« EelmineJätka »
Majuma Gaze or Port of Gaza, now called el Mineh, which I proceedings. It also contains notices of proceedings in in the 5th century was a separate town and episcopal see, bankruptcy, dissolutions of partnership, &c. The Bankunder the title Constantia or Limena Gaza. In the 7th ruptcy Act, 1869, requires the order of adjudication to be century there were numerous families of Samaritans in published in the Gazette, and makes the Gazette conclusive Gaza, but they became extinct at the commencement of the evidence of adjudication. Other statutes, dealing with present century. Hashem, an ancestor of Mahomet, lies i special subjects, have similar provisions. Unless by baried in the town. On the east are remains of a race- virtue of such statutes, the Gazette is not evidence of anycourse, the corners marked by granite shafts with Greek thing but acts of state. The Scotch law of evidence inscriptions on them. To the south is a remarkable hill, would appear not to be so stringent. Gazettes are also quite isolated and bare, with a small mosque and a grave published in Edinburgh and Dublin. yard. It is called el Muntâr, "the watch tower," and is GEBER. After all the research and criticism that have supposed to be the mountain " before (or facing) Hebron,” been expended on this the first and most interesting to which Samson carried the gates of Gaza (Judg. xvi. 3). personago in the modern history of chemistry, little is The bazaars of Gaza are considered good. An extensivo definitely known about him, and about the origin of the pottery exists in the town, and black earthenware peculiar works which pass under his name. It has been a very to the place is manufactured there. The climato is dry general tradition to regard Geber as an Arabian, but until and comparatively healthy, but the summer temperature the publication in recent years by European scholars of the often exceeds 110° Fahr.
The surrounding country is works of Arabian historians and bibliographers, the propartly cornland, partly waste, and is inhabited by wander- bable source of the tradition has not been known. It seems
From the 5th to the 12th century. Gaza was to be pretty generally believed that the Geber of Western an episcopal gee of the Latin Church, bui even as late as Evrope is the same as the person who is called in full Abu the 4th century an idul named Marnas was worshipped in Musa Dscbabir (or Jabir) Ben Haijan Ben Abdallah el-Sufi the town.
el-Tarsusi el-Kufi, who was reckoned the most illustrious GAZA, THEODORUS (c. 1400–1478), one of the leaders of the alchemists by the Arabs, and who is mentioned in of the revival of learning in the 15th century, was born at the Kitab-al-Fihrist (10th cent.), by Ibn Khallikan (13th Thessalonica about the year 1400. On the capture of his cent.), by Haji Khalfa (17th cent.), and other writers. native city by the Turks in 1430 he removed to Mantua, If this be correct, Geber must have flourished in the 8th where he rapidly acquired a competent knowledge of Latin century, for, according to Haji Khalfa, Dschabir Ben Haijan under the teaching of Victorino de Feltre, supporting died in the 160th year of the Hegira, which corresponds bimself meanwhile by giving lessons in Greek, and by with the year beginning October 19, 776 A.D. This date copying manuscripts of the ancient classics. About 1410 is incidentally confirmed by other writers, though there are he became professor of Greek in the newly founded univer- difficulties arising from the date of his teacher Kalid Ben sity of Ferrara, to which students in great numbers from all Jezid, and his patron Dschaafar ess-Sadik. His birthplace parts of Italy were soon attracted by his fame as a teacher. was Tarsus, or, as others say, Kuía; and he is said to have He had taken some part in the councils which were held in resided at Damascus and at Kufa. This account, though Ferrara (1438), Florence (1439), and Siena (1440), with apparently the most trustworthy, does not agree with the the object of bringing about a reconciliation between the statements of D'Herbelot, quoted seemingly from native Greek and Latin Churches ; and in 1450, responding to the sources, that Geber was born at Harran in Mesopotamia, invitation of Pope Nicholas V., he went to Rome, where he was a Szabaan by religion, and lived in the 3d century of was for some years employed by his patron in making Latin the Hegira. Nor does it agree with that of Leo Africanus, translations from Aristotle and other Greek authors. From who in 1526 gave a description of the Alchemical Society 1456 to 1458 he lived at Naples under the patronage of of Fez, in Africa, and told how the chief authority of that Alphonso the Magnanimous; and shortly after the latter society was a certain Geber, a Greek, that had apostatized date he was appointed by Cardinal Bessarion to a benefice to Mahometanism, and lived a century after Mahomet. in the south of Italy, where the later years of his life were Leo's story has circulated very widely, but its accuracy spent, and where he died at an advanced age in 1478. has been impugned by Reiske and Asseman, and the works Gaza stood high in the opinion of most of his learned con- of both Leo and D'Herbelot have been rejected as authotemporaries, but still higher in that of the scholars of the rities by Wüstenfeld. Other writers have tried to show Bucceeding generation. His Greek grammar, in Greek that Geber was a native of Spain, or at least lived at (ypau patikîs cioraywyñs Biblia 8), first printed at Venice Seville, but this has probably arisen from confusing in 1495, and afterwards partially translated by Erasmus in Geber the chemist with other persons of the same or 1521, although in many respects defective, especially in its similar name. From the doubt encircling the personality of
, syntax, has done good service in the cause of sound learning. Geber, some have gone the length of questioning whether His translations were very numerous, including the Pro- such a person ever existed but in name, and this view has blemata, De Historia Animalium, De Partibus Ånimalium, been again expressed by Steinschneider, who mentions and De Generatione Animalium of Aristotle, the Historia “Abu Musa Dschabir Ben Haiyan, commonly called Geber, Plantarum and De Causis Plantarum of Theophrastus, the an almost mythical person of the earliest period of Islam, Problemata of Alexander Aphrodisias, the De Instruendis renowned as an alchemist.” While Steinschneider here exAciebus of Ælian, and some of the Homilies of Chrysostom. hibits notable scepticism with respect to Dschabir's very He also turned into Greek Cicero's De Senectute and existence, he exhibits equal credulity in his belief that this Somnium Scipionis--with much success, in the opinion of mythical Dschabir is identical with Geber
. In the present Erasmus ; with more elegance than exactitude, according state of the question there is no alternative but
to accept to the colder judgment of modern scholars. He was the the account given in the Fihrist, and admit the possibility author also of two small treatises entitled De Mensibus and of Dschabir and Geber being one and the same. ConDe Origine Turcarum.
firmation of this view is to be sought in a comparison GAZELLE. See ANTELOPE.
of the works ascribed to Geber with those bearing the GAZETTE, THE LONdon, is the official newspaper of the name of Dschabir. The latter are divisible into two Government, and is published every Tuesday and Friday. classes, those mentioned in Arabic bibliographies, and It contains proclamations, orders, regulations, and other those existing in manuscript in European libraries. To acts of state, and is received 45 évidence thereof in legal | Declsbir is assigned the authorship of un immense
number of works on chemistry and many other topics The following are a few of tho authorities which may be conbesides. Titles of 500 of these are given in the Fihrist, sulted :-Abulfeda, Annales Moslemici, Copenhagen, 1790, with and have been reproduced by Hammer-Purgstall
, but 272 ; Black, Catalogue of mss. bequeathed to the University of
Reiske's note ; Beckmann, Geschichte der Erfindungen, 1803, v. nothing else is known about them. Haji Khalfa also enu- Oxford by Elias Ashmole, 1845; D'Herbelot, Bibliotheque Orientale, merates the titles of several alchemical works by Dschabir, Paris, 1697 ; Haji Khalfa, Lexicon, ed. Fluegel, London, 1835-58; and other works are mentioned by other writers. Again Hammer-Purgstall
, Literaturgeschichte der Araber, Vienna, 1850 ; Arabic MSS. on alchemy bearing the name of Dechabir Ibn-Khallikan, Biographical Dictionary, by De Slane, Paris, 1843,
vol. i. pp. 800-1; Kitab-al-Fihrist, ed. Fluegel, 1871-72; Kopp, Ben Haijan exist at Leyden, at Paris, in the British Beiträge zur Geschichte der Chemie, Brunswick, 1876, part ii.; Museum, and elsewhere; but these have not been critically Laboratory, 1867, vol. 1 pp. 71-78; Leo Africanus, Africce De examined as to their date, age, authenticity, contents, &c. scriptio. Leyden, 163?; Steinschneider, "Die toxicologischen It is not known if they correspond with the lists already Wüstenfeld, Geschichte der Arabischen Aerzte, Göttingen, 1840
Schriften der Araber," in Virchow's Archiv, Berlin, 1871, Bd 62; mentioned, or with the Latin MSS. or the printed versions. See also article Alchemy.
(J. F.) The Latin MSS. are contained in the Vatican, at Leyden, Oxford, and other places. Of these the Vatican MS. is the
GEBWEILER, in French Guebwiller, a town of the alleged basis of some of the printed editions ; and the German imperial province of Alsace-Lorraine, in the district Bodleian MSS. have been described by W. H. Black, but of Upper Alsace, situated about 13 miles south of Calmar, no collation of the text of these writings for critical pur- at the mouth of the Blumenthal or “Vale of Flowers." It poses has as yet been made. The oldest of the MSS. dates communicates by a branch line with the railway between from the 14th century; but if the works ascribed to Roger the Roman Catholic church of St Leodgar, dating from tho
Strasburg and Basel. Among the principal buildings are Bacon, Albertus Magnus, and others be genuine, Geber's name and writings must have been known and esteemed at 12th century, the Evangelical church, the synagogue, the a still earlier period. The works which purport to have town house, and the old Dominican convent now used as a been written by Geber, and which have been printed, bear and dyeing of cotton is the chief industry, but woollen
market and concert-hall. The spinning, weaving, bleaching, the following names :-Summa perfectionis ; Liber investigationis
, or De investigatione perfectionis; De inventione goods and silk ribbons, as well as machinery, are also manu. veritatis ; Liber Fornacum ; Testamentum. None of the factured. Gebweiler is mentioned as early as 774. It editions appear to contain the whole of these tractates ; belonged to the religious foundation of Murbach, and in there are usually found only two or three of them, but the 1759 the abbots chose it for their residence. At the English translation contains them all except the Testament, laid in ruins, and though the archives were rescued and
French Revolution of 1789, however, the chapter house was which is considered spurious by some writers. The printed editions of these works are very numerous, but they are all removed to Colmar, the library perished in the devastation. uncommon, and some of them are exceedingly rare. No
Dopulation in 1871, 11,104; in 1875, 11,622. approximately complete list is contained in any biblio
GECKO, the common name applied to all the species of graphy, and very few writers bave seen more than half a Geckotidæ, an extensive family of lizards belonging to the dozen at most. The most complete catalogue from personal Pachyglossæ, or “thick-skinned” sub-order of Gray. The inspection is given by Beckmann. It contains twelve geckoes are small creatures, seldom exceeding 8 inches in editions, but that dous not comprise nearly all those which are known. While some of the editions correspond exactly, being merely reprints, there are important differences among others. What light these variations may throw upon the origin of the text has never been investigated. A critical edition of the works with the various readings would be necessary before deciding that what is found in hem is really Geber's, and dates back eleven centuries. It may be that some of the knowledge of chemistry credited to Geber was really interpolated at a later date. It is quite possible that the account given of the various acids, salts, and metals, and of the apparatus and operations, may have been modified or extended. But, on the other hand, the general theory that runs through the whole of the writings is in all probability original. The theory is that the metals are composed of the same elements, and
Leaf-tailed Gecko (Phylurus platurus). that by proper treatment the less perfect can be gradually length including the tail. With the head considerably developed into the more perfect metals. This theory is flattened, the body short and thick, the legs not high enough very clearly, and one may even say logically, worked out, to prevent the body dragging somewhat on the ground, the and it was the leading idea in chemistry down to the eyes large and almost destitute of eyelids, and the tail short 16th century at least. In carrying out this theory prac- and in some cases nearly as thick as the body, the geckoes tically, certain materials were employed and were subjected altogether lack the litheness and grace characteristic of most to operations, and the knowledge acquired about them lizards. Their colours also are dull, and to the weird and took shape by degrees. Though subsequent workers forbidding aspect thus produced the general prejudice
. added to what was known, Geber's reputed works are so against those creatures in the countries where they occar; clear, so precise, so complete, that they differ in a most which has led to their being classed with toads and snakes, striking manner from the works of even the best writers is no doubt to be attributed. Their bite was supposed to in the later alchemical period, and make it difficult to be venomous, and their saliva to produce painful cutaneous account for their existence at all. Older writings there eruptions; even their touch was thought sufficient to convey are none; subsequent writings as clear as Geber's do a dangerous taint. ' It is needless to say that in this not appear until far more was known; the unsolved instance the popular mind was misled by appearances. The problem therefore remains, Who was Geber, and how does geckoes are not only harmless, but are exceedingly useful it happen that his works stand quite alone in chemical creatures, feoding on insects and worms, which, owing to Literature?
the great width of their cesophagus, they are enabled to
swallow whole, and in pursuit of which they do not hesitate | Lord Traquair to London, where he spent the rest of his to enter human dwellings, where they are often killed on life, with the exception of a few weeks devcted to travel suspicion. The structure of the toes in those lizards forms on the Continent. Before leaving Scotland he had received their most characteristic anatomical feature. These organs the honorary degree of LL D. from the university of are flattened out into broad discs, and are furnished with Aberdeen, a compliment seldom before paid to any Catholic, transverse lamellar plates, by means of which the geckoes" and had been made an honorary member of the Society of are enabled to run with ease on the smoothest surface, and Antiquaries, in the institution of which he had taken a very to imitate the fly in remaining suspended on ceilings or on active part. Shortly after his arrival in London Geddes the under surfaces of leaves. Most of the species have received an appointment in connexion with the chapel of nails to their toes, and these in their sharpness and retrac; the imperial ambassador, which he held until the chaplaincy tility bear considerable resemblance to the claws of felino was suppressed some years afterwards. Having been introanimals. They are nocturnal in their habits; but when not duced to Lord Petre, to whom he broached his long-cherished exposed to the hot sunshine they are able to pursue their scheme for the publication of a new Catholic version of the prey by day. They hibernate; and two fatty masses in Scriptures on the basis of the Vulgate, he met with every front of the pubis are supposed to furnish the means of encouragement from that nobleman, who assigned to him nourishment during this period. Many of the species an annual salary of £200, and, moreover, undertook to possess to a limited extent the chameleon faculty of chang- provide the needful books. Supported also by such scholars ing colour, while their colouring generally may be regarded as Kernicott and Lowth, Geddes in 1786 published a Pro23 protectivo; a few Indian forms aro said to become spectus of a new Translation of the Iboly Bible
, from corrected luminous in the dark. The geckoes form an extensive Texts of the Originals, compared with the ancieni l'ersions, family, includiug 60 genera and 200 species, found through with various Readings, explanatory Notes, and critical but the warmer regions of the earth, two only being Observations, a considerable quarto volume, in which the inhabitants of Europe, and even these occur also in the defects of previous translations were fully pointed out, and north of Africa. Unlike most lizards, they are found in the the means wore indicated by which these might be removed. remotest oceanic islands, a fact which leads Mr Wallace It attracted considerable notice of a favourable kind, and (Geographical Distribution of Animals) to suppose that led to the publication in 1788 of Proposals for Printing, they possess exceptional means of distribution.
with a specimen, and in 1790 of a General Answer to GED, WILLIAM ( } -1749), the inventor of the art Queries, Counsels, and Criticisms. The first volume of the of stereotyping, was born at Edinburgh about the beginning translation itself, which was entitled The Iloly Bible; or the of the 18th century. In 1725 he first put in practice the Books accounted sacred by Jews and Christians; otherwise art which he had discovered ; and some years later he called the Books of the Old and New Covenants ; faithfully entered into a partnership with a London capitalist, with a translateil from corrected Texts of the Originals, with various view to employing it on a great scale. The partnership, Realings, explanatory Notes, and critical Remarks, appeared Lowever, turned out very ill; and Ged, broken-hearted at in 1792, and was the signal for a storm of hostility on the his want of success, died at London, October 19, 1749. part of both Catholics and Protestants. It was obvious The only books which he produced by means of stereotyp- enough--no small offence in the eyes of some — that as a critic ing were two prayer-books for the university of Cambridge, Geddes had identified himself with Houbigant, Kennicott, and an edition of Sallust. See Life by Nichols, 1781. and Michaelis; but others did not hesitate to stigmatize
GEDDES, ALEXANDER (1737-1802), a learned theo- him as the would-be "corrector of the Holy Ghost.” Three logian, biblical critic, and miscellaneous writer, was born of the vicars-apostolic almost immediately warned all the at the farm of Arradoul, in the parish of Rathven, Banff- faithful against the “use and reception" of his translation, shire, Scotland, on the 14th of September 1737. At the on the ostensible ground that it had not been examined and age of fourteen he entered the small Roman Catholic semi- approved by due ecclesiastical authority; and by his own nary at Scalan in a remote glen of the Banffshire highlands, bishop (Douglas) he was in 1793 suspended from the exerwhere bo remained till October 1758, when he was sent to cise of his crders in the London district. The second the Scottish College in Paris for the further prosecution of volume of the translation, completing the historical books, his studies. Here to considerable acquisements in biblical published in 1797, found no more friendly reception ; but philology and school divinity he succeeded in adding a this circumstance did not discourage him from giving forth good knowledge of most of the literary languages of Europe. in 1800 the volume of Critical Remarks on the Hebrew Returning to Scotland after an absence of six years, he for Scriptures, corresponding with a New Translation of the a short time officiated as a priest in Dundee, but in May Bille, containing the Pentateuch, of which it is enough to 1765 received and accepted an invitation to become resident say that
, while fully saturated with all the best learning in the family of the earl of Traquair, where, with abund- of its time, it presented in a somewhat brusque and inance of leisure and the frco use of an adequate library, he judicious manner the then novel and startling views of inado further progress in his favourite biblical studies. Eichhorn and his school on the primitive history and early After a second visit to Paris which extended over some records of mankind. Dr Geddes was engaged on a critical months, and which was employed by himn in reading and translation of the Psalms, which he had completed down to inaking extracts from rare books and manuscripts in the the 118t?, when he was seized with a lingering and painful public librarics, he in 1769 was appointed to the charge of illness which ultimately proved fatal on the 26th of the Catholic congregation of Aucliinhalrig in his native February 1802. Although for many years he had been county. During the period of a ten years' incumbency under ecclesiastical censures, he had never for a moment there be displayed a liberality of spirit which caused con- sherved from a consistent profession of faith as a Catholic; siderable scandal to his stricter brethren ; and the freedom and on his death-bed he duly received the last rites of his with which he fraternized with his Protestant neighbours communion. It would appear, however, that the report once and again called forth the rebuke of his bishop (Hay). wl.ich gained currency that before his death he had made Ultimately, on account of his occasional attendance at the recantation of his “errors” was entirely destitute of foundaparish church of Cullen, where his friend Buchanan was tion in fact. In his lifetime he enjoyed the friendship of minister, he was deprived of his charge and forbidden the several eminent Continental scholars, and his death was exercise of occlesiastical functions within the diocese. This noticed as being a loss to science in the Gelehrte Zeitung happened in 1779; and in 1780 he went with his friend of Gotha and in other foreign journals
Besides pamphlets on the Catholic and slavery questions, as well with each other by wooden bridges. In 1869 it was almost as several fugitive jeux d'esprit, and a number of unsigned articles destroyed by fire, but it has been rebuilt, and may still be in the Analytical Review, Geddes also published a metrical translation and adaptation of Select Satires of Horace (1779), and a
reckoned one of the prettiest, as it is certainly one of the verbal rendering of the First Book of the Niad of Homer (1792). busiest, of Swedish towns. The principal buildings are The Memoirs of his life and writings by his friend Dr Mason Good the castle, originally founded in the 16th century by King appeared in 1803, and his unfinished work on the Psalms in 1807.
John III., but rebuilt since its destruction by fire in 1727; B GEELONG, one of the leading towns in Victoria, coeval a beautiful council-house crected by Gustavus III., whó with Melbourne in the history of Australian settlement, is held a diet in the town in 1792 ; a hospital, an exchange, pleasantly situated on Corio Bay, an extensive western arm and a freemason's lodge in the Gothic style. An orphan of Port Pbillip, 45 miles S. W. of Melbourne, in 39° 8' S. asylum, a gymnasium, removed to Gefle from Stockliolm in lat. and 144° 21' E. long. The town slopes to the bay on 1668, and a public library may also be mentioned. Posthe north side and to the Barwon river on the south, and its sessing an excellent harbour, and recently restored wharves position in this respect, as well as the shelter it obtains to which large vessels have easy access, Gefle is the great from the Bellarine range of hills, renders it the healthiest port for the Dalecarlian district, and thus ranks in Sweden town in the colony. Its streets are wide and laid out at next to Stockholm and Gottenburg. 'It has about 100 right angles, and there are many handsome public and ships of its own, and carries on a good trade in the export private buildings. It has a botanical garden, and two parks of timber, tar, fax, and linen, and in the import of grain, maintained by the municipality. The public buildings salt, coal, &c. The manufactures of the town include comprise a mechanics' institute (with a library containing sailcloth and linen, tobacco, leather, iron wares, and nearly 12,000 volumes), a public library, a town hall, a fire- machinery. In 1873 the population was 16,265. brigade establishment, a handsome and commodious GEIGER, ABRAHAM (1810-1874), one of the ablest hospital, a supreme court, and orphan and benevolent | leaders of the modern Jewish school of theology and asylums. The town is supplied with water from large state criticism, was born at Frankfort-on-the-Main, May 24, constructed resei voirs in the Brisbane ranges, some 25 miles 1810. After receiving froin his father and uncle the distant. As a manufacturing centre Geelong is of con- clements of an ordinary rabbinical education, be was in his siderable importance. It contains extensive woollen mills eleventh year sent to the gymnasium, whence in 1829 he and tanneries on the Barwon river, and paper of good passed to the university of Heidelberg, which he soon afterquality is largely made in the neighbourhood. Geelong wards exchanged for that of Bonn. As a student he greatly harbour has area and depth enough to hold all the navies distinguished himself both in philosophy and in philology, of the world. The bar at the entrance has been cut (at and at the close of his course wrote on the relations of an expense of £6000) to admit vessels of heavy draught, Judaism and Mahometanism a prize-essay which was afterand some of the largest wool ships are able to load at the wards published, in 1833, under the title Was hat wharves, which are connected by railway with all parts of Mohammed dem Judenthum aufgenommen ? In the colony. The population of the city proper is a little over November 1832 he went to Wiesbaden as rabbi of the 12,000, but with the adjacent boroughs of Geelong West, synagogue there, and, still pursuing the line of scientisc Chilwell, and Newtown the total is increased to 24,000. study upon which he had entered during his undergraduate
GEESTEMÜNDE, a seaport in the Prussian pro. course, became in 1835 one of the most active promoters of vince of Hanover, in the district or Landdrostei of Stade, the Zeitschrift für Jüdische Theologie, which appeared from situated, as the name indicates, at the mouth of the Geeste, 1835 to 1839, and again from 1842 to 1847. In 1838 he a right-hand aflluent of the estuary of the Weser. It lies removed to Breslau, where be continued to reside for the about 32 miles N. of Bremen, and is the terminus of a next twenty-five years, and where he wrote some of his railway from that city. The interest of the place is purely most important works, including his Lehr- und Lesebuch zur naval and commercial, its origin dating no further back than Sprache der Mischna (1845), his Sindien from Maimonides 1857, when the construction of the harbour was commenced. (1850), his translation into German of the poems of Juda The great basin opened in 1863 has a length of 1785 ha-Levi (Abu'l Hassan) in 1851, and the Urschrift und English feet, a breadth of 410, and a depth of nearly 23, Uebersetzungen der Bibel in ihrer Abhängigkeit von der and can accommodate 24 or 25 of the largest ships of the innern Entwicklung des Judenthums (1857). The lastline; and the petroleum basin opened in 1874 has a length vamed work especially attracted much attention at the time of 820 feet and a breadth of 147. To the left of the great of its appearance, and may be said to have marked a new basin lies a canal, which has a length of 13,380 feet and a departure in the methods of studying the records of Judaism. breadth of 155; and from this canal there strikes off In 1863 Geiger became head of the synagogue of his native another of similar proportions. The whole port is protected town, whence he removed in 1870 to Berlin, where, in hy powerful fortifications, and it lies outside of the limit addition to his duties as chief rabbi, he took the principal of the German customs. Since 1864 the trade has been charge of the newly established seminary for Jewish science. almost trebled, the number of vessels being 617 sea-going | The Urschrift was followed by a more exhaustive handling ships entering in 1875 and upwards of 2000 river craft. of one of its topics in Die Sadducäer und Pharisäer (1863), Among the industrial establishments of the town are ship- and by a more thoroughgoing application of its leading building yards, foundries, engineering works, and steam principles in an elaborate history of Judaism (Das Judenmills. The population, exclusive of the garrison, was 3218 thum u. seine Geschichte) in 1865–71. Geiger also contriin 1871, and 3436 in 1875; and if the neighbouring buted frequently, on Hebrew, Samaritan, and Syriac subcommune of Geestendorf be included, the total for 1871 jects to the Zeitschrift der deutschen morgenländischen was 9148, and for 1875 10,425.
Gesellschaft, and from 1862 until his death (which occurred GEFLE, Latinized as Gevalia, a seaport town of Sweden, on the 23d of October 1874) he was editor of a periodical at the head of the Gefleborglån, about a mile from the shore entitled Jüdische Zeitschrift für Wissenschaft und Leben. of the gulf of Bothoia, near the mouth of the Gefle-A, 50 He also published a Jewish prayer-book (Israelitisches miles E. of Fahlun, end about the same distance N. of Gebetbuck) which is well known in Germany, besides a Upsala. With this former city it has been connected by variety of minor monographs on historical and literary subrailway since 1859, and with the latter and Stockholm since jects connected with the fortunes of his people. An All1874. As the river at that place is divided into three gemeine Einleitung and five volumes of Nachgelassene channels, the towo consists of four portions, communicating Schriften were edited by his eoD L. Geiger in 1875.
GEIJER, E2x OJSTAF (1783-1847), Sweden's greatest | instinct with life. His language is at once the scholars and historian, was born at Ransäter in Värmland, January 12, the poet's ; with his profoundest thought there beats in •1783, of a family that had immigrated from Austria in the unison the warmest, the noblest, the most patriotic heart. time of Gustavus Adolphus. At sixteen he left Carlstad Geijer came to the writing of history fresh from researches gymnasium for the university of Upsala, where in 1803 in the whole field of Scandinavian antiquity, researches he carried off the Swedish Academy's great prize for an whose first-fruits are garnered in numerous articles in Iduna, Areminne öfver Riksförståndaren Sten Sture. He graduated and his masterly treatise Om den gamla nordiska folkin 1806, and in 1810 returned from a year's residence in visan, prefized to the collection of Svenska folkvisor England to become "docent” in his university. Soon which he edited with A. A. Afzelius (3 vole. 1814–16). afterwards he accepted a post in the public record office at The development of freedom is the idea that gives unity to Stockholm, wbere, with eleven friends, he founded the all his historical writings. This idea is not subjective; he "Gothic Society," to whose organ Iduna he contributed a traces it in the darkest annals of his country. Sweden, he number of prose essays and the songs Manhem, Vikingen, repeats, is the only European land that has not been trod by Den siste kamper, Den siste skalden, Odalbonden, Kolar- foreign armies, that has never accepted the yoke of serfdom. Gossen, and others, whose simplicity and earnestness, warm There, on the whole, the king has ever been the people's feeling, and strong patriotic spirit are dearer to his nation faithfullest slly, and all his great designs for the country's for the fine melodies to which he seć them. About the external and internal gain have been carried out " by the same time he issued a volume of hymns (1812), of which help of God and Sweden." Throughout life Geijer was several are inserted in the Swedish Psalter. Geijer's lyric what he professed to be, a seeker; and to no pbilosophic muse was soon after silenced by his call to be assistant to system did he yield absolute allegiance. Yet his writings Fant, professor of history of Upsala (1815), whom he mark a new era in Swedish history, the rise of a “critical succeeded in that chair in 1817. In 1824 he was elected school” whose aim is to draw the truth without distortion, to the Swedish Academy. A single volume of a great pro- and present reality without a foil. jected work, Svea Rikes Häfder, itself a masterly critical For Geijer's biography, see his own Minnen (1834), which contains examination of the sources of Sweden's legendary history, copious extracts from his letters and diaries ; Naimetröm, Minappeared in 1825. Geijer's researches in its proparation 1848, and printed among his Tal och esthetiske afhandlingar (1868),
nestal öfver E. G. Geijer, addressed to the Upsala siudents, June 6, had severely strained his health, and he went the same and Grunddragen af Svonska villernetens höfdar (1868-68); and S. year on a tour through Denmark and part of Germany, his A. Hollander, Minnc af E. G. Geijer (1899). impressions from which are recorded in his Minnen (1834). GEIKIE, WALTER (1795-1837), 8 Scotch subject In 1832-36 he published three volumes of his Svenska folkeis painter, was born at Edinburgh, November 9, 1795. historia, a clear view of the political and social development In his second year he was attacked by & nervous fever of Sweden down to the close of Queen Christina's reign. by which he permanently lost the faculty of bearing, The acute critical insight, just thought, and finished his- but through the careful attention of his father he was torical art of these two incomplete works of Geijer entitle enabled to obiaia & good education. His artistic talent him to the first place among Swedish historians. His chief was first manifested, while he was süill very young, by other historical and political writings are his Kort teckning attempts to cut out representations of objects in paper, af Sveriges tillstånd och af de fornömste handlande personer and to draw figures with chalk on floors and walls. under tiden från Karl XII.'s död till Gustaf III.'s anträde Before he had the advantage of the instruction of a meater, of regjeringen (Stockh. 1838), and Feodalism och republic he had attained considerable proficiency in sketching both kanism, ett bidrag till Samhällsförfattningens historia figures and landscapes from nature, and in 1812 he was (1844), which led to a controversy with the historian Fryxell admitted into the drawing academy of the board of Scotch regarding the part played in history by the Swedish aristo- manufactures, where he made very rapid progress in the cracy. Geijer also edited, with the aid of Schröder, a con- use of the pencil. He first exhibited in 1815, and was tinuation of Fant's Scriptores svecicorum medii ævi (1818- elected an associate of the Royal Scottish Academy in 1831, 25), and, by himself, Thorild's Samlade skrifter (1819–25), and a fellow in 1834. Ho died on the 1st August 1837, and Korung Gustaf III.'s efterlentnade Papper (3 vol. and was interred ia the Greyfrisse Churchyard, Edinburgh. 1843-45). Geijer's academic lectures, of which the last Owing to his want of feeling for colour Geikie was not a three, pablished in 1845, under the title Om vår tids inre successful painter in oils, but he sketched in India ink wih somhällsforhållanden, i synnerhet med afseende på Fädernes- great truth and humour the scenas and characters of Scottish landet, involved him in another controversy with Fryxell, lower-class life in his native city. The characteristics be exercised & great influence over his students, who especially depicts are somewhat obvious and superficial, but hie testified to their attachment after tha failure of the prosecu- humour is never coarse, and he is surpassed by $67 in tion for alleged anti-Trinitarian hsresies in his l'horild, the power of representing the broedly ludicrova and the tillika sa philosophisk eller ophilosophist bekännelse (1820). plain and Lomely aspects of humble life. ' A series of eichA number of his extempore lectures, recovered from notes, inge which exhibit very high excellence were published were published by Ribbing in 1856. Failing health forced by bin in 1829-31, and a collection of eight; one of these Gaijer to resign his chair in 1846, after which he removed was republished posthumously in 1841, with a bigraphical to Stockholm for the purpose of completing his Svenska introduction by Sir Thomas Dick Lauder, Barto folkets historic, and died there 238 April 1847. His GEILER, or GEYLER, VON KAISERSBERG, JOEANN Somlode akrifier (13 vol. 1849-55; new od. 1873-75) (1445-1510), one of the greatest of the popular preachers inclado a large number of philosophical and political essays of the 15th century, was born at Schathansen, March 16, contributed to reviews, particularly to Literaturbladet 1445, but from 1418 passed his childbood and youth at (1838–39), a poriodical edited by himself, which attracted Kaisersberg in Upper Alsace, from which place his current great attention in its day by its pronounced liberal views designation is derived. In 1460 be entered the university of on public questiona, & striking contrast to those ha hed Freiburg in Badon, where, after graduation, le lectnred for defended in 1828-30, when, as again in 1840–41, he re- some time on the Sentences of Petrus Lombardus, tke Corn. prosented Upsala university in the Swedish diet.
mentaries of Alexander Halensia, and several of the worlrs Geijer's style is strong and manly. His genive bursts of Aristotle. A living interest in theological subjects, which ort in sudden fiashes that light up the dark corners of had been awakened within hin by the study of Gerson, led history. A few strokes, and a personality stands before us in 1471 to his removal to the university of Basel, st that