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completely and successfully, and he would recommend it to all present as an admirable instance of that which they might justly boast of in this and other civilised countries, namely, that if you only showed to certain persons the way in which they might be useful, and how they might exercise themselves, not subject to any governmental or central control, in doing good, it would surely be done. No example of this truth could be better than the one now illustrated. He must not be held, however, to imply that work of this kind could not be done except by purely voluntary agency. The work of the army was, with the whole discipline of the army, perfect and complete in itself. The work of the Metropolitan Asylums Board, as had been illustrated to-day, was also admirably complete under the central governing body; yet, as he knew pretty well, having been a member of the Commission, the work of which, with regard to infectious fevers, had one of its issues in the facts mentioned to-day, that work was done mainly by those who gave themselves to it as a voluntary task and duty-not by defined and paid officers of any kind, but by men like Mr. Barrington-Kennett, Mr. Galsworthy, Sir Edmund Currie, and Deputy-SurgeonGeneral Bostock, who, with the purest philanthropy and the most devoted sense of duty, had worked at this matter, so that the work both of the Society and that which was done under the Metropolitan Asylums Board might be thoroughly commended. He might add, however, that this method of the transfer of the sick to infectious hospitals was but a very small fragment of the great work which was being done. The management of the fever and small-pox hospitals in London might, to the best of his belief, be taken as a model by every country in the world. They had heard how valuable this system had been in Liverpool, and he must say he never passed through Hyde Park without admiration for the ambulance arrangements made there, chiefly at the instance of Mrs. Priestley, the result of which had been a very great diminution in the seriousness of accidents to which that part of London was most exposed.

All the officers of the staff of St. George's Hospital could tell, as Mr. Harrison had already told, how the injuries they had to deal with became less in proportion as the ambulance system was developed in the Park. He would venture, then, to urge on all present, and ask them to urge on those who were not present, the duty of helping in every way they could in the extension of this important work of first help for the sick and wounded. He might as well say that in doing it, although he was rather against going down to a lower motive, there might be an excellent selfish one as well. He, who in these matters had learnt to help others, had also learnt how to insure the best help for himself. There was a story which he believed was authentic, concerning one of the most brilliant of his predecessors at St. Bartholomew's Hospital, Perceval Potts, the teacher of John Hunter. He was thrown from his horse on London bridge a century or more ago and fractured his leg. The people were as benevolent then as they are now, or nearly so, and rushed to help him, but with his whip he cut this way and that, and drove them off, and they thought he was mad. He cried out, “Send me a shutter," that being the best litter for him at that time, and then he quietly shifted himself on his back to the shutter, and had himself carried home with his simple fracture not rendered compound. That would illustrate the benefit every one might secure for himself if he would learn how to help his neighbours in such matters. Finally, he would balance the instances of selfishness rewarded, by reminding his audience how completely the ambulance work might be the exercise of charity. Few things, indeed, were there in which charity could better exercise itself than in this. There was ambulance work or first help in that incident which led to the giving of a command the most general and most unconditional—where a man finding another wounded by the roadside poured in oil and wine, and set him on his own beast, and took him to the inn. That was an admirable example of what might be ambulance work, and the command was, “Go thou and do likewise."

Sir E. LECHMERE, M.P., then proposed a vote of thanks to the chairman. There was no doubt the interesting papers they had heard, and the discussion which had succeeded would do much good, as it would make the work of the association known ; but he believed that nothing would do so much good to promote interest in ambulance work, and to convince the medical profession throughout England and other countries of the reality of this work, as the presidency and cordial support which Sir James Paget had given to it. In the first initiation of this work the association sought the advice and sympathy of the medical profession, who had most freely and liberally given it, and from that moment they had tried and determined to deserve their confidence. To some extent they had done so, but every one would allow that the greatest proof that they had at last succeeded in obtaining the acme of their hopes, was the fact of having secured as the president on this occasion one so distinguished as Sir James Paget. He hoped that meeting would produce many good results, and amongst others that it might lead to the establishment of such a permanent museum in connection with ambulance work has had been suggested in Mr. Furley's paper.

Sir EDWARD PERROTT seconded the vote of thanks, which was carried unanimously, and the proceedings terminated

WATER SUPPLY AND DISTRIBUTION.

CONFERENCES BY THE SOCIETY OF ARTS ON THURSDAY

and FRIDAY, JULY 24th and 25th.

VOL. VIII.-H. C.

CONTENTS.

PAGE 1.-WATER SUPPLY AND DISTRIBUTION

· 361 THE AREA OF CHALK AS A SOURCE OF WATER SUPPLY. By W. WHITAKER, B.A., F.G.S.

364

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WATER SUPPLY IN ITS INFLUENCE ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF

THE POPULATION. By W. TOPLEY, F.G.S., Assoc. Inst. C.E. 373

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A POSSIBLE INCREASE OF UNDERGROUND WATER SUPPLY. By

CHAS. E. DE RANCE, A.I.C.E., F.G.S., F.R.G.S.

.

378

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385 · 398

THE ORIGIN OF WATER SUPPLY. By G. J. SYMONS, F.R.S.

.

WATER SUPPLY TO VILLAGES AND RURAL DISTRICTS.

EARDLEY BAILEY-DENTON, C.E., B.A. (Oxon)

By

404

.

.

WATER SUPPLY. By EDWARD EASTON, M. Inst. C.E.

.

.

414

SOURCES OF WATER SUPPLY. By JAMES MANSERGH, M. Inst. C.E. and
M.E., F.G.S., F. S.

424

II.-QUALITY OF WATER. FILTRATION AND SOFTENING 459

WATER FOR DOMESTIC USE. By S. C. HOMERSHAM, M. Inst. C.E. 462
SOFTENING OF WATER. By BALDWIN LATHAM, M. Inst. C.E.,
F.G.S., etc.

467 THE DETECTION OF SEWAGE CONTAMINATION BY THE USE

OF THE MICROSCOPE, AND ON THE PURIFYING ACTION OF

MINUTE ANIMALS AND PLANTS. By H. C. Sorby, LL.D., F.R.S. 488 THE CHEMISTRY OF POTABLE WATER. By Professor ODLING, M.B., F.R.S., F.R.C.P.

492 THE PURIFICATION OF WATER BY IRON ON A LARGE SCALE. By W. ANDERSON, M. Inst. C.E..

509

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III.-METHODS OF DISTRIBUTION. MODES OF GIVING

PRESSURE, HOUSE FITTINGS, DISCOVERY AND PRE-
VENTION OF WASTE, Etc.
WATER DISTRIBUTION AND DUAL SUPPLY. By Colonel Sir FRANCIS

BOLTON

526

526

MODE OF DISTRIBUTION, WITH REMARKS ON DUAL SUPPLY.
By HENRY J. MARTEN, M. Inst. C.E.

537

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REMARKS ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF WATER. By Joseph Quick,
Jun., M. Inst. C.E.

563

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