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wards noticed, (Sect. VI.) supplies us with no information relative to their present state.*




Cavaan is in Scripture expressively termed, The Land of Promise. By this appellation our views are carried back direct to the intimations of Heaven's purpose concerning it; and Israel's title of possession is read in the promise of God. His Promise to the Father of the faithful, repeatedly made with various specifications, and even confirmed by an oath. God again and again renewed to the descendants of Abraham, after his decease, with more precise definition of its boundaries.

When, obedient to the call of God, the patriarch with his near relatives left their kindred and departed from Ur of the Chaldees, after sojourning for a time in Haran, “they went forth to go into the land of Canaan, and into the land of Canaan they came. And Abram passed through the land upon the place of Sichem unto the plain of Moreh ; (and the Canaanite was then in the land.) And the Lord appeared unto Abram and said, Unto thy seed will I give this Land.Gen. xi. 31.



* Those who take an interest in the present condition and future prospects of the Jews will find, in small compass, much important and in teresting information, in an excellent Discourse, on “ The Salvation of Israel,” by the Rev. William Symington, Stranraer. We have to lament, however, that the eloquent author derides our“ blessed liope," and has publicly reviled the God-glorifying, soul-sanctifying, and, as it is our object to prove, the Scriptural doctrine of the Redeemer's Speedy Personal Return, as a delusion of the Evil One.—May God grant him forgiveness, and give unto him illumination and repentance "before that day.” In the above-named discourse, indeed, he has not even expressed a decided opinion on the literal Restoration of Israel, but in his citations from the prophets in proof of their "need to be saved from their. wide dispersion,” (p. 14.) and of " their being gathered together.” (p. 23.) he has produced evidencs on which the reader can scarcely fail to decide for himself. Happily a spirit of inquiry has at length been awakened to these subjects; and those who search the Scriptures for themselves, will not receive the unproved and unprovable allegations of men as authority paramount to the word of God.


xii. 1,7. " And he went on his journies from the south even unto Bethel, unto the place where his tent had been at the beginning, [xii. 8, 9.] between Bethel and Hai.” (xiii. 3.) While dwelling here, “ The Lord saith unto Abram, after that Lot was separated from him, Lift up now thine eyes, and look from the place where thou art, northward, and southward, and eastward, and westward, for all the land which thou seest, to thee will 1 give it, and to thy seed for ever.” (xiii. 14, 15.)

These promises are very distinct, but they were followed by others in which the boundaries of the land are expressly stated. Having intimated to him while he dwelt in the plains of Mamre, the servitude to which his descendants should be subjected in Egypt for 400 years, “ In that same day, the Lord made a covenant with Abram, saying, Unto thy seed have I given this Land, from the River of Egypt, unto the Great River, the river Euphrates: The Kenites, and the Kenizzites, and the Kadmonites, and the Hittites, and the Perizzites, and the Rephaims, and the Amorites, and the Canaanites, and the Girgashites, and the Jebusites.” Gen. xv. 13-21.

Here is an extensive territory indeed. The Euphrates does not approach farther west than 40 deg. 20. min. east longitude, in any latitude corresponding with that of the Holy Land, either as promised or as hitherto enjoyed; while the most eastern point of the land, as already possessed, does not extend beyond 37 deg. of east longitude. The Nile or “ River of Egypt” being here given as another boundary mark of the Promised Land, it necessarily includes Idumea and the land of Goshen, north of the eastern branch of that river. This allotment then cmbraces a considerable part of Syria, being the whole territory from the Euphrates on the north-east; and the whole of Idumea, being to the Nile on the south-west. And of this we are presented with a more particular specification of the nations included within the general outline given. The Kenites inhabited a district lying to the westward of the Dead Sea, and extending their_southern boundary far into Arabia Petræa. (Compare Exod. iii. 1, with Judges i. 16. Num. xxiv. 21. 1 Sam. xv. 16.) The Kenniz. zites seem to have occupied a district south-east of the Kenites, (Joshua xv. 17. Judges, i. 13. iii. 9, 11. 1. Chron. iv. 13. xxvii. 15.) The Kadmonites, or Eastern people, dwelt in the north-eastern parts of Canaan, under mount Hermon, in the land of Mispeh or Gilead, (supposed to be the same with the Hivites, Numb. xiii. 29. Josh. ix. 1. xi, 3. Judges iii. 3.) The Hittites, the

. iï offspring of Heth, the second son of Canaan, dwelt in the southern part of Palestine near Hebron, (Gen. ii. 3. Judges i. 26. 2 Sam. xi. 6. 1 Sam. xxv. 6. 2 Kings viii. 7. 1 Kings xi. 1. 2 Kings vii. 6.) The Perizzites are supposed to have principally lived dispersed among the other tribes of the Canaanites, living sometimes in one country and sometimes in another. (Gen. xiii. 7. Josh. xvii. 15. Judges iii. 5. i. 4. 1 Kings ix. 20, 21. 2 Chron. viii. 7. Ezra ix. 1.) The Rephaims were a race of giants, inhabiting a fruitful valley situated on the confines of what became the territories of the tribes of Judah and Benjamin. (Josh. xv. 8. xviii. 5. 2 Sam. v. 18, 22. xxiii. 13. 1 Chron. xi. 15. xvi. 9. Is. xvii. 5.) The Amorites had two powerful kingdoms on the east of Jordan, governed by Sihon and Og. They had at one time a great part of the territories of Moab and Ammon; and they had other kingdoms along the south of Canaan, westward of Jordan. (Num. xxi. xxxij. Deut. i. 44. Josh. xii. xv. xix. Judges vi. 10. 2 Kings xxi. 11. Amos ii. 9.) The Canaanites here refer to some tribes of that people particularly called by their name, who dwelt in the mid-land by the sea westward, and by the coast of Jordan eastward. The Girgashites are supposed to have been the ancestors of the Gergasenes, on the east of the sea of Tiberias. (Josh. xxiv. 11. Mark v. Luke viii. 26. Mat. viii. 28.) The Jebusites dwelt about Jerusalem, and the mountainous country adjacent. (Num. xiii. 29. Judges i. 21. 2 Sam. v. xxiv. 16. Zech. ix. 7.)

This promise was renewed to Abram when his name was changed to Abraham, the Lord re-assuring him that there should be given to him and to his seed, " the land wherein thou art a stranger," (or the land of thy sojournings, marg.] “all the land of Canaan, for an everlasting possession." Gen. xvii. 5—8.

This assurance was repeated to his son, Isaac, while at Gerar, whither he had removed from the well, Lahai-roi, in the wilderness of Shur, on account of a famine. " And the Lord appeared unto him and said, Go not down into Egypt; dwell in the land which I shall tell thee of ; sojourn in this land and I will be with thee, and will bless thee; for unto thee and unto thy seed will I give all these countries, and I will perform the oath which I sware unto Abraham thy father." Gen. xxvi. 2, 3.

It was also renewed to Jacob in the vision of the ladder of celestial commnnication at Bethel : 6 And behold the Lord stood above it, and said, I am the Lord God of Abraham thy father, and the God of Isaac; the land whercon thou liest, to thee will I give it and to thy seed; and thy seed shall be as the dust of the earth; and thou shalt spread abroad to the west, and to the east, and to the north, and to the south, and in thee and in thy seed shall all the families of the earth be blessed." Gen. xxviii. 13, 14.

The same promise was renewed, with new and important specifications, to the children of Israel, after the giving of the law from Mount Sinai : “ I will set thy bounds from the Red Sea even unto the Sea of the Philistines, and from the Desert unto the River; for 1 will deliver the inhabitants of the land into your hand, and thou shalt drive them out before thee.” Exod. xxiii. 31. As, by other specifications, we find that part of Stony Arabia included which is embraced between the Gulphs of the Red Sea, it is evident that the expression from the Red Sca even to the Sea of the Philistines” points to the Elanitic Gulph on the south-east and all west from it to the Mediterranean, or the Sea of the Philistines. “From the Desert to the River" gives us the desert of Egypt and Arabia, (Gen. xvi. 7. Exod. xv. 22.) through which they were just passing, as their southern boundary, from which the whole land “unto the River," as the Euphrates is by way of eminence termed, is comprehended in this important grant.

This extent of the divine promise is again declared in the address delivered by Moses to the children of Is


rael, while in the land of Moab, before his death : “The Lord our God spake unto us in Horeb, saying, Ye have dwelt long enough in this mount, turn you and take your journey, and go to the mount of the Amorites, and unto all the places nigh thereunto; in the plain, in the hills, and in the vale; and in the south, and by the sea side ; to the land of the Canaanites, and unto Lebanon ; unto the Great River, the river Euphrates. Behold I have set the land before you; go in and possess the land which the Lord sware unto your fathers, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, to give unto them and to their seed after them.” Deut. i. 6-9. Still has God respect unto his oath ; and at each renewal of the pledge, given long before, does he recall to their remembrance that his purpose of giving the land unto them, is in fulfilment of the covenant made with their fathers,—that their possession should extend from the Red Sea and River of Egypt on the south and southwest, and to the Euphrates and Lebanon on the northeast and north-west. When thus addressed by the Lord the children of Israel were in mount Horeb, betwecn the Gulphs of the Red Sea, 140 miles south of what afterwards became the boundary of the land as hitherto possessed by Israel ; yet, in the wide range thus set before them, they are still called to go into all the places even in the south" of Horeb, which is situated

“ only about 50 miles north of the most southern extremity of the peninsula.

The same promise was reiterated by Moses in the course of this speech addressed to Israel on delivering to them the law : “ For if ye shall diligently keep all these commandments which I command you, to do them, to love the Lord your God, to walk in all his ways, and to cleave unto him ; then will the Lord drive out all these nations from before you, and ye shall possess greater nations and mightier than yourselves. Every place whereon the soles of your feet shall tread shall be yours, from the Wilderness and Lebanon ; from the River, the river Euphrates, even unto the uttermost sea, shall your coast be.” Deut. xi. 22—24. Euphrates on the north-east, and Lebanon on the north.

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