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inscriptions. The MS. purports to have been accompanied by maps and drawings, but these are not now forthcoming. Dr Francis Buchanan has described the remains, with his usual somewhat dry precision, in his statistical survey of northern Bengal and Behar, executed between 1809 and 1816, but only published, with a title-page that bears the name of Montgomery Martin, and no reference to the real author, in 1838 (Eastern India, &c., vol. iii. pp. 68 sq.). MrJames Fergusson has a short chapter, containing the only critical account of the architecture of Gaur, in his History of Indian Architecture. Lastly, since the greater part of this article was compiled, there has been published a splendid volume (Gaur: its Ruins and Inscriptions, 4to) from the photographs and notes of the late J. A. Ravenshaw of the Bengal Civil Service.

Before concluding we may indicate a few of the most notable remaining buildings.

1. One of the most pleasing remains, as regards architectural design, is a minaret or tower of stone and brick, standing immediately west of the citadel. It is 84 feet in height and 21 in diameter at the base. For two-thirds of the height the form is that of a 12-sided polygon, and above that circular, the two forms being divided by a bold cornice. There is now no inscription attached, but tradition assigns it to Firoz Shah, and a native history of Bengal compiled in the last century attributes it specifically to.a king of that name, who reigned 1488-1490. Mr Fergusson indeed considers the architecture to belong to an earlier period; and it is remarkable that the researches of Mr E. Thomas in coins, and of the late Mr Henry Blochmann in lapidary inscriptions, have recently established the existence of a King Shamsuddín Firoz, whose coinage at Lakhnaoti shows his reign to have extended from 1302 to 1318. If the work be really due to this prince, it is by much the oldest building of importance now remaining at Gaur. But the point is very doubtful.'

2. The Dakhil Darwaza, or Gate of Entrance, is the northern gate of the citadel. It is a noble structure, though entirely built of small bricks. The tunnel under the rampart is 112 feet long by 14 wide, and the height of the archway is 34 feet. An inscription copied by Francklin ascribes the work to Bárbak Shah, and the erection to 1466. The grandiose palace wall is believed to be of the same period.

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3. The Lattan(1), or the Painted Masjid, a quadrangular edifice in the southern part of the city, cased inside and out with bricks beautifully enamelled in blue, green, and white. It is covered by one large dome. The work is ascribed to 1470-1481.

4. The Tánti-Pára Masjid, or Mosque of the Weaver's Quarter. This is now much dilapidated, but Ravenshaw's photograph indicates it to have been one of the most beautiful buildings in Gaur. The niched panels, in carved brickwork which adorn its piers are very rich and delicate. It is also, an inscription given

by Francklin be justly assigned to it, the work of Yusuf Shah,


5. The Sona Masjid, or Golden Mosque. This is probably the most important structure remaining at Gaur. It stands in the city to the north of the citadel, within a spacious court enclosed by a stone wall. The material is described as a dark grey stone, approaching to black, with sculpture in beautiful flower-work. The mosque measures 180 feet by 80, and the interior architecture consists of massive intersecting arcades, each intersection being covered by a dome, of which domes there were 44 altogether. In spite of the extraordinary solidity of the building it appears to have suffered greatly since Francklin described it in 1810. The date is fixed by an inscription which existed in his time to 1525.

6. Tombs of Shah Husain (d. 1521), and of his son Nasrat Shah, the builder of No. 5 (d. 1533-34). Of the tombs themselves nothing remains, and their materials are said to have been carried to Fort William in the last century. In Creighton's time, though the tomb of Husain Shah was already gone, there remained a beautiful edifice which had formed the gateway of the enclosure, faced with brick-work richly moulded, and glazed with blue and white. Of Shah Husain (reigned 1494-1521) Dr Blochmann says, "Whilst the names of other Bengal kings scarcely ever occur in legends, and remain even unrecognized in the geographical names of the country, the name of Husain Shah the Good' is still remembered from the frontier of Orisa to the Brahmaputra" (Proc. As. Soc. Bengal, 1873, p. 291).

7. The mosque of the Qadam Rasul, or Footstep of the Prophet, so named from a representation of Mahomet's footmark in stone which was formerly enshrined there. The work of Nasrat Sháh,


We thus see that all the buildings, with the


of the 15th century. If the age of the architecture is disappointing, the better knowledge of details which we derive | from Mr Ravenshaw's book enhances our appreciation of it. The buildings are in brick, in stone, and in both combined. Excepting the great gateways, they lack height enough for stateliness; the character is rather decorated solidity. The façades generally present, a series of pointed arches, with very massive piers between, which are sometimes complicatod polygons, but more usually rectangular; the mouldings have little relief, but the surfaces are adorned with panels filled with beautiful "embossed brick-work." These seem to be rich floral patterns moulded in terra cotta, and probably finished with the chisel. The curvilinear roof, imitated from the use of the bamboo, of which Mr Fergusson speaks as an unpleasing characteristic of architecture in Bengal, is little seen in Gaur,-almost the only indication of it being a slight upward camber in the upper lines of the façade, in which the versed-sine is about th of the chord. In some of the buildings great brilliance has been produced by the profuse use of encaustic tiles in bright colours. The art of making these exists now in India nowhere nearer than in Sind; but indeed the manufacture of terra cotta, or of ordinary brick of the superior character which Rennell attributes to Gaur, is equally a lost art in Bengal. Where the facing is entirely of stone, as in the Great Golden Mosque, and in a smaller one bearing the same name, the ornamentation seems imitated from the terra-cotta work; the relief, however, is much less, owing probably to the hardness of the material. What this material is, or whence," is not quite clear. The older accounts speak of black and other marbles; Buchanan and later writers of "black hornblende," "potstone," and what not; Mr Ravenshaw, in the case of one building, of "granite and marbles." The black stone is probably basalt from the Rajmahl hills, but more precise information is desirable.

In conclusion, we may notice briefly the other neighbouring sites occupied as capitals, which may be regarded as appendages of Gaur.

Pandua, commonly called Parruah or Porruah, was so occupied, with occasional intervals, for nearly a century. Its ruins and tanks extend over a narrow area of nearly 6 miles in length, which is now more of a wilderness than even the site of Gaur. The high road from Malda to Dinajpore passes through it from end to end, but the forest which besets the ruins is so dense on both sides, and so infested with tigers, that single travellers shun the road by night. Mr Ravenshaw employed a gang of 200 men to clear the jungle for his photographs, but even then could only get partial views. The buildings exhibit the same general character as at Gaur, but most of them are older, and seem (for most of them are absolutely overgrown and penetrated by jungle-growth) to show the style in a freer and purer form. Many of them also contain fragments of older Hindu buildings, very probably pillaged from old Lakhnaoti. By far the finest indeed in Bengal, is the Adina mosque at Pandua, standing close to and most important building in the whole Gaur group of cities, and the high road. It is a quadrangular cloister of two stories, measuring externally 500 feet by 300, of brickwork faced throughout with "black hornblende." The cloisters are divided by pillars into intersecting aisles, and each intersection has been covered by a dome. Of these domes there have been originally 375, but most have fallen. According to Buchanan's description the carved windows have been ings which he gives, and from the photographs of Mr Ravenshaw made borrowed from Buddhist structures, but judging from the poor drawunder great difficulties, the combination has been carried out with' good artistic effect. The edifice must no doubt be monotonous, but from what we can see is far from deserving the condemnation which' Buchanan passes on it. The Adina is the work of Sikandar Shah, the son of Iliyás (1358-1390), and his tomb is in an adjunct of the mosque. There is a curious notice of it in Valentijn's (Dutch) East Indies (v. p. 169).

Ekdalah, which was the fortified retreat of the kings who ruled at Pandua, has been lately identified by Mr E. V. Westmacott as still bearing the name, near Chiramon, in the Dinajpore district, about 20 miles north of Pandua. It stands on high ground rising like an island out of the inundated plain; it exhibits traces of embankments and buildings, and is about 5 miles distant from one of the ancient embanked roads running towards Pandua and Gaur.

exception of the minaret, go back no further than the last half fanda, the last city of the Gaur group occupied as a capital, stood

a few miles west of the citadel of Gaur, as may be gathered from
Rennell and Buchanan. Dr Hunter (New Statist. Acc. of Pengal,
vii. p. 65) says its very site has not been accurately determined.
It is possible that it may have been cut away by the waters of the
Ganges, a branch of which has flowed near; but Buchanan had
evidently visited it, and Creighton marks the rampart roughly in
his map
of Gaur. Jannatábad was a name given by Humayun to
Gaur; and other names of royal cities appear on coins, such as
Firuzábád, Husainábád, Shahr-i-nao, &c., which are probably
names officially attached to new foundations of portions of the great
Gaur group of cities, but which gained no popular currency.
In addition to the works quoted in this article, the papers of Mr
E. Thomas and Mr H. Blochmann in the journals of the Royal and
Bengal Asiatic Societies have been consulted.
(H. Y.)

GAUSS, CARL FRIEDRICH (1777-1855), an eminent German mathematician, was born of humble parents at Brunswick, April 23, 1777, and was indebted for a liberal education to the notice which his talents procured him from the reigning duke. His name became widely known by the publication, in his twenty-fifth year (1801), of the Disquisitiones Arithmetica In 1807 he was appointed director of the Göttingen observatory, an office which he retained to his death it is said that he never slept away from under the roof of his observatory, except on one occasion, when he accepted an invitation from Humboldt to attend a meeting of natural philosophers at Berlin. In 1809 he published at Hamburg his Theoria Motus Corporum Colestium, a work which gave a powerful impulse to the true methods of astronomical observation; and his astronomical workings, observations, calculations of orbits of planets and comets, &c., are very numerous and valuable. He continued his labours in the theory of numbers and other analytical subjects, and communicated a long series of memoirs to the Royal Society of Sciences at Göttingen. His first memoir on the theory of magnetism, Intensitas vis magnetica terrestris ad mensuram absolutam revocata, was published in 1833, and he shortly afterwards proceeded, in conjunction with Professor Wilhelm Weber, to invent new apparatus for observing the earth's magnetism and its changes; the instruments devised by them were the declination instrument and the bifilar magnetometer. With Weber's assistance he erected in 1833 at Göttingen a magnetic observatory free from iron (as Humboldt and Arago had previously done on a smaller scale), where he made magnetic observations, and from this same observatory he sent telegraphic signals to the neighbouring town, thus showing the practicability of an electromagnetic telegraph. He further instituted an association (Magnetische Verein), composed at first almost entirely of Germans, whose continuous observations on fixed term-days extended from Holland to Sicily. The volumes of their publication, Resultate aus der Beobachtungen des Magnetischen Vereins, extend from 1836 to 1839; and in those for 1838 and 1839 are contained the two important memoirs by Gauss, Allgemeine Theorie der Erdmagnetismus, and the Allgemeine Lehrsätze on the theory of forces attracting according to the inverse square of the distance. The instruments and methods thus due to him are substantially those employed in the magnetic observatories throughout the world. He co-operated in the Danish and Hanoverian measurements of an arc and trigonometrical operations (1821-48), and wrote (1843, 1846) the two memoirs Ueber Gegenstände der höhern Geodasie. Connected with observations in general we have (1812-26) the memoir Theoria combinationis observationum erroribus minimis obnoxia, with a second part and a supplement. Another memoir of applied mathematics is the Dioptrische Untersuchungen, 1840. Gauss was well versed in general literature and the chief languages of modern Europe, and was a member of nearly all the leading scientific societies in Europe. He died at Göttingen early in the spring of 1855. The centenary of his birth was celebrated (1877) at his native place, Brunswick.


Gauss's collected works have been recently published by the Royal Society of Göttingen, in 7 vols. 4to, Gött., 1863-71, edited by E. J. Schering,-(1) the Disquisitiones Arithmetica, (2) Theory of Numbers, (3) Analysis, (4) Geometry and Method of Least Squares, (5) Mathematical Physics, (6) Astronomy, and (7) the Theoria Motus Corporum Colestium. They include, besides his various works and memoirs, notices by him of many of these, and of works of other authors in the Göttingen gelehrte Anzeigen, and a considerable amount of previously unpublished matter, NachOf the memoirs in pure mathematics, comprised for the most part in vols. ii., iii., and iv. (but to these must be added those on Attractions in vol. v.), it may be safely said there is not one which has not signally contributed to the progress of the branch of mathematics to which it belongs, or which would not require to be carefully analysed in a history of the subject. Running through these volumes in order, we have in the second the memoir, Summatio quarundam serierum singularium, the memoirs on the theory of biquadratic residues, in which the notion of complex numbers of the form a+bi was first introduced into the theory of numbers; and included in the Nachlass are some valuable tables. That for the conversion of a fraction into decimals (giving the complete period for all the prime numbers up to 997) is a specimen of the extraordinary love which Gauss had for long arithmetical calculations; and the amount of work gone through in the construction of the table of the number of the classes of binary quadratic forms must also have been tremendous. In vol. iii. we have memoirs relating to the proof of the theorem that every numerical equation has a real or imaginary root, the memoir on the Hypergeometric Series, that on Interpolation, and the memoir Determinatio Attractionis-in which a planetary mass is considered as distributed over its orbit according to the time in which each portion of the orbit is described, and the question (having an implied reference to the theory of secular perturbations) is to find the attraction of such a ring. In the solution the value of an elliptic function is found by means of the arithmetico-geometrical mean. The Nachlass contains further researches on this subject, and also researches (unfortunately very fragmentary) on the lemniscatefunction, &c., showing that Gauss was, even before 1800, in possession of many of the discoveries which have made the names of Abel and Jacobi illustrious. In vol. iv. we have the memoir Allgemeine Auflösung, on the graphical representation of one surface upon another, and the Disquisitiones generales circa superficies curvas. And in vol. v. we have a memoir On the Attraction of Homogeneous Ellipsoids, and the already mentioned memoir Allgemeine Lehrsätze, on the theory of forces attracting according to the inverse square of the distance. (A. CA.)

GAUSSEN, FRANÇOIS SAMUEL ROBERT LOUIS (17901863), a Protestant theological writer of some repute, was born at Geneva on the 25th of August, 1790. His father Georges Marc Gaussen, a member of the council of two hundred, was descended from an old Languedoc family which had been scattered at the time of the religious persecutions in France. At the close of his university career, Louis was ordained in 1816 to the ministry of the Swiss Reformed Church at Satigny near Geneva, where he formed intimate relations with J. E. Cellérier, who had preceded him in the pastorate, and also with the members of the dissenting con gregation at Bourg-de-Four (Église du temoignage), which had been formed under the influence of the preaching of the Haldanes in 1817. In 1819 he published in conjunction with Cellérier a French translation of the Second Helvetic Confession, with a preface expounding the views he had reached upon the nature, use, and necessity of confessions of faith; and in 1830, for having discarded the official catechism of his church as being insufficiently

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explicit on the divinity of Christ, original sin, and the doctrines of grace, he was censured and suspended by his ecclesiastical superiors. In the following year, for having taken part in the formation of a Société Évangélique, which contemplated, among other objects, the establishment of a new theological hall, he was finally deprived of his charge. After some time devoted to travel in Italy and England, he returned to Geneva and ministered to an independent congregation until 1836, when he became professor of systematic theology in the college which he had helped to found. This post he continued to occupy until 1857, when he retired from the active duties of the chair. His death occurred at Les Grottes, Geneva, on the 18th of June 1863. His best known work, entitled La Théopneustie ou Pleine Inspiration des Saintes Écritures, an elaborate defence of the doctrine of "plenary inspiration," was originally published at Paris in 1840, and rapidly gained a wide popularity in France, as also, through translations, in England and America. It was followed in 1860 by a supplementary treatise on the canon (Le Canon des Saintes Ecritures au double point de vue de la Science et de la Foi), which, though also popular, has hardly been so widely read. Gaussen was also the author of two published series of sermons, of an exposition of Daniel, and of a variety of occasional publications of a missionary or polemical character. His lectures on Genesis, Exodus, Joshua, Jonah, and Luke were published posthumously.

GAUTIER, THEOPHILE (1811-1872), was born at Tarbes in the year 1811. He was educated at the grammar school of that town, and afterwards at the College Charlemagne in Paris, where it does not appear that he particularly distinguished himself, though in later life his remarkable literary faculty and instinct enabled him to give to much of his work an air of scholarship and almost of erudition. He very early devoted himself to the study of the older French literature, especially that of the 16th and the early part of the 17th century. This study qualified him well to take part in the romantic movement, and enabled him to astonish Sainte-Beuve by the phraseology and style of some literary essays which, when barely eighteen years old, he put into the great critic's hands. In consequence of this introduction he at once came under the influence of the great romantic cénacle, to which, as to Victor Hugo in particular, he was also introduced by his gifted but ill-starred schoolmate Gérard de Nerval. With Gérard, Petrus Borel, Corot, and many other less known painters and poets whose personalities he has delightfully sketched in the articles latterly collected under the titles of Histoire du Romantisme, &c., he formed a minor romantic clique who were distinguished for a time by the most extravagant eccentricity. A flaming crimson waistcoat and a great mass of waving hair were the outward signs which qualified Gautier for a chief rank among the enthusiastic devotees who attended the rehearsals of Hernani with red tickets marked "Hierro," performed mocking dances round the bust of Racine, and were at all times ready to exchange word or blow with the perruques and grisâtres of the classical party. In Gautier's case, however, whatever they might be in others, these freaks were not inconsistent with real genius and real devotion to sound ideals of literature. He began (like Thackeray, to whom he presents in other ways some striking points of resemblance) as an artist, but soon found that his true powers lay in another direction. His first considerable poem, Albertus (1830), displayed a good deal of the extravagant character which accompanied rather than marked the movement, but also gave evidence of uncommon command both of language and imagery, and in particular of a descriptive power hardly to be excelled. The promise thus given was more than fulfilled in his subsequent poetry, which, in consequence of its small bulk, may well be


noticed at once and by anticipation. The Comédie de la Mort, which appeared soon after (1832), is one of the most remarkable of French poems, and though never widely read has received the suffrage of every competent reader. Minor poems of various dates, published in 1840, display an almost unequalled command over poetical form, an advance even over Albertus in vigour, wealth, and appropriateness of diction, and abundance of the special poetical essence which is so often absent in the most finished poetical work. All these good gifts reached their climax in the Emaux et Camées, first published in 1856, and again, with additions, just before the poet's death in 1872. These poems are in their own way such as cannot be surpassed. Gautier's poetical work contains in little an expression of his literary peculiarities. There are, in addition to the peculiarities of style and diction already noticed, an extraordinary feeling and affection for beauty in art and nature, and a strange indifference to anything beyond this rangean indifference nearly absolute, and which has doubtless injured the popularity of his work to almost as great a degree as that in which it has increased its special excellence and its charm to those who have a taste for it.

But it was not, after all, as a poet that Gautier was to achieve either profit or fame. Thrown as he was into circles which were nothing if not literary, it was natural that le should attempt all literary forms, and certain, considering his powers, that he should be successful in all. For the theatre, however, he had but little gift, and his dramatic efforts (if we except certain masques or ballets in which his exuberant and graceful fancy came into play) are by far his weakest. For a time he acted as secretary to Balzac, but found this occupation uncongenial enough, though it left some traces iu his independent work, His first novel of any size, and in many respects his most remarkable work, was Mademoiselle de Maupin (1835). Unfortunately this book, while it establishes his literary reputation on an imperishable basis, was unfitted by its subject, and in parts by its treatment, for general perusal, and created even in France a prejudice against its author which he was very far from really deserving. During the years from 1833 onwards, his fertility in novels and tales was very great. Les Jeune France (1833), which may rank as a sort of prose Albertus in some ways, displays the follies of the youthful romantics in a vein of humorous and at the same time half-pathetic satire. Fortunio (1838) perhaps belongs to the same class. Jettatura, written somewhat later, is less extravagant and more pathetic. A crowd of minor tales display the highest literary qualities, and rank with Mérimée's at the head of all contemporary works of the class. First of all must be mentioned the ghost story of La Morte Amoureuse, a gem of the most perfect workmanship. For many years Gautier continued to write novels. La Belle Jenny (1864) is a not very successful attempt to draw on his English experience, but the earlier Militona (1847) is a most charming picture of Spanish life, In Spirite (1866) he endeavoured to enlist the fancy of the day for supernatural manifestations, and a Roman de la Momie (1856) is a learned study of ancient Egyptian ways. His most remarkable effort in this kind, towards the end of his life was Le Capitaine Fracasse (1863), a novel of the school of Dumas projected nearly thirty years before. This book contains some of the finest instances of his literary power.

It was, however, neither in poems nor in novels that the main occupation of Gautier as a literary man consisted. He was early drawn to the more lucrative task of feuilleton writing, and for more than thirty years he was among the most expert and successful practitioners of this art. after the publication of Mademoiselle de Maupin, in which he had not been too polite to journalism, he became irrevocably a journalist. The rest of his life was spent either


in Paris or in travels of considerable extent to Spain, the made his first published sketch. His parents were poor, and Netherlands, Italy, Turkey, England, Algeria, and Russia, he started in life as a workman in an engine-building factory. all undertaken with a more or less definite purpose of book At the same time he attended the free school of drawing. making. Having absolutely no political opinions, he had Here his natural talent was developed, and he acquired that no difficulty in accepting the second empire, and received training of the hand without which an artist is unable to from it considerable favours, in return for which, however, work up his best inspirations. In his first attempts to turn he in no way prostituted his pen, but remained a literary his abilities to some account he met with many disappointman pure and simple. He died in October 1872. ments, but was at last entrusted with the drawing of some Accounts of his travels, criticisms of the theatrical and illustrations for a journal of fashion. Gavarni was then literary works of the day, obituary notices of his contem- thirty-four years of age. His sharp and witty pencil gave poraries, and above all art criticism, occupied him in turn. to these generally commonplace and unartistic figures a lifeIn the last department he has never had a superior, nor likeness and an expression which soon won for him a name perhaps, except in the cases of Diderot and a great living in fashionable circles Gradually he gave greater attention English critic, an equal. It has sometimes been deplored to this more congenial work, and finally ceased working as that this engagement in journalism should have diverted an engineer to become the director of the journal Les Gens Gautier from the performance of more capital work in du Monde. His ambition rising in proportion to his sucliterature. Perhaps, however, this regret springs from a cess, Gavarni from this time followed the real bent of his certain misconception. Gautier's power was literary inclination, and began a series of lithographed sketches, power pure and simple, and it is as evident in his slightest in which he pourtrayed the most striking characteristics, sketches and criticisms as in Emaux et Camées or La Morte foibles, and vices of the various classes of French society. Amoureuse. On the other hand, his weakness, if he had a The letterpress explanations attached to his drawings were weakness, lay in his almost total indifference to the matters always short, but were forcible and highly humorous, if which usually supply subjects for art and therefore for sometimes trivial, and were admirably adapted to the literature. He was neither immoral, irreligious, nor unduly particular subjects. The different stages through which subservient to despotism, but morals, religion, and politics Gavarni's talent passed, always elevating and refining itself, (to which we may add science and material progress) were are well worth being noted. At first he confined himself to matters of no interest to him. He was to all intents a the study of Parisian manners, more especially those of the humanist, as the word was understood in the 15th century. Parisian youth. To this vein belong les Lorettes, les Actrices, But he was a humorist as well, and this combination, les Coulisses, les Fashionables, les Gentilshommes bourgeois, joined to bis singularly kindly and genial nature, saved him les Artistes, les Débardeurs, Clichy, les Étudiants de Paris, from some dangers and depravations as well as some absur les Baliverneries Parisiennes, les Plaisirs Champêtres, les dities to which the humanist temper is exposed. As time Bals masqués, le Carnaval, les Souvenirs du Carnaval, les goes on it may be predicted that, though Gautier may not Souvenirs du Bal Chicard, la Vie des jeunes hommes, les be widely read, yet his writings will never cease to be full Patois de Paris. He had now ceased to be director of of indescribable charm and of very definite instruction to Les Gens du Monde; but he was engaged as ordinary men of letters. Besides those of his works which have been caricaturist of Le Charivari, and, whilst making the fortune already cited, we may notice Une larme du Diable (1839), of the paper, he made his own. His name was exceedingly a charming mixture of humour and tenderness; Les popular, and his illustrations for books were eagerly Grotesques, a volume of early criticisms on some oddities of sought for by publishers. Le Juif Errant, by Eugène 17th century literature; Caprices et Zigzags, miscellanies Sue (1843, 4 vols. 8vo), the French translation of Hoffdealing in part with English life; Constantinople, Voyage man's tales (1843, 8vo), the first collective edition of en Russie, Voyage en Espagne, brilliant volumes of travel; Balzac's works (Paris, Houssiaux, 1850, 20 vols. 8vo), Ménagerie Intime (1869), and Tableaux de Siège (1872), his Le Diable à Paris (1844-46, 2 vols. 4to), Les Français two latest works, which display his incomparable style in peints par eux-mêmes (1840-43, 9 vols. 8vo), the collection its quietest but not least happy form. (G. SA.) of Physiologies published by Aubert in 38 vols. 18mo (1840-42),—all owed a great part of their success at the time, and are still sought for, on account of the clever and telling sketches contributed by Gavarni. A single frontispiece or vignette was sometimes enough to secure the sale of a new book. Always desiring to enlarge the field of his observations, Gavarni soon abandoned his once favourite topics. He no longer limited himself to such types as the lorette and the Parisian student, or to the description of the noisy and popular pleasures of the capital, but turned his mirror to the grotesque sides of family life and of humanity at large. Les Enfants terribles, les Parents terribles, les Fourberies des femmes, la Politique des femmes, les Maris vengés, les Nuances du sentiment, les Rêves, les Petits Jeux de Société, les Petits malheurs du bonheur, les Impressions de ménage, les Interjections, les Traductions en langue vulgaire, les Propos de Thomas Vireloque, &c., were composed at this time, and are his most elevated productions. But whilst showing the same power of irony as his former works, enhanced by a deeper insight into human nature, they generally bear the stamp of a bitter and even sometimes gloomy philosophy. This tendency was still more strengthened by a visit to England in 1849. He returned from London deeply impressed with the scenes of misery and degradation which he had observed among the lower classes of that city. In the

GAUZE, a light, transparent, silken fabric, woven in an open manner with very fine yarn. It is said to have been originally made at Gaza in Palestine, whence the name. In the weaving of gauze the warp threads, in addition to being crossed as in plain weaving, are twisted in pairs from left to right and from right to left alternately, after each shot of weft, thereby keeping the weft threads at equal distances apart, and retaining them in their parallel position. The textures are woven either plain, striped, or figured; and the material receives many designations, according to its appearance and the purposes to which it is devoted. A thin cotton fabric, woven in the same way, is known as leno, to distinguish it from muslin made by plain weaving. Silk gauze was a prominent and extensive industry in the west of Scotland during the second half of the 18th century, but on the introduction of cotton weaving it greatly declined. In addition to its use for dress purposes silk gauze is much employed for bolting or sifting flour and other finely ground substances. The term gauze is applied generally to transparent fabrics of whatever fibre made, and to the fine woven wire-cloth used in safety-lamps, sieves, window-blinds, &c. GAVARNI, French caricaturist, was born at Paris in 1801, and died in 1866. His true name was Chevalier (Sulpice Guillaume), and he is said to have taken the nom de plume under which he is known from the place where he

midst of the cheerful atmosphere of Paris he had been struck chiefly by the ridiculous aspects of vulgarity and vice, and he had laughed at them. But the debasement of human nature which he saw in London appears to have affected him so forcibly that .rom that time the cheerful caricaturist never laughed, or made others laugh again. What he had witnessed there became the almost exclusive subject of his drawings, as powerful, as impressive as ever, but better calculated to be appreciated by cultivated minds than by the public, which had in former years granted him so wide a popularity. Most of these last compositions appeared in the weekly paper L'Illustration. In 1857 he published in one volume the series entitled Masques and Visages (1 vol. 12mo), and in 1869, about two years after his death, his last artistic work, Les Douze Mois (1 vol. fol.), was given to the world. Gavarni was much engaged, during the last period of his life, in scientific pursuits, and this fact must perhaps be connected with the great change which then took place in his manner as an artist. He sent several communications to the Académie des Sciences, and till his death, which happened on the 23d of November 1866, he was eagerly interested in the question of aerial navigation. It is said that he made experiments on a large scale with a view to find the means of directing balloons; but it seems that he was not so successful in this line as his fellow-artist, the caricaturist and photographer, Nadar.

Gavarni's Fuvres choisies were edited in 1845 (4 vols. 4to) with letterpress by J. Janin, Th. Gautier, and Balzac, followed in 1850 by two other volumes named Perles et Parures; and some essays in prose and in verse written by him were collected by one of his biographers, Ch. Yriarte, and published in 1869. The book written by E. and J. de Goncourt, Gavarni, l'homme et l'œuvre (1878, 8vo), must be mentioned here. J. Claretie has also devoted to the great French caricaturist a curious and interesting essay. A catalogue raisonné of Gavarni's works has been published by J. Armelhault and E. Bocher, Paris, 1873, 8vo.

GAVELKIND is a peculiar system of tenure prevailing chiefly in the county of Kent, but found also in other parts of England. In Kent all land is presumed to be holden by this tenure until the contrary is proved. It is more correctly described as socage tenure, subject to the custom of gavelkind. The chief peculiarities of the custom are the following. (1.) A tenant can aliene his lands by feoffment at fifteen years of age. (2.) There is no escheat on attainder for felony, or as it is expressed in the old rhyme

"The father to the bough,

The son to the plough

(3.) Generally the tenant could always dispose of his lands by will. (4.) In case of intestacy the estate descends not to the eldest son but to all the sons in equal shares. "Every son is as great a gentleman as the eldest son is." It is to this remarkable peculiarity that gavelkind no doubt owes its local popularity. The 4 & 5 Vict. c. 35, for commuting manorial rights in respect of lands of copyhold and customary tenure, contains a clause specially exempting from the operation of the Act "the custom of gavelkind as the same now exists and prevails in the county of Kent." Gavelkind is one of the most interesting examples of the customary law of England, and it is no doubt correctly traced to the Saxon land-law prevailing before the Conquest. Its survival in this instance in one part of the country is regarded as a concession extorted from the Conqueror by the superior bravery of the men of Kent.

GAVIAL. See CROCODILE. GAY, JOHN (1688-1732), one of the most eminent of the secondary English poets, was a native of Devonshire, born in 1688 at Frithelstock, near Torrington, where his family had been long settled. His father dying when the future poet was only about six years of age, and leaving four children, the prospects of the family were unpromising;



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and John, after receiving his education at the grammar school of Barnstaple, was put apprentice to a silk mercer in London. He disliked the employment, obtained his discharge, and embarked in a literary life, varied only by incessant efforts to obtain the patronage of the great.How he lived up to his twenty-second year is not stated. 1710 he published his poem of Wine, an enumeration of the charms of the "enlivening grape," written in the grave, mock-heroic, and minutely descriptive style, which he afterwards displayed with greater power in his Trivia. 1712 he was received into the household of the duchess of Monmouth in the capacity of secretary. Next year he published his Rural Sports, inscribed to Pope; and this seems to have led to a friendship between the poets uninterrupted and sincere. The superiority of Pope was freely conceded. There could be no rivalry on the part of Gay, and Pope appears to have exerted himself on every occasion to serve his friend. Gay's ambition was limited to a life of ease, fine-dressing, and a luxurious table, in all of which he had marvellous success, but little contentment. In the years 1713 and 1714, besides the Rural Sports, he produced a comedy, The Wife of Bath, which was acted only three nights; The Fan, a poem; and The Shepherd's Week, a series of six pastorals drawn from English rustic life. Pope is believed to have incited his friend to this task in order to cast ridicule on the Arcadian pastorals of Ambrose Philips, who had been lavishly praised in the Guardian (ignoring the claims of Pope) as the first pastoral writer of the age, and the true English Theocritus. The malicious wit was completely successful, but Gay's ludicrous pictures of the English swains and their loves were found to be interesting and amusing without reference to their sarcastic origin. The poem was popular, and the author's reputation considerably advanced. In this fortunate year Cay was appointed secretary to the earl of Clarendon, ambassador to the court of Hanover; but the death of Queen Anne, August 1, 1714, soon put an end to his hopes of permanent official employment. He then tried the drama, and produced his farce of What d'ye Call it? which was acted with little success in February 1714–15. In 1716 appeared his Trivia, or the Art of Walking the Streets of London, a poem in three books, for which he acknowledged having received several hints from Swift. It is an excellent town poem, containing graphic and humorous descriptions of the London of that period. In January 1716-17 the comedy of Three Hours after Marriage was brought on the stage, and emphatically condemned. In this piece Gay was assisted by Pope and Arbuthnot. Pope is distinctly visible in his allusions to Dennis the critic; and it is remarkable that three such men should have produced a play so dull, unnatural, and gross Gay was taken to Aix by Mr Pulteney in 1717. In 1720 he collected his poems and published them by subscription, by which he is said to have realized £1000. Secretary Craggs also presented him with some South Sea stock; and Gay called in his friends to advise as to the investment of his riches. Erasmus Lewis, according to Johnson, advised him to intrust his money to the funds, and live upon the interest; Arbuthnot bade him intrust it to Providence, and live upon the principal; while Pope directed him, and was seconded by Swift, to purchase an annuity. This was Pope's own prudent system; but Gay, like many others who ask advice, followed none, but took his own way. He embarked all in South Sea stock; and, refusing to sell out before the bubble burst, he lost the actual principal as well as the anticipated profit. The calamity overwhelmed him; his life was despaired of; but his friends exerted themelves to cheer and succour the desponding bard. Lord Burlington entertained him for months in his princely house at Chiswick; and Pope, Arbuthnot, and the other members of the circle were

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