c. end disseised, &c. without adding the words then and there ; for it is the natural intendment that the entry and disseisin both happened together. (m) A disseisin is sufficiently set forth by alleging that the defendant entered, &c. into such a tenement, and disseised the party, without using the words “unlawfully," or “expelled,” for they are implied. (n) But no indictment can warrant an award of restitution, unless it find that the wrong-doer ousted the party grieved, and also continues his possession at the time of the finding of the indictment; for it is a repugnancy to award restitution of possession to one who never was in possession, and it is vain to award it to one who does not appear to have lost it. (0)

If a bill, both for a forcible entry and forcible detainer, be preferred to a grand jury, and found “ not a true bill” as to the entry with force, and “ a true bill ” as to the detainer, it will not warrant an award of restitution; but is void, because the grand jury cannot find a bill, true for part, and false for part, as a petit jury may. (P)

The same justice or justices before whom an indictment of of the award forcible entry or detainer shall be found may award restitution : but of restitution. no other justices, except those before whom the inquest was found, can award restitution, unless the indictment be removed by certiorari into the court of King's Bench; and that court, by the plenitude of its power, can restore, because that is supposed to be implied by the statute; on the ground that whenever an inferior jurisdiction is erected, the superior jurisdiction must have authority to put it in execution. So, if an indictment be found before the justices of the peace at their quarter sessions, they have

(1) Rex v. Wilson and others, 8 T. (E). R. 357.

(0) 1 Hawk. P. C. c. 64. s. 41. (k) 1 Hawk. P. C. c. 64. s. 39. 3 (p) 1 Hawk. P. C. c. 64. s. 40. But Bac. Abr. Forcible Entry, &c. (E). this it seems does not apply to the

(!) I Hawk. P. C. c. 64. s. 40. 3 case of different counts in ihe same Bac. Abr. ibid. And see the statute, indictment, but only where the grand anle, 284.

jury find “ a true bill.” and “ not a (m) Baude's case, Cro. Jac. 41. 1 “ true bill” upon different parts of Hawk, ibid. S. 42.

one and the same charge. See Rex v. (n) 3 Bac. Abr. Forcible Entry, &c. Fieldhouse, Cowp. 323.

authority to award a writ of restitution, because the statute having given power to the justices or justice to reseise, it may as well be done by them in court as out of it. (9) But the justices of oyer and terminer, or general gaol delivery, though they may enquire of forcible entries, and fine the parties, yet cannot award a writ of restitution. (7)

Restitution ought only to be awarded for the possession of tenements visible and corporeal; for a man who has a right to such as are invisible and incorporeal, as rents or commons, cannot be put out of possession of them, but only at his own election, by a fiction of law, to enable him to recover damages against the person that disturbs him in the enjoyment of them; and all the remedy that can be desired against a force in respect to such possessions is to hare the force removed, and those who are guilty of it punished, which may be done by 15 R. 2. c. 2. (s) And restitution is to be awarded only to him who is found by the indict‘ment to have been put out of the actual possession, and not to one who was only seised in law. (c) Upon the removal of the proceedings into the court of King's Bench by certiorari, that court may award a restitution discretionally; and will so award, unless the defendant plead very soon, and take notice of trial within the term. (u) And where a conviction of a forcible entry was quashed in that court for uncertainty ; but the restitution was opposed on an affidavit that the party's title (which was by lease,) was expired since the conviction; the court said they had no discretionary power in this case, but were bound to award restitution on quash

ing the conviction. (w) Of the bar or It appears by the proviso in the statute of 8 Hen. 6. c. 9. and stay to the

also by the 31 Eliz. c. 11. that any one indicted upon these staaward of resti. tution. tutes may allege quiet possession for three whole years to stay the

award of restitution; in the construction of which it has been holden, that such possession must have continued withont interruption during three whole years next before the indictment. (.x) And it has also been said that the three years' possession must be of a lawful estate; and therefore that a disseisor can

(9) 3 Bac. Abr. Forcible Enlry, $c. tices of gaol delivery may award resti(F).

tution upon an indictment before (r) Id. ibid and 1 Hawk. P. C. c. 64. them: and Sav. 68. is cited: and afs. 51. where it is said that justices of terwards Id. (D 7.) it is said that restioyer and terininer have no power tution shall not be by justices of aseither to enquire of a forcible entry size, gaol delivery, or justices of or detainer, or to award restitution on peace, if the indictment was not found an indictment on the statutes; because before them; and H. P. C. 140. Dalt. when new power is created by sta- c. 44. 131. are cited; assuming here, tute, and certain justices are assigned as it should seem, that if the indict. to execute it, it cannot regularly be ment were found before justices of executed by any other: and inasmuch assize and gaol delivery, they might as justices of oyer and terminer have award restitution. a commission entirely distinct from (s) i Hawk. P. C. c. 64. s. 45. Lamb. that of justices of peace, they shall Just. 153. Co Lit. 323. not from the general words of their (1) Lamb. Just. 153. Dalt. c. 83. commission ad inquirend' de omnibus, (u) Rex v. Marrow, Ca. temp. Hardw. &c. be construed to have any such 174. powers as are specially limited to jus- (w) Rex v. Jones, I Str. 474. tices of peace. But in 4 Com. Dig. (.x) 3 Bac. Abr. Forcible Entry, &c. Forc. Entr. (D 5.) it is said that jus- (G). 1 Hawk. P. C. c. 64. s.:53.

in no case justify a forcible entry or detainer against the disseisee having a right of entry, as it seems that he may against a stranger, or even against the disseisee having, by his laches, lost his right of entry. (y) Wherever such possession is pleaded in bar of a restitution, either in the King's Bench or before justices of the peace, no restitution ought to be awarded till the truth of the plea be tried; and such plea need not shew under what title, or of what estate, such possession was ; because not the title, but the possession only, is material. (z) If the defendant tender a traverse of the force (which must be in writing), no restitution ought to be till such traverse be tried; in order to which the justice, before whom the indictment is found, ought to award a venire for a jury: but if such jury find so much of the indictment to be true as will warrant a restitution, it will be sufficient, though they find the other part of it to be false. (a) Where the defendant pleads three years' possession in stay of restitution, according to 31 Eliz. c. 11., and it is found against him, he must pay costs. (b)

The same justices who have awarded a restitution on an indict. Of supersedment of forcible entry, &c. or any two or one of them, may after- in the restiwards supersede such restitution upon an insufficiency in the indictment appearing unto them: but no other justices or court whatsoever have such power, except the court of King's Bench; a certiorari from whence wholly closes the hands of the justices of peace, and avoids any restitution which is executed after its teste, but does not bring the justices into contempt without notice. (c)

The court of King's Bench has such a discretionary power over or setting these matters, from an equitable construction of the statutes, that aside the res

titution. if a restitution shall appear to have been illegally awarded or executed, that court may set it aside, and grant a re-restitution to the defendant. But a defendant cannot in any case whatsoever, ex rigore juris,demand a restitution, either upon the quashing

of the indictment, or a verdict found for him on a traverse thereof, &c.; for the power of granting a restitution is vested in the King's Bench only, by an equitable construction of the general words of the statutes, and is not expressly given by those statutes; and is never made use of by that court but when, upon consideration of the whole circumstances of the case, the defendant shall appear to have some right to the tenements, the possession whereof he lost by the restitution granted to the prosecutor. (d)

The court of King's Bench has been so favourable to one who, upon his traverse of an indictment upon these statutes being found for him, has appeared to have been unjustly put out of his possession, that they have awarded him a restitution, notwithstanding it has been shewn to the court that, since the restitution granted upon the indictment, a stranger has recovered the possession of the same land in the lord's court. (e)

(y) 3 Bac. Abr. Forcible Entry, &c. the statute, ante, 285. (G). 1 Hawk. c. 64. s. 54.

(c) 3 Bac. Abr. Id. ibid. 1 Hawk. c. (z) i Hawk. c. 64. s. 56.

64. s. 61, 62. (a) 3 Bac. Abr. Forcible Entry, &c. (d) 3 Bac. Abr. Id. ibid. 1 Hawk. c. (G). I Hawk. c. 64. s. 58, 59. Reg. 64. s. 63, 64, 65. v. Winter, 2 Salk. 588.

(c) 9 Bac. Abr, Id. ibid. 1 Hawk. c. (b) Reg. v. Goodenough, 2 Lord 61. $. 66. Raym. 1036. And see the words of

How restitution shall be made.

The justices or justice may execute the writ of restitution in person, or may make their precept to the sheriff to do it. (f) The sheriff, if need be, may raise the power of the county to assist him in the execution ef the precept; and therefore, if he make a return thereto that he could not make a restitution by reason of resistance, he shall be amerced. (g) And it is said, that a justice of peace or sheriff may break open a house to make restitution. (h)

If possession under a writ of restitution is avoided immediately after execution by a fresh force, the party shall have a second writ of restitution without a new inquisition : but the second writ must be applied for within a reasonable time. () And where restitution is not ordered till three years after the inquisition, it is bad. (k)

(f) i Hawk. c. 64. s. 49.
(g) Id. ibid. sect. 52.
(h) 4 Com. Dig. Forcible Entry

(D 6.)

(i) Rex v. Harris, 1 Lord Raym. 482. (k) Rex v. Harris, 3 Salk. 313.

CHAPTER THE THIRTIETH.

OF NUISANCES.

vate.

NUISANCE, nocumentum, or annoyance, signifies any thing that worketh hurt, inconvenience, or damage. And nuisances are of two kinds; public or common nuisances, which affect the public, and are an annoyance to all the King's subjects; and private nuisances, which may be defined as any thing done to the hurt or Nuisances are annoyance of the lands, tenements, or hereditaments of another.(a) public and priPrivate nuisances, as they are remedied only by civil proceedings, do not come within the scope of this Treatise : but public or common nuisances, as they annoy the whole community in general, and not merely some particular person, are properly punishable by indictment, and not the subject of action ; for it would be unreasonable to multiply suits by giving every man a separate right for what damnifies him in common only with the rest of his fellow-subjects. (b) In treating of public or common nuisances, we may consider, 1, of public nuisances in general; II, of nuisances to public highways; III, of nuisances to public rivers; and, IV, of nuisances to public bridges.

(a) 3 Blac. Com. 216. 2 Inst. 406. in this case must be direct, and not

(0) 4 Blac. Com. 166. There are, how- consequential, as by being delayed in ever, circumstances mentioned in the

a journey of importance. Bull. N. P. books upon which a party has been ad- 26. In Rex v. Dewsnap and another, mitted to have a private satisfaction by 16 East. 196. Lord Ellenborough, c. civil suit for that which is a public nui- J. said, “ I did not expect that it sance ; namely, where he has sustained “ would have been disputed at this some extraordinary damage by it be- day that though a nuisance may be yond the rest of the king's subjects. “ public, yet that there may be a speAs if by means of a ditch dug across a “cial grievance, arising out of the public way, which is a common nui

cause of injury, which sance, a man or his horse suffer any presses more upon particular indiinjury by falling therein; there, for “ viduals than upon others not so imthis particular damage, not common “ mediately within the influence of it. to others, it has been held, that the “ In the case of stopping a common party may have bis action. Co. Lit. highway which may affect all the 56.

5 Rep. 73. 3 Blac. Com. 219. subjects, yet if a particular person Apd see also Fowler v. Sanders, Cro. “ sustain a special injury from it, he Jac. 446. But the particular damage “ has an action."

common

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