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in his power. This is the kind of witchcraft that has and that of Ireland. The study of this subject is full of 'existed all along, and which has cost many poor helpless interest, and is capable of producing important results both creatures their lives at the stake.

linguistic and historical. The field is as yet unoccupied, Topography.--In dealing with the literature of the and affords much to encourage the judicious and painstakHighlands we cannot overlook the topography of the ing student. country. It is to be regretted that in Scotland we have no Names of Persons.—The literature of the Highlands may such MS. remains, containing topographical terms with be held further to include the names of persons as well as their origin, as are to be found in Ireland, nor have we any those of places. Indeed some of the older MSS. are filled work on the subject of topography possessed of the slightest with pedigrees, sometimes of kings, sometimes of lesser authority. But we have numerous ancient charters con- persons. Many of these ascend up to Noah, and even to taining names of places, and we have what are called the Adanı, showing at least that they date since the conversion retours, connected with the succession to property through of the Gael to Christianity. There are several interesting out the country, and these contain extensive lists with the genealogical lists in the volume of transactions published spelling adopted for the names at different periods. These by the lona Club, and there are MSS. in the Advocates' names belong to different languages. There is apparently Library, Edinburgh, which covtain several lists of a similar au original language, if not more than one, which is now kind. The descent of family representatives is in these lost. Without this assumption there is no accounting for traced up to the original source, which in many cases is many of the names applied to natural objects. Then there found among the ancient Scottish kings. The preparing is the old Norse and the Anglo-Saxon, the one using wick and continuing of these pedigrees was one of the duties of for a bay, as in Caithness, and the other for a town, as in the ancient bards and sennachies, who transmitted their Roxburghshire; then there is the British, as in the old knowledge of family history from generation to generation. Strathclyde territory, and the Gaelic. The Gaelic, in its It may be believed that these officials would have a measure topographical distribution, does not occupy the same field of bias in favour of their own patrons, and this may have, with that occupied by it as a spoken tongue. The spoken in some cases, influenced their accounts of family history; language and the topography of Galloway are quite at but, upon the whole, there seems to be a large amount of variance ; so with Lewis and others of the Western Isles. truth in what they have transmitted to us, back to a certain The spoken language of Galloway is Scottish, the topography date. The rest is pure fiction. A specimen may be given, is almost wholly Gaelic. The spoken language of Lewis, extracted from the genealogy of the family of Argyll. Harris, Skye, &c., is Gaelic, the topography is almost Genelach mac Cailin Gillespic mac Cailin anann mac Gillespic wholly old Norse. But one thing is manifest, that Gaelic mac Donch anagha mac Cailin mac Gillespic ruoidh mac Cailin oig names are distributed over the whole surface of Scotland, mac Neill mac Cailin moir mac Gillespic mac Dubgaill, &c., and so ulthough not in equal proportions. These names contain a

on through King Arthur up to Seth, the son of Adam, the son of

God. In English this is— The genealogy Mac Cailin : Gillespick, history, could it be evolved. They speak of races distinct

son of Colin, son of Gillespick, son of Duncan the fortunate, son of and successive, altbough their testimony as to dates is Colin, son of Gillespick the red, son of Colin the young, son of Neil, difficult to read. The county names of Scotland in Gaelic son of Colin the great, son of Gillespick, son of Dougal, &c. So far are suggestive :

the genealogy corresponds nearly with the usual genealogies of the

family historians of the house of Argyll. Similar pe ligrees aro Shetland......... Sialluinn.


furnished of most of the Highland clans. Orkney Arcaibh.

Stirling Sruileailh. Caithness... Galuhaobh Galloway

........ Gallthaobh.

The names of persons among the Gaelic races are for the Sutherlanıl Cataobh.


Dunphris, most part patronymic.' Ross...... Ros.

Lanark..... Lanerch. Cromarty Crombarth. Argyll. Araghael.

The first name in its earlier form is usually descriptive, as Donnghal, Inverness Inbhearnaoise. Dum harton...... Dunbhreatuinn.

Dubhghal, Donnnchadh, Gillespuig,-Donald, Dougal, Duncan, Nairn.. Inbhearnarunn, Bute


Gillespick,—the brown man, the black man, the brown-faced man, Moray. Morthaobh. Linlithgow. Lanncuthaich.

the servant of the bishop; often it is taken from the Scriptures, as Banff. Banabh. Lothian, M. & E. Loudaidh.

Eoin John, Scumas James, Tomns or Tabhas Thomas, Perdar Aberdeen Abaircadhuin, Ronfrew....


Peter, &c.; some of the names come from the Norse, as Torcuil Tor. Kincardine ...... Cinnecharlain.


quil, Tormaid Norman, Aulaidh Olave, Leod Leod, and some are Forfar Farfair. Ayr ..

borrowed from the Normans, as Villeam William, Eanraic Henry,

Kirkcudbright Cillcchuibeirt.

The surnames ore for the most part patronymics, as Eoin

Mac Neill, John the son of Neil; and in case there should be This list does not include Peebles (which is probably another John M'Neil, another step is introduced., as Eoin Mac Celtic), Selkirk, Roxburgh, and Berwick, as there are no Neill mhic Dhomhnaill, and perhaps a third until the person is Gaelic terms for them, but in the other cases it will be

thoroughly identified. Sometimes there is a reduplication of the seen to what an extent the county names are really Gaelic.

sonship, as Mac Mhic Alasdair, Mac Jhic Ailein, the son of the

son of Alexander or Allan, names of important Highland chiefs. The same is true of names of parishes, which are, to a In other cases the surname is descriptive, as Dubh black, Eoin dubh large extent, Gaelic both in the north and in the south. Black John, Beng little, Mor big, Buidh yellow, Crom bent, It is to be observed that the Gaelic topography of Scotland

Ruadh reil, &c., whence many well known English names are differs widely from that of Ireland. The Irish sliabh, for ecclesiastical, as those derived from St John, St Columba, $t Cattan,

derived. A large number of Highland names and surnames are a mountain, rarely occurs in Scotland, where the word in St Bridget, and others, and thus become helps to historical inquiry. use chiefly is beinn. It does occur, but the instances are One thing is somewhat remarkable, that there is not an o, in accord. few, while the Scottish ben is as rare in Ireland. Baile, a

ance with Irish nomenclature, among the Scottish Celts. The old township, is sufficiently frequent in Scotland, but not so

O'Duinn of Argyle is lost, and the patronymic of the Celt is marked

by the uniform use of mnc, rupresenting a son, as Odoes a grandmuch so as the Irish Bully. The word strath, for a great The age of fixed family names seems no older than the age of valley, occurs but rarely in Ireland ; in Scotland it abounds charters. Previous to that patronymics universally prevailed, but over the whole kingdom. The abers and pits and invers of

when charters were taken fixed names were essential to their value. Scotland are rare in Ireland, or altogether unknown, while there is little resemblance in the names of rivers. These verbs as a part, and a very curious part, of Gaelic literature. two systems of topography may have originated with the Few languages so abound in proverbs, and proverbs of 2 same people, but in one of the sections there were influences very clever and popular caste. A Highlander seldom gives manifestly at work which were unknown in the other. expression to an important sentiment without backing it Even in the Dalriadic kingdom of Argyll there are features with a proverb, and these give force and pungency to what which indicate a marked distinctiou between the topography he says. A collection of these proverbs was made, iu the



ile Proverte.–From names of persons we may price to pro

sear 1819, bing the Rev. Donald Mackintosh, and, to form some the Vacleans, the Campbells, the Macleods, the Mackenzies, idea of the number of them, it is only necessary to observe the lackintoshes, or others—appears at all. In the book of that, under the letter “I” alone, they reach the number of Deer, supposed to be of the 11th or 12th century, the 383 in the first edition of the book. A large number of names of two claus -the clan Morgan and the clan Cananthese proverbial sayings escaped the notice of Mr Vackintosh, appear; but it is very questionable whether these represent and additions were made in the second edition, while any clan existing now, although clau Morgan is said to be some of the very best are not recorded even yet. Prover- the old name of the Mackays of Strathnaver. But the bial sayings in English are represented by sayings of a names in that interesting record are for the most part purely different kind in Gaelic, having the same meaning. “There patronymic, and do not indicate any connexion with existing is many a slip between the cup and the lip” is represented clans. The fact is that, till very recently, the clan name was by Is le duine an ni a shluigeas e, ach cha leis an ni a confined to the chief, as records oi oid deeds and processes 'chagaineas , “What a man swallows is his own, but not at law serve to show. what he chews.” “It never rains but it pours" is repre- The Gaelic historical literature of one kind or another is sented by An unir a theid a' chailleach 'n a ruith, theil i of considerable extent, and consists of relics, written and 'n a deann-raith, "When the old woman takes to running, traditional, of the old sennachies or family historians. In she runs with a will." “Sour grapes ”-Nionnan a' bhaird certain sections of the country the local traditions are full ris a' chaisteal, chr téid mi fhéin do'r chaisteal Ihreun, cha of the stories of old feuds, and, though not to be implicitly teid, cha leig iad ann mi, “The bard's oath to the castle, relied on, contain usually an element of truth. In Suther'I wont go to the vile castle ; no, they won't let me in.'" land the feuds of the Sutherlands and the Mackays, in Lewis The Gaelic proverbs aro full of interest, and add much to those of the Mackenzies and Macleods, in Skye the feuds the power of either speech or writing when skilfully used. of the M‘Leods and the Macdonalds, in eastern Inverness

Sgeulachdan, or I'ales of Fiction.—These at one time shire those of the Mackintoshes and Cummings, in abounded in the Highlands, and had much in common with Lochaber those of the Mackintoshes and the Camerons, in the tales collected and published by Grimm and Dasent, Perthshire those of the Campbells and the Macgregors, and from the German and the Norse, Until lately, these tales others in other quarters are largely related. Native were entirely oral, and were little known beyond certain accounts of the clans were sometimes committed to writing, portions of the West Highlands. Recently they have been & speciinen of which appears in the transactions of the Iona collected, translated, and edited, with peculiar care and skill, Club. For a good deal of what is bistorical regarding the by Mr J. F. Campbell, in four 8vo volumes. This is a Highlands, recourse must be had to the Irish Annals, which real addition to Gaelic literature, and Mr Campbell has laid occasionally refer to events occurring in Scotland. every friend of that literature under obligation. One real JS. Literalure. The written Gaelic literature was at service it has done in preserving for us admirable specimens its earlier period so mixed up with that of Ireland that it of the most idiomatic and popular forms of tho Gaelic is not easy in every instance to distinguish them. The language. We have it there as used by the tellers of early church of both countries was one, and the early literapopular tales among the people for generations. Whence ture was the offspring of the early church. The very first many of these tales have come it is hard to say, but tales notices we have of the church, whether amoug the mission have been collected in the small islands south of Barra, institutes of Ireland or in Iona, indicate the existence and whero the people seldom tread the soil of even their main extensive cultivation of a native literature. The transcripisland, coutaining ideas and forms of thought which never tiomor translation of portions of the Scriptures is shown to could have originated there, and the preservation of which, have been one of tho frequent exercises of the early misin such a locality, is a remarkable fact. Are they relics of sionaries, and they all learned to write the same dialect and

a a higher civilization existing in ages long gone by? It is make use of the same letters. Many of the MSS. written remarkable that the Thomas the Rhymer of Lorland in Iona may be eredited to Ireland, and vice versa ; and tradition is well known in the traditions of the Highlands, writings found in Contineutal libraries may be presumed to and that stories of him related on the borders in broad have been the work of Scottish as truly as of Irish writers. Scotch are related in the Highlands in Gaelic as tales of The early treatises, and glosses upon Latin treatises, on great antiquity.

theological and other subjects still existing in the early Clun History. -A portion of the literature of the Gaelic Gaelic dialect are numerous, and have afforded materials Celt consists of clan history. The clan system does not for the acute and masterly criticism of Zeuss, De Nigra, seem to be very ancient. In all probability it dates from Stokes, and others; and these are accompanied by treatises the period when the Gaelic kingdom of Scotland ceased to on grammar, history, medicine, astrology, metaphysics, exist. It has been already said to date from the era of poetry, and similar subjects, which are of much interest. charters. But the two eras are pretty nearly identical. lost of these remains are found in the collections in Trinity Down to the reign of Malcolm III. the Gaelic kingdom College, Dublin, and in the library of the Irish Royal appears to bave been to a large extent homogeneous. There Academy; but there are numerous remains in the Edinburgh were no elements in it but what were Celtic, as it never Advocates' Library, which prove at least that there were in really embraced within it the Scandinavian sections. Then Scotland persons who valuerl and collected this literature. the land was governed by its maormors and toiseachs, men There can be no doubt that there were many contributors who represented the central governing power.

It would to it as well. esem that when, in the reign of David I., the kingdom The earliest specimen of Gnelic writing, which can be became largely Anglo-Saxon and Anglo-Norman, the Gaelic pronounced to be Scottish beyond any question, is the Book people became estranged from their native kings, and of Deer, said already to be a work of the 11th or 12th gathered themselves in sections under the sway of their own century. The book itself consists of portions of the New chiefs ; and hence came chiefs and clans, instead of a king Testament written in Latin. The Gaelic portion consists and his subjects forming a uuited nation. The change was of historical references, with notices of grants of land 1 serious one for the Gaelic people, as they never became bestowed on the old monastery of Deer, in Aberdeenshire. Again what they had been before. Clan names appear at These references and notices are, for the most part, written at early period, and in some form or other must have on the margin. They show that, at the time the book was existed before the time of the Sazonized kings; but not written, the Gaelic language tras used, both for speaking and One of the great clans of Highland history—the Macdonalds, writing, in the district around Decr, where it is now unknowu except in the topography. There is not a shade of notes by Mr W. F. Skene. The work is one which has difference between the language of the Book of Deer and the helped to settle several interesting questions connected language of the Irish writings of the same age. The with Gaelic literature. It makes clear that, down to the following specimen of the notices of grants of land may be period of the dean of Lismore of 1512, there was auch in interesting :-Donchad mac mec bead mec híded dorat achad common between the Celtic scholars and bards of Ireland madchor docrist acus drostan acusdocholuimcille insóre gobrád and those of Scotland, while the latter were striking out a malechi (cuscómgell acusgille crist mac fingúni innáienasi course for themselves, in laying aside the Irish letter and intestes, &c. “ Duncan, son of MacBeth, son of Idid, gave orthography, and in using the Saxon letter and an orthoAchad Madchor to Christ, and to Drostan, and to graphy almost purely phonetic. The dean of Lismore's book Columcille, in freedom for ever; Malechi, and Comgall, is a substantial addition to the literature of the Gael. and Gilchrist, son of Fingon, witnesses in proof of it.” The The same century furnished us with another inipurtant notice of grauts continue in similar form, being records kept addition in the translation of the prayer-book usually called within the monastery of what had been given. The Book “John Knox's Liturgy” into Gaelic, by John Carswell, the of Deer is a work of much interest to the Gaelic scholar, bishop of the Isles. This is the first Gaelic book that ever and his best thanks are due to the Spalding Club and the was printed, and bears the date of 1567. There was till late Dr John Stuart for the excellent volume they have very recently only one complete copy of this work in existpublished, containing all that is interesting in the original, ence, that iu the library of the duke of Argyll; but now with a full and learned account of it.

the book lias been reprinted, edited by Dr M.Lauchlan, Of the period immediately after the Book of Deer there who has given an English translation, and such notices of are several MS. remains of Scottish Gaelic writing in the life of Carswell as very scanty inaterials would permit. existence. There is tlie Glenmasan MS. in the Edinburgh This book is printed in the Roman letter. The publication Advocates' Library, inscribed with the date 1238, and con- of Carswell's Gaelic prayer-book would seem to indicate taining several interesting fragments. Here we find the that at the time of its publication the Highlanders could famous lay of Deirdre or Darthula, connected with the story read Gaelic, and that they were familiar with the dialect of the sons of Usnoth. The whole character of this MS. is then in use among scholars both in Scotland and Ireland. identical with that of the Irish MSS., and yet it is mani. Of the 17th century not many remains exist. Calvin's festly a Scottish work. There are lives of saints preserved; Catechism was published about the beginning of the century, one of these, in the Advocates' Library, is the life of St probably translated by Carswell, and published long after Findchua. Mr Skene, in his Chronicles of the Picts and his death. A copy is now hardly to be found. But two Scots, gives transcripts of several important MSS., as the important contributions were made towards the close of the Duan Albanach, or poetical accounts of the Scottish kings, century. The one of these was the metrical translation of recited by the royal bard at the coronation of Malcolm the Gaelic Psalms, executed both by the synod of Argyll Kenmore. This was copied from an Irish MS., but is and the Rev. Robert Kirke of Balquhidder; and the other manifestly a Scottish composition. The bards of both was an edition, in the Roman letter, of Bedell's Irish Bible Ireland and Scotland often crossed the Irish Channel, and for the use of the Highlanders of Scotland. The first fifty their works were well known on both sides of it.

of the psalms by the synod were published in 1659, and the The 14tb and 15th centuries were a period of revival of whole psalter was completed in 1694. Kirke published his literature over the whole continent of Europe, and the Celts version in 1684. Both are highly creditable performances, of Great Britain and Ireland felt the impulse. This was a and Kirke is entitled to special commendation, inasmuch as period of much writing both in Ireland and in Scotland. The the Gaelic language was acquired by him after he was settled romains that exist are of a varied kind, and are numerous, in the Highlands. Kirke's version of the Irish Bible for especially those of the 15th century. Of this century is the use of the Highlanders was published in 1690. The the only Gaelic charter that we possess, which is printed, New Testament is that of O'Donnell. This work is a comwith a translation, in the National Records of Scotland. panied by a glossary including the words in the Irish Bible Of this age also are numerous medical MSS. Some of not generally in use in the Highlands. The book was for these belonged to the famous family of Beatons, hereditary a time used in Highland churches, but the Irish Bible, iu physicians to the Lords of the Isles, and contain accounts the Irish letter, was well known and read iu the Highlands of such remedies as were believed at the time to have both in churches and in families. efficacy in the cure of disease. Others are metaphysical The 18th century was productive of large additions to treatises, while others deal with what were looked upon as Gaelic literature, partly due to an awakening of religious the great and important mysteries of astrology. Of this life, partly to the Jacobite rising, and partly to the progress period also are most of the written genealogies that remain. of literary culture. In the beginning of the century Lhuyd The remarkable thing is the extent to which the Gaelic produced his Vocabulary, accompanied by a few interesting language bears the marks of cultivation at the time. In Gaelic compositions from the Highlands. About the same both medicine and metaphysics words are found to express time, the synod of Argyll executed a translation of the the most abstract ideas, which could not be understood by Confession of Faith and Larger and Shorter Catechisms. the modern Highlander.. As has already been said, some These were published in 1725. M‘Donald's Vocabulary of these writings are translations from Arabic writers, as appeared in the year 1741. It is the first attempt at any. Averroes, Avicenna, Iacobus de Forlivio, and others. The thing like a vocabulary of the Gaelic. It is of little value state of learning at the time in the Highlands was not except as being the first book in which the orthography behind that in the rest of the kingdom. The clergy and approached to that of the modern Gaelic. During this the physicians, and even the bards, were possessed of real century several famous Gaelic bards flourished. M'Donald, learning, and have left evidence of it.

the author of the Vocabulary, filled the country with The 16th century was the period of two important addi- | Jacobite and other songs. The former are of a violent tions to Gaelic literature. The first of these wns what is character, indicating keen partisanship with the exiled called “The Dean of Lismore's book, " a collection of Stuarts. M'Intyre of Glenorchy, commonly called Duncan poetical pieces, and an obituary, chiefly of the M'Gregor Ban, flourished about the same period, and, though he was chiefs, made about the year 1512. The work has recently a Jacobite at first, this appeared less in his compositions been transcribed, translated, and edited, with notes by the than in M'Donald's. His hunting and other descriptive songs Rey. Dr M'Lauchlau, and an introduction and additional are admirable. M'Kay or Calder, visually called Rob Donn, the Reay bard, flourished about the same time, and has left of a living language, for the use of those who hereafter can numerous admirable pieces of Gaelic poetry. Others were only study it as existing in books, where emphasis, and tone, alao successful composers, such as William Ross of Gairlozh, and accent are altogether unknown, and where the comand the religious poet of the Highlands, Dougal Buchanan. mrents and expositions of living men, familiar with the And towards the close of the century was published Gillies's language and the literature from their cliildhood, are altoCollection of Gaelic Poetry, one of the best collections we gether awanting. For that the Gaelic language is in a state possess, containing, as it does, many authentic pieces of of decay is inanifest to the most ordinary observer. And Ossianie poetry taken down when the old clan system was the decay is twofold, being both withiu and without. still in force in the Highlands to a larger extent than now. Within, the vocabulary is waning, and English words are But the 18th century was distinguished by two works of coming into use. Gaelic idioms are iu like manner disapspecial interest, in different departments. The first of these pearing, and English idioms replacing them; while from was the Gaelic translation of the Bible, and the second was without, under the influence of education, immigration, Macpherson's Ossian. The former was executed chiefly by steamboats, railways, and other modern devices, English is. the Rev. James Stewart, of Killin, and his son the Rev. Dr rapidly fiuding its way into the land, and pushing the John Stewart, of Luss,-two eminent scholars, who had all ancient tongue out of it. When this process is completed, the soundness of judgment necessary for such a work. This a change will befall the people too, for there is no doubt translation of the Bible has been most popular in the High- that there is a close relation between the character of a lands and throughout the British colonies where the Gaelic language and the character of the people who use it ; so is still spoken. The Gaelic learner cannot do better at the that, when the Gaelic disappears, many of the features disoutset than master the Gaelic Bible. Macpherson's Ossian tinctive of the Highland character will disappear along appeared about the same time, but not in Gaelic. It with it. In some respects this will be cause of regret; in appeared first in English dress. This was the only mode others perhaps it will not. of making the general public acquainted with it. Mac- At the close of the article CELTIC LITERATURE a list is given of pherson's first small volume of fragments appeared alto- the existing MS. remains of Gaelic literature. It may interest gether in English; it would have been well if both the readers and aid students of Gaelic to furnish here a list of some of original and the translation had been published simultane

the more important printed books in the language. They are as

follows: ously. The only part of the Gaelic that was published

Fraginents in Report of Highland Society on Ossinin; Fragments before 1818 was what is called a “Specimen of the Original in Chronicles of Picts and Scots; The Book of Deer; The Book of of Temora," given with the other poems in English in 1762. the Dean of Lismorc ; Carsewell's Prayer Book ; Bedell's and Tue opinions with regard to the authenticity of Macpherson's O'Donell's Bible ; The Gaelic Psalter, various editions ; The ConOssian are as various as ever, and yet considerable progress

fession of Faith, and Catechisms; Lhuyd's Vocabulary; M'Donald's has been made in the discovery of truth, which all parties of Poems; 'Macdonald's Poems; M'Intyre's Poems ; Rob Donn's

Vocabulary; Ossian's Pocms; Smith's Scan Dana; Gillies's Collection are prepared to acknowledge. It has been established that Pocms; Dougal Buchanan's Hymus; M'Callum's' Collection of poems ascribed to Ossian have been known and written Poetry; The Gaelic Bible; Stewart's Collection of Poems; 'Turner's down in the Highlands for 300 years, that many of them

Collection of Poems; Sacred Poetry of the North, edited by Rose;

The Beautics of Gaclic Poctry, M'Kenzie; Grant's Hymns; M'Intosh's have been handed down by tradition, that these were Gaclic Proverbs; Stewart's Gaelic Grammar; Munro's Gaelic Gramfragments referring to certain important events in the history mar; Highland Society's Gaelic Dictionary; Armstrong's Gaelic of the Gaelic race, and that there was nothing to make it

Dictionary; M'Alpin's Gaelic Dictionary; Highland Tales, collected improbable that such pocms as those translated by Campbell; An Duanaire, hy D.'c. M'Pherson ; An Teachdaire

and edited by J. F. Campbell; Leabhar na Feinn, by J. F. Macpherson could have existed. Further, it is clear that | Gaclach, by Rev. Dr M'Leod"; An Fhiauis, by Rev. Dr Mackay; the Highlanders at once, whether they knew the pieces or An Gaidheal, a magazine; numerous translations from the English, not as given by Macpherson, recognized them as in a style chiefly religious works;' Connell's Astronomy; M'Kenzie's History

(T. M‘L.) familiar to them, and as relating to persons and events with of Scotland; besides many others. which they were familiar. That Macpherson found materials GAETA, at one time the “Gibraltar of Italy," a stronglyfor his work in the Highlands is beyond a doubt, and it fortified seaport town in the province of Caserta, at the exseems quite as manifest that he used very considerable tremity of a peninsula forming the N. W. boundary of the liberties with them in order to serve his object of producing Gulf of Gaeta, with a station on the railway 40 miles N.W. a great Gaelic epic poem or poems. In 1818 the full of Naples. The citadel occupies the heights of the penGaelic version was printed, long after the death of Jaunes insula, and the town stretches below in a long thin line. Nacpherson. The Poems of Ossian, as collected, and trans- To the east lies the harbour, one of the safest on the whole lated, and edited by Macpherson, are a valuable and inter-coast, with a depth of about 15 feet. The principal buildesting addition to Gaelic literature, and enter largely into ings are the cathedral, the churches, the conventual buildthe history of the modern literature of Europe. The Saxon ings (of which the most noteworthy are those of the Franmay have his doubts about Ossian, and may have little ciscans and the Benedictines), the hospital, and the foundserople or delicacy in stating them, but the Gael knows ling asylum. In the cathedral, which was founded or more about Ossian than he does about Milton, and is more partially built by Barbarossa, are several objects of historical familiar with his beroes than with tbose of Homer. interest :--the body of St Erasmus (the St Ermo or Elmo,

The 19th century has seen many large contributions to whose " fires" are familiar to the Mediterranean sailor); the the literature of the Gaelic Celt. It has shared in the standard presented by Pope Pius V. to Don John of Austria, general progress of learning, and with this it has risen in the hero of the battle of Lepanto; and a baptismal font the estimation of the scholars of Europe. Grammars and from the ruins of Formia, which had formerly been an altar dictionaries have been compiled; magazines of various kinds to Bacchus, and still bears the Greek inscription Salmiw have been started and carried on for a time with much Αθηναίος εποίησε. Among the larger remains of Roman vigour; collections, such as Mackenzie's Beauties of Gaelic Gaeta are a temple and an aqueduct; and the circular Torre Poetry, have been made; and such provisions have been laid d'Orlando, which crowns the height above the citadel, is, in up for the future as to secure an ample supply of reality, the sepulchre of L. Munatius Plancus, as is distinctly materials for the scholars of a coming age. That appears proved by a well-preserved inscription. The suburbs of to be the special work laid upon the scholars of the present Gaeta, called Castellona, Mola di Gaeta, and Del Borgo, are time. They have to collect materials and commit them to larger than the town itself, and form a separate commune rriting, and to describe the peculiarities that are distinctive under the name of Formia (see FORMIA). "The population

of the town in 1871 was 7193, and of the commune, which | Gætulians rose in revolt and massacred the Roman residents' includes Anatola, 18,385

and it was not till a severe defeat had been inflicted on them Gaeta is identified with Cuieta, a town of great antiquity, about by Cossius Lentulus that they consented to recognize their whose origin and neme very different accounts are offered by the gratuitous sovereign. By his victory Lentulus acquired the various Greek and Roman writers. Virgil makes it the burial-place title of Gætulicus. Ibn Said in the middle of the 13th of Caieta the nurse of Æneas, while Strabo connects the name with a Laconian word signifying a cavern. In Cicero's time the harbour century, Ibn Khaldun at the end of the 14th, Leo Afriof Caieta was a portus celcberrimus et plenissimus navium, and it canus in the beginning of the 16th, and Marmol about was afterwards greatly improved by Antoninus Pius. As a town, sixty years later, are all quoted by M. Vivien de St Martin the-Roman Caieta does not appear to have attained to any great in his Le Nord development or importance. On the fall of the Western empire it mountainous country called Gozulé, Gutzula, or Guézula

l'Afrique, 1863, as mentioning a became a republic, or free town, under the Byzantine government, and it was also the residenco of the imperial prætor for Sicily. A in the south of Morocco. He is disposed further to idenconsiderable increase of its population and power resulted from tho tify the Gætulians with the Golala, who, according to Iba destruction of the neighbouring town of Formix by the Arabs, in Said, occupied the maritime portion of the great desert, 850. In the 9th century Pope John VIII. bestowed the fief on Pandolf, count of Capua; but in 877 Duke Docibilis called in the

and are referred to by other Arabian geographers as the assistance of the Arabs against the Capuans, and in the course of Djoddala; and it is even possible, he thinks, that their the 11th century we find the people of Gaeta exercising their rights name survives in that of the Ghedala between Cape Blanco for the election of their dukes. At a liter period the fief became and the Lower Senegal on the one hand, and that of the an apanage of the princes of the successive dynasties of Naples. Beni Guechtula in the Algerian province of Bougie on the The capture of the town by Pedro, brother of the king of Aragon, in 1435, was followed by the erection of tho fortress to which so

other. much of its subsequent importanco was due. Ferdinand the GAGE, THOMAS (1720-1787), governor of Massachusetts, Catholic and Charles V. both added to the strongth of its defences. In 1707 the citadel was taken by storm by the Austrian general, in 1720. Ho entered the army at an early age, became lieu

second son of the first Viscount Gage, was born in England Daun, after a three months' siege; and in 1734 it was forced to capi. tulate, after a five months' siege, by the allied army under Charles, tenant-colonel of the 44th regiment of foot in 1750, was afterwards king of Naples. În 1806 it was brilliantly dofended made major-general and governor of Montreal in 1761, and against the French, under Masséna, by Prince Louis of llossen in 1763 succeeded Amherst in the command of the British Philippsthal, who was, however, severely wounded and obliged to leave the fortress to its fate. Pone Pius ¥x. found an asylum in the forces in America. In 1774 he was appointed governor of governor's palace at Gaeta in 1848, and remained thero till sep Massachusetts, and in that capacity was entrusted with

tember 1819. In 1861 it afforled a last point of defence for carrying into effect the Boston Port Act. In this political Francis II. of Naples, who capitulated to the Piedmontese on 13th crisis, by his hesitancy in adopting measures against the February. Gaeta has given the name of Gaetani to a famous

leaders of the insurrectionary party, and contenting himItalian family, about whose original connexion with the town thore are, however, various accounts; and Antonio di Gacta, one of tho self with fortifying Boston, he enabled the Americans to great Benedictine missionaries to Africa in the 17th century, bears mature their plans in comparative security. The battle at the mark of his origin.

Lexington, in which a detachment sent by him, on the 18th "sco Rosetto, Breve descrizione delle cose più notabili di Gurla, reprinted by April 1775, to destroy the cannon and ammunition at Antonio Bulilone, at Naples, in 1690 ; " Geschichto von Gactu," in Ooster. milii. Zeitschrif, 1823.

Concord was defeated, inaugurated the American revolu. GÆTULIA, or the land of the Gætuli, an ancient tionary war. On the 12th June be proclaimed martial law, district of somewhat uncertain limits in northern Africa and proscribed Samuel Adams and John Hancock, offering It may be roughly said to have been bounded on the N. by pardon to all the other rebels who should return to their Mauretania and Numidia, E. by the country of the Gara- allegiance; but the result of these measures was at once to mantes, s. by the basin of the Niger, and W. by the exasperate and encourage the Americans. Although Gage Atlantic; but the frontiers must have been of a very un- gained the nominal victory of Bunker's Hill (June 17), he certain and shifting character. The Gætulians, who, accord- was unable to raise the siege of Boston; and being shortly ing to a tradition mentioned by Sallust, were one of the two afterwards superseded by General Howe, he sailed for great aboriginal races of northern Africa, appear to bave England. He died in 1787. retreated inland before the encroachments of the Numidians GAGERN, HANS CHRISTOPI ERNST, BARON and Mauretanians, but continued to make incursions over (1766–1852), a German statesman and political writer, was a wide stretch of country. Ethnographically, they were born at Kleinniederheim, near Worms, January 25, 1766. quite distinct from the negro races, and indeed probably After completing his studies at the universities of Leipsic belonged to the great Berber race, which still forms so and Göttingen, he entered the service of the prince of important an element in the population of North Africa. Orange-Nassau, whom in 1791 he represented at the im'Their southern tribes having mingled with negro tribes, perial diet. He was afterwards appointed ambassador to acquired the distinctivo title of Melano-Gætuli or Black Paris, where he remained till the decree of Napoleon, forGætulians. A warlike, roving people, they bestowed great bidding all persons born on the left side of the Rhine to attention on the rearing of horses, and, according to Strabo, serve any other power than France, compelled him to resign Tiad 100,000 foals in the course of a year. They were clad liis office. He then retired to Vienna, and in 1812 he in skius, lived on flesh and the milk of their cows, mares, en-leavoured to promote insurrection against Napoleon and camels, and took almost uo advantage of the valuable in Tyrol. On the failure of this attempt he left Austria productions of their country. It was not till the Jugurthine and joined the headquarters of the Prussian army. When war that they became familiar to the Romans ; but after the prince of Orange became king of the Netherlands, Baron wards their name occurs with great frequency in Latin Gagern was appointed his prime minister, and in 1815 he poetical literature, and, indeed, the adjective Gætulian be- represented him at the congress of Vienna, and succeeded came little more than a synecdoche for African. Allusions in obtaining for the Netherlands a considerable aggrandiseare more particularly made to Gætulian purple, which was ment of territory. From 1816 to 1818 he continued to be obtained from the morex of the African coast. In the Netherland ambassador at the German diet, where, while Jugurthine war some of the Gætulian tribes assisted the endeavouring to promote German unity, he also advocated Numidian king with a contingent of horse; but during the the adoption of nieasures which should secure the independcivil war Cæsar found among them very serviceable allies ence of the individual states. In 1820 he retired with a in his contest with Juba. Augustus, having made Numidia pension to his estate of Hornau, in Hesse-Darnıstadt; but, a Roman province, affected to assign a portion of the as a member of the first chamber of the states of the grand Gietulian territory to Juba as a compensation ; but the duchy, he continued to take an active share in the



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