Page images

they communicated to the Etruscans, under whose skilful hands it received often a degree of delicacy in the workmanship which has not been equalled in the gems of any other country. The best specimens are due to the influence of Greek art in the 6th century B.C. or somewhat later. The subjects engraved are Greek in origin, and the habit of inscribing the names of the subjects is an early Greek habit, but with. this difference, that the Greeks would be correct in the naming, while the Etruscan artists are perhaps as often wrong as right. The name of Tydeus, for instance (TYTE), is assigned in one case to a figure scraping himself with a strigil, and in another to a fallen warrior, who otherwise would be identified as Capaneus. Again a figure washing his hair is called Peleus, and Achilles sulking becomes Theseus, to the exercise of much ingenuity in times past. With these and other examples it should no longer be necessary to cast about for an unusual form of the legend of the Seven against Thebes, when five only of their names are found beside five figures on what is the most celebrated of existing scarabs-a carnelian in the Berlin Museum (Winckelmann, Alte Denkmäler, No. 105). Another scarab of first importance is a banded onyx in Florence representing the Salii carrying their shields, inscribed Angils and Alce. For Etruscan scarabs see ETRURIA, vol. viii. p. 640.

While the Phoenicians have left actual specimens to show with what skill they could adopt the systems of gem engraving prevailing at their time in Egypt and Assyria, the Israelites, on the other hand, have left records to prove, if not their skill, at least the estimation in which they held engraved gems. "The sin of Judah is written with a pen of iron and with the point of a diamond" (Jerem. xvii. 1). To pledge his word Judah gave Tamar his signet, bracelets, and staff (Gen. xxviii. 18); whence, if this passage be compared with the frequent use of "seal" in a metaphorical sense in the Bible, and with the usage of the Babylonians already cited from Herodotus, it may be concluded that among the Israelites also every man of mark at least wore a signet. Their acquaintance with the use of seals in Egypt and Assyria is seen in the statement that Pharaoh gave Joseph his seal as a badge of investiture (Gen. xli. 42), and that the stone which closed the den of lions was sealed by Darius with his own signet and with the signet of his lords (Daniel vi. 17). Then as to the stones which were most prized, Ezekiel (xxviii. 13), speaking of the prince of Tyre, mentions the sardius, topaz, and diamond, the beryl, onyx, and jasper, the sapphire, emerald, and carbuncle, stones which again occur in that most memorable of records, the description of the breastplate of the high priest (Exodus xxviii. 16-21, and xxxix. 8). Twelve stones grouped in four rows, each with three specimens, may be arranged on a square, measuring a palm, not a span, so as to have the rows placed either vertically or horizontally. If they are to cover the whole square, then they must be cut in an oblong form, and if the names engraved on them are to run lengthwise, as is the manner of Assyrian cylinders, then the stones, to be legible, must be grouped in four horizontal rows of three each. There is in fact no reason to suppose that the gems of the breastplate were in any other form than that of cylinders such as abounded to the knowledge of the Israelites, with this possibility, however, that they may have been cut lengthways into half-cylinders like a fragmentary one of sard in the British Museum, which has been mounted in bronze, and, as a remarkable exception, has been set with three small precious stones now missing. It could not have been a seal, because of this setting, and because the inscription is not reversed. It reads: "Nabu... . [son of] Iddina-Nergal (?). . . . son of Nabu-zira-iddin.... Khi (?)-su-ba....," according to Mr Pinches. The names of the twelve tribes, not their standards, as has been thought, may have been engraved

[merged small][graphic][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed]

Jewish High Priest's Breastplate. supposing them to have been cylinders or half cylinders may have been arranged consistently with the descriptions of the Septuagint. In the arrangement of Josephus the jasper is made to change places with the sapphire, and the amethyst with the agate, while our version differs partly in the order and partly in the names of the stones, but probably in all these accounts the names had in some cases other meanings than those which they now carry. From the fact that to each tribe was assigned a stone of different colour, it may be taken that in each case the colour was one which belonged prescriptively to the tribe and was symbolic, as in Assyria, where the seven planets appropriated each a special colour (see Brandis in the Berlin Hermes, 1867, p. 259 sq., and De Sacy, Revue Archéologique, 1869, and compare Revelation xxi. 13, where the twelve gates are grouped in four threes, and 19, 20, where the twelve precious stones of the walls are given). The precious stones which occur among the cylinders of the British Museum are sard, emerald, lapis lazuli (sapphire of the ancients), agate, onyx, jasper, and rock crystal. Both Elian (Var. IIist., iv. 34) and Diodorus (i. 75) speak of an object known as an image of truth worn round the neck of the judge, who of course was a priest, in ancient Egypt; but how far this may have suggested or corresponded with the Jewish breastplate is not to be made out.

The records of gem engravers in Greece begin in the island of Samos, where Mnesarchus, the father of the philosopher Pythagoras, earned by his art more of praise than of wealth. Thence also came Theodorus, who made for Polycrates the seal of emerald (Herodotus, iii. 41), which, according to the curious story, was cast in vain into the deep sea on purpose to be lost. That the design on it was a lyre, as is stated in one authority, is unlikely, now that Benndorf's ingenious reading of Pliny (Nat. Ilist., xxxiv. 83) has shown that the portrait statue of Theodorus.made by himself was in all probability a figure holding in one hand a graving tool, and in the other, not, as previously supposed, a quadriga so diminutive that a fly could cover it with its wings, but a scarab with the engraving of a

down to us. It would stand early in the 5th century.B.C., a date which would also suit the head of Eos from Ithome in Messenia (Pl. I., fig. 14), the head (fig. 5), the citharist (fig. 9), while the scarabs (figs. 6, 7), though apparently of Etruscan origin, obviously reflect the character of archaic Greek art, as far as concerns the shallow cutting and the delicate execution of minute details. The touch which isolates a design and literally arrests the eye they do not possess, but by comparison they render it more distinct as it cxists in the Woodhouse gem already mentioned, and in figs. 8, 10-13, and 15 in Plate I., all of which may be assigned to the end of the 5th century B.C. Singularly beautiful in this class are the two Cesuola gems (Cyprus, pl. xxxix. figs. 1, 2), the latter, simple and even awkward in parts, yet on the whole conceived by a Greek mind imbued with the poetry of art, while the former is rather a triumph of faultlessness, delicate as the colour of the stone on which it is engraved.

quadriga on its face (Zeitschrift für die Oesterreich. Gym- | very finest example of Greek gem engraving that has come navien, 1873, pp. 401-411), whence it is not unreasonable to conclude that this scarab in fact represented the famous seal of Polycrates. Shortly after 600 B.C. there was a law of Solon's forbidding engravers to retain impressions of the seals they made, and this date would fall in roundly with that of Theodorus and Mnesarchus, as if there hul in fact been just about then a special activity and unusual skill. That the art had been practised perhaps for soveral centuries before in Greece is probable from the general usage of sealing implied in Solon's law, from the extraordinary degree to which it obtained soon after his time, and from the influence which was exercised on the Greeks in such matters by the Phoenicians, Egyptians, and Assyrians. Yet it is singular to find, as Pliny points out (xxxiii. 4), no direct mention of seals in Homer, not even in the passage (Iliad, vi. 168) where Bellerophon himself carries the tablets on which were written the orders against his life. Then as regards the rings or seals of Prometheus, of Midas, of Minos (which like that of Polycrates was thrown into the sea in vain), of Phocus, and of Orestes, the legends may not all have come down from a very early period, but that of Phocus can at least be traced back to the time of Polygnotus, while that of Prometheus may be taken to have inspired the seal (engraved Rev. Arch., 1878, pl. xx.) on which the Titan is seen bound and submitting to the vulture. Or, conversely, such a gem may have suggested the legend of the ring which he bore as proof f his former punishment. There is no need to put it much later than 600 B.C., and it is a specimen of a class of lentoid gems which of late years have been found in small numbers chiefly in the Greek islands. Two more of them from the British Museum collection are engraved in Pl. I., figs. 2 and 3. As a rule the materials are comparatively soft, most frequently steatite and hematite, while the designs consist mainly of animals so turned and twisted as to cover almost the entire surface of the gem. Certain exceptional cases, where the design is taken from legend or mythology, may be seen in the Revue Archéologique, 1878, pl. xx., Nos. 1-3; for the ordinary subjects sce Revue Arch., 1874, p. xii.; Schliemann, Mycence, pp. 112, 202, 362; Ćesnola, Cyprus, pl. xxxvii. 9, and pl. xxxviii. 21, 23; aud for gold signets with designs in this stage of art see Schliemann, Mycence, p. 223; Cesuola, Cyprus, pl. xxxiv. 2; and Revue Arch., 1874, pl. iv., No. 44, in which volume is an interesting article on early engraved gems by Count Gobineau. In most cases the designs though heraldic rather than natural, with a prevalence of animal forms perhaps due to notions of heraldry, are yet so singularly free from Egyptian or Assyrian influence that they must be assigned as essentially Greek productions, possibly from a period when Oriental examples had lost sway. "Not to carry the image of a god on your seal" was a saying of Pythagoras; and, whatever his reason for it may have been, it is interesting to observe him founding a maxim on his father's profession of gem engraving (Diogenes Laert., viii. 1, 17).

From the time of Theodorus to that of Pyrgoteles in the 4th century B.C. is a long blank as to names, but not altogether as to gems, the production of which may be judged to have been carried ou assiduously from the constant necessity of seals for every variety of purpose. The references to them in Aristophanes, for example, the lists of them in the ancient inventories of treasures in Athens, and the number of them found by General Cesnola in the treasure chambers of Curium in Cyprus confirm this frequeut usage during the period in question. To it belong in particular the inscribed gems mentioned in ARCHEOLOGY (vol. ii. p. 353), including the Woodhouse intaglio there figured (p. 358), which may be referred to as perhaps the

By the beginning of the 4th century B. C. every element of archaism had vanished; but gems of this period are scarce, except in the collection of St Petersburg, which has obtained them exclusively from tombs in the Crimea. Foremost among them are the two by Dexamenus of Chios, the one, a calcedony with the figure of a stork flying, and inscribed in two lines, the letters carefully disposed above each other, AEZAMENOX EПOIE XIOΣ (Compte-rendu de la Commiss. Arch. St Petersburg, 1861, pl. vi. fig. 10), and the other, an agate with a stork standing on one leg, inscribed AEZAMENOX simply (Compte-rendu, 1865, pl. iii. fig. 40). A third gem, apparently by the same Dexamenus, is a carnelian belonging to Admiral Soteriades in Athens, and has a portrait head, bearded and inscribed AEZAMENON ЕПоIE (Gompte-rendu, 1868, pl. i. fig. 12). Apart from the splendour of their workmanship, those three gems are interesting for the variety of their inscriptions. Thus a name standing alone in the nominative case, when it does not describe the subject of the design, will indicate the artist. Again, when the nationality of the artist is added it should follow the verb as a rule, which, however, is not without exceptions. EПOIE for EПOIEI is an archaism. The design of a stork flying occurs on an agate scarab in the British Museum from the cld Cracherode collection, and therefore beyond all suspicion of having been copied from the more recently discovered Kertch gem. The condition of the surface and the skill of execution are both interesting. Reckoned among the best of the Crimea gems, and that is equivalent to saying among the best of all gens, are the following:-(1) a burnt scaraboid with an eagle carrying off a hare; (2) a gem with scarab border and the figure of a youth seated playing on the trigonon, very much resembling the Woodhouse intaglio (both engraved, Compterendu 1871, pl. vi. figs. 16, 17); (3) a scaraboid with border and the design of a horse running at speed, with which may be compared a carnelian scaraboid in the British Museum from the old Hamilton collection, and again on this account above suspicion, if the great beauty of the work were not alone convincing; the horse is here stung by a gadfly; (4) an ovoid calcedony, mounted on a chain to be worn as a collar, with an intaglio of a Gorgon (3 and 4 engraved, Compte-ren‹lu, 1860, pl. iv. figs. 6 and 10). In these, and in almost all Greek gems belonging to this period of excellence, the material is of indifferent quality, consisting of agate, calcedony, or carnelian, just as in the older specimens. Brilliant colour and translucency are as yet not a necessary element, and accordingly the design is worked out solely with a view to its own artistic merit.

At this stage appears the name of Pyrgoteles, of whom it is said that be alone was permitted to engrave the portrait head of Alexander the Great. The portrait head of

Alexander given in Pl. I., fig. 16, is not likely to represent | Aulus or Gnæus, written in Greek letters, cannot indicate

the art of this time, but more probably belongs to the age of Augustus who used this design as a seal. On the other hand the ancient pastes (figs. 20-22) will convey a notion of the gem engraving of the time of Alexander. Still it should be observed that one of the special difficulties of the subject is to account for the scarcity of gems from this period of wealth, luxury, and artistic activity in all directions. Possibly not a few belong to it which it is thought safer to class as Roman. This much at least is certain, that Roman art altogether was a prolongation, hardly a development, of the Macedonian art. Those Roman engravers may have been conscious of this who boldly placed on their productions the names of celebrated Greek artists, as for instance on a garnet in the British Museum, having a figure perhaps of Jason and inscribed with the name of Phidias (PEIAIAZ EПOEI); others elsewhere profess to be the work of Polycletus or of Scopas. The same effrontery was seen in sculpture, and unfortunately has revived again in the gem engraving of comparatively recent times, as may be seen in a calcedony intaglio of the head of Alexander the Great in the British Museum, which, though clearly modern, claims to be the work of Pyrgoteles.

a Roman of position, but on the contrary show that it was to the naturalized Greeks that the Romans looked for their engravers. When, for instance, one gem reads 20ANNOS and another ΣΟΛΩΝ ΕΠΟΙΕΙ, it is fair to conclude that we have to do in both with an engraver named Solon, if the inscriptions are genuine. The former occurs on a gen found with jewellery at Pompeii (Bullet. d'Inst. Arch., 1863, p. 91), so that if the other examples of it, e.g., on the Strozzi Medusa in the British Museum, and ou the so-called bead of Mæcenas, be inventions of the 16th or 17th centuries, they are at least correct in reproducing a name which is now seen on one undoubtedly ancient intaglio. Obviously one or more gems so inscribed must have existed in the 16th or 17th centuries, and this fact alone of the existence of several gems with the same name would suggest if not actually prove that it was the name of an engraver. The other inscription, ZOANN EñOIEI, on an intaglio of Diomedes carrying off the Palladium, though known since the year 1660, has not always passed unchallenged. The Medusa just mentioned is a gem of extraordinary pretensions, but very unsatisfactory when compared with good Greek work. In the matter of names the evidence as to the Greek usage, though very slight, is not at variance with what may be gathered from the coins where the names of the die-sinkers appear either in the nominative or genitive


From literary sources are known the engravers Apollonides, Chronius, Tryphon, Satyreius, and Dioscurides, but the date of the last-mentioned only is certain. He lived in the time of Augustus, whose portrait he executed, and did not, it may be supposed, inscribe his own name on it in In the discussions as to what is or is not proper in the full. On the other hand, if, as Pliny states, it became a way of engravers' signatures, frequent reference is made to custom afterwards to seal with this portrait of Augustus, it the inscription ΕΥΤΥΧΗΣ ΔΙΟΣΚΟΥΡΙΔΟΥ ΑΙΓΕΑΙΟΣ would be natural enough to place on the copies of it made EII, which occurs twice-on a pale amethyst said last for that purpose the name of Dioscurides. With this view century to belong to the prince of Avella, and on an of the case may be reconciled two gems bearing his signature amethyst in the Marlborough collection. The design on the in the British Museum-the one a jacinth, the other a two is identical, consisting of a helmeted bust of Minerva sard-and both obviously portraits which, though more in full face. Unless what was formerly the Avella gem is resembling Julius Cæsar than Augustus, might yet be re- now the gem belonging to the Marchese Strozzi of Florence, garded as unsuccessful portraits of the latter. Of the two then this again must be a third example. Professor the jacinth, which is from the Blacas collection, is Maskelyne in his Catalogue quotes Mr King as agreeing doubted by Brunn; the other is a higher class of work, with him that the Marlborough gem (No. 81) is not a copy and yet even it presents some difficulties that require the as Brunn supposed, but may be regarded as an original work theory of an imitator, most probably a Roman one. The of Eutyches till the Avella gem be proved to exist elsewhere. obtrusive display of the wreath and the fringe of drapery But Stephani insists on the inscription being a modern proround the bust are details which, apart from the style of duction, especially on account of the contraction EII for workmanship, are objectionable. That the name of this EПOIEI, which he says had arisen through the last letters engraver has been often added to modern gems is true OIEI being hidden from the modern copyist, either owing enough, and in some cases also it may have been in modern to the setting, or from some other cause. The gem which times inscribed on perfectly ancient gems. Even among Cyriacus of Ancona and a contemporary of his saw and those which appear to be in all respects antique there are described in the early part of the 15th century had the full differences in the spelling and form of the letters not to be inscription, and possibly it was from an inexact impression accounted for if they had come from his hand, but intel- of it that the Marlborough gem was made (Compte-rendu, ligible if they had been made by ancient copyists. Abbre. 1861, p. 157). Another celebrated Marlborough gem with viations such as AIOΣK for Dioscurides, or EIIIT for the head of the dog-star Sirius, inscribed гAIO EПOIEI, Epitynchanus, are always suspicious. EIITYTXA, on a is condemned by Professor Maskelyne in his Catalogue (No. beautiful cameo of the young Marcellus, might seem to have 270), as it deserves to be. Apparently meant for the same been abbreviated by the accident which broke off the lower engraver, though written differently, is the FNAIO on the part of the gem, but the inscription does not bear examina beryl in the British Museum with the head of Hercules, as tion except as the work of a modern hand. Not necessarily to which Köhler's adverse judgment appears to be entirely modern is the inscription AIO KOYPIA, on a fragmentary just. ΣKYAAE, which is found on an amethyst head of amethyst, with a head which may perhaps have been meant l'an in the British Museum executed with wonderful exactfor Alexander the Great, whose portrait, as has been said, ness of detail, is not disputed, except as to whether it is the was used as a seal by Augustus, and may have been exe- name of the engraver or the owner. Among the other cuted for him by Dioscurides. It is possibly an ancient names which have been more or less the subject of discuscopy of this seal, with the addition of the name of the sion are those of Hyllus, who also claims to be a son of original artist to show that it is so. With regard to the Dioscurides, Epitynchanus, Agathopus, Enodus, Felix, question whether a name standing in the genitive case may Mycon, Allion, Admon, Onesas, Protarchus, and Alexas. indicate the engraver, the evidence is affirmative, if for no other reason than that the names are most frequently Greek, while the owners or collectors of gems in Italy were Romans. Collecting was a passion with wealthy Romans, but their names have not survived on genis. Names like

The habit of gem collecting is recorded first in the instance of Ismenias, a musician of Cyprus, who appears to have lived in the 4th century B. C. But though individual collectors are not again mentioned till the time of Mithradates, whose cabinet avas carried off to Rome by Pompey, still it is to be inferred that they existed, if not pretty generally'. yet in such places as Cyrene, where the

passion for gems was so great that the poorest person owned one worth 10 minas, and where, according to Elian (Var. Hist., xii. c. 30), the skill in engraving was astonishing. The first cabinet (dactyliotheca) in Rome was that of Scaurus, a step-son of Sulla. Cæsar is said to have formed six cabinets for public exhibition, and from the time of Augustus all meu of refinement were supposed to be judges both of the art and the quality of the stones. To this pretension is doubtless due most of the existing gems engraved on arge beautiful jacinths, garnets, sards, beryls, and amethysts, leaving, as regards purely technical skill. nothing to be desired. 2xcept in portraiture, and in grylli or conceits, in which various things are combined into one, often with much skill, the subjects were as a rule only variations or adaptations of old types handed down from the Greeks. When new and distinctly Roman subjects ocenr, such as the finding of the head on the Capitol, or Faustulus, or the she-wolf with the twins, both the stones and the workmanship are poor. In such cases, where the design stirs a genuine national interest, it may happen that very little of artistic rendering will be acceptable rather than otherwise, and much more is this true when the design is a symbol of some article of faith, as in the early Christian gems. There both the art and the material are at what may be called the zero of engraving; that is to say, it has reached the point beyond which barbarousness or folly sets in. The usual subjects on the early Christian gems are the fish, anchor, ship, dove, the good shepherd, and, according to Clemens, the lyre. Under the Gnostics, however, with whom there was more of speculation than of faith, symbolism was developed to an extent which no art could realize without the aid of writing. A gem was to them a talisman more or less elaborate. and the difficulty is to ake out how they carried them. Many specimens exist, but none show signs of mounting. The materials are usually hematite or aspar. As regards the designs, it is clear that Egyptian sources have been most drawn upon. But the symbolism is also largely associated with Mithraic worship. The name Abraxas or Abrasax, which, from its frequency on these gems, has led to their being called also "Abraxas gems," is, when the Greek letters of which it 15 composed are treated as Greek numerals, equal to 365, the nuinber of days in a year, and the same is the case with MEIOPAZ.

More interesting, from the occasionally forcible portraiture and the splendour of some of the jacinths employed, are the Sassanian gems, which as a class may be said to represent the last stage of regem engraving in ancient times. In the middle ages and cuwards inetal stamps were found more serviceable for the purpose of sealing, and though engraved gems still continued to be a luxury of the great, the old traditions were broken through, as may be seen, for example, in the large crystal in the British Museum representing Susanna and the Elders, made by order of the French king Lothair, 951-986. With the revival of classical tastes under the patronage of popes and princes in the Cinquecento period, it was natural that this branch of art should have a new career of activity, which, after a lapse during the 17th century, again during the last century revived under an even greater amount of encour agement from men of wealth and rank. In this last period the Haines of engravers who succeeded best in imitating classical designs were Pichler (Pl. I., fig. 28), Natter, and the Englishmen Marchant (fig. 29) and Burch. Compared with the Greek gems on the same plate, it will be seen that what at first sight is attractive as refined and delicate is after all mere pretence of refinement, and entirely devoid of the ancient spirit. The success with which modern engravers imposed on collectors is recorded in many instances, of which one may be taken as an instructive type. In the Bibliothèque in Paris (Chabouillet's catalogue, No. 2337) is a gem familiarly known as the signet of Michelangelo, the subject being a Bacchanalian scene. So much did he admire it, the story says, that he copied from it one of the groups in his paintings in the Sistine chapel. The gem, however, is evidently in this part of it a mere copy from Michelangelo's group, and altogether is a later production.

The gems engraved in Plate I. show a progressive development of the art from the earliest times down to last century. They are all in the British Museum, and are enlarged to about a half more than their real size. No. 1, Porcelain scarab, from

Camirus in Rhodes; No. 2, Carnelian, lentoid gem, from Ialyssus, in Rhodes; No. 3, Crystal, lentoid, also from lalyssus; No. 4, Paste scaraboid, from Tharras, in Sardinia; No. 5, Carnelian, head of a king; No. 6, Crystal scarab, Gorgon; No. 7, Carnelian scarab, Citharist; No. 8, Sard, female figure with water jar; No. 9, Steatite scaraboid, Citharist; Nos. 10-13, Four sides of an amethyst, Menads; No. 14, Agate, Eos; No. 15, Carnelian, unknown; No. 16, Carnelian, head of Alexander the Great, as Helios; No. 17, Sard, head of Zeus; No. 18, Sardonyx cameo, Actæon; No. 19, Sardonyx cameo, head of Athena; No. 20, Paste, Victory; No.

Literature. See M. A. Levy, Sicgel und Gemmen, with three plates of gems having Phoenician, Aramaic, and old Hebrew inscriptions, Breslau, 1869; and, on the same subject, De Vogue, in the Revuc Archéologique, 1868 (xvii.), p. 432, pl. 14-16; De Saulcy, in the Rev. Arch., 1869 (xx.), p. 101, Recherches sur le costume chez les Juifs;" Victor Ancessi, L'Egypte et Moise, Paris, 1875, giving on plate 7 a fanciful restoration of an Egyptian breastplate; Soldi, in the Rev. Arch., 1874 (xxviii.), p. 147, on Babylonian cylinders: Count Gobineau, in the Rev. Arch., 1874 (xxvii.), p. 111 and p. 179, on early Oriental gem engraving. Fr. Lenormant, in the Rev. Arch. 1874 (xxviii.), pl. 12, gives five examples of early lentoid gems, and seven more gems of the same class are given by A. S. Murray in the Rev. Arch., 1878, pl. 20. On Greek and Roman gems the principal authoritics are Köhler, Gesammelte Schriften, iii. and v., and Stephani, in his notes to these volumes, and in the Complerendu de la Commission Imperiale de St Petersbourg, 1870-1, p. 215 and pp. 221-224. Opposed to them is Brunn, in his Geschichte der Griechischen Künstler (1859), ii. p. 443, where a full discussion of Greek and Roman gems will be found. See also Krause, Pyrgoteles, Halle, 1856, and Bollettino dell' Inst. Rom., 1831, r. 105; 1834, p. 116; and 1839, p. 99. In England the authority is C. W. King, Antique Gems, 2d edit., London, 1866; Handbook of Engraved Gems, 1866; Precious Stones, 1865; Gnostic Gems, 1864; and appendix on ancient gems in Cesnola's Cyprus, which gives 11 plates of gems. Of special interest as regards the stones used by ancients, and valuable as a criticism of a single collection, is Prof. Maskelyne's Catalogue of the Marlborough Collection, privately printed in 1870. This collection is now the property of Mr Bromielow. On Abraxas gems see Barzilai, Gli Abraxi, Trieste, 1873, and Matter, Histoire du Gnosticisme. indispensable book of reference is Raspe's Catalogue of Tassie's large series of Sulphur Casts. Among catalogues of public collections are Tolken's Verzeichniss d. preuss. Gemmen, 1835; Chabouillet's Catalogue des Camées et Pierres Gravées de la Bibliothèque Imperiale, Paris, 1856; and Jansson's Nederlandsch-Rom. Daktyliotheek, Leyden, 1844. Older works are generally of small critical value, but. the following may be mentioned :-Winckelmann, Description des Pierres Gravées du Feu Baron de Stosch, Florence, 1760; Visconti, Opere Varie, ii. p. 115-386; Mariette, Traité des Pierres Gravées; Millin, Pierres Gravées, and Introduction à l'Étude des Pierres Gravées, Paris, 1796. (A. S. M.)


GEMSBOK (Oryx gazella, Gray), a species of antelope, abounding on the dry yet fertile plains of South Africa, where it feeds on the bulbs of water-root and other kinds of succulent vegetation, by means of which the antelopes of those regions are able to subsist without water for



21, Paste, Mænad; No. 22, Paste, Victory sacrificing bull; No. months together. It is a large and powerful animal,

from Rhodes, inscribed C. I. Q.; No. 25, Jacinth, Sassanian portrait; No. 26, Gnostic gem; No. 27, Christian gem, the Good Shepherd; No. 28, Modern gem, by Pichler; No. 29, Modern

gem, by Marchant.

at the shoulders. Its horns, situated on the same plane with its forehead, exceed 2 feet in length, are almost straight, and are obscurely ringed throughout their lower

half. The colour of the upper part of the body is a rusty grey, and of the under part white, while these are separated from each other-by a well-defined black band on each side. These bands unite on the breast, and are continued as a single black band until reaching the lower jaw, when they again divide and form two transverse bands on the head, termin

ating at the base of the horns. The head otherwise is white, as also are the limbs, with the exception of the thighs, which are black. The striking appearance presented by this antelope is in great part due to the absence of any blending in the different colours of its body. The gemsbok avoids the woods, living on the open plains in pairs or in small groups of four or five. Possessing powerful weapons of attack in its long spear-like horns, and with ample courage to use them, this animal, especially when wounded, is a formidable antagonist both to man and to the numerous beasts of prey which are attracted to the karroos of the Cape by the presence of this and other ruminant species. It is said to defend itself not unfrequently with success against the lion. Its flesh is esteemed as a delicacy.

and its hide forms a valuable leather.

GENDARMERIE, a body of troops or police in France," composed of gendarmes, or men-at-arms. . In the days of chivalry they were mounted and armed cap-a-pic, and attended each by five soldiers of inferior rank and more lightly armed. They were then furnished by the fiefs, and marched in the train of the knights and esquires. In 1439 this feudal gendarmerie was replaced by the compagnies d'ordonnance which Charles VII. formed when the English were driven out of France, and which were distributed throughout the whole extent of the kingdom for preserving order and maintaining the king's authority. These companies, fifteen in number, were composed of 100 lances or gendarmes fully equipped, each of whom was attended by at least three archers, one coutillier (soldier armed with a cutlass) and one varlet (soldier's servant). The statesgeneral of Orleans (1439) had voted a yearly subsidy of 1,200,000 livres in perpetuity to keep up this national soldiery, which replaced the bands of mercenaries who for about a century had made France their prey. The number and composition of the compagnies d'ordonnance were changed more than once before the reign of Louis XIV. This sovereign on his accession to the throne found only eight companies of gendarmes; but after the victory of Fleurus (1690), which had been decided by their courage, he increased their number to sixteen. The four first companies

were designated by the names of Gendarmes écossais, Gendarmes anglais, Gendarmes bourguignons, and Gen darmes flamands, from the nationality of the soldiers who had originally composel them; but at that time they con sisted entirely of French soldiers and officers. These four companies had a captain-general, who was the king The fifth company was that of the queen; and the others bore the name of the princes who respectively commanded them. This organization lasted till 1787, when Louis XVI. dissolved it, only retaining the Gendarmes écossais in his bodyguard. The great Revolution swept away all these institutions of the monarchy, and, with the exception of a short revival of the Gendarmes de la garde at the Restoration, the word gendarmerie had thenceforth an altogether different meaning. It has been since that time employed to denote a military police, whose duties are to watch over the public safety, keep order, and enforce the execution of the laws. This police force superseded the old maréchaussée.

[ocr errors]

under the control of the minister of war, the gendarmerie is also ut the disposal of the minister of the interior as a police force, of the minister of justice as agents to secure the execution of judicial sentences and police regulations, and also of the minister of marine and colonies for enforcing his authority over marines and sailors in the colonies and sea-towns of France. The gendarmerie of Paris constitutes a special corps established first in 1802, and successively called Gendarmerie de Paris, Garde royale, and Garde municipale. Suppressed by the provisional Government in 1848, the Garle de Paris was soon reorganized. It is now composed of 6 squadrons of cavalry and 24 companies of infantry, and is officially styled Gonde Both in the Garde républienine and in the républicaine de Paris. légions, the gendarmes consist for the most part of deserving soldiers of the regular army, who have been drafted into this service, where, with other privileges, they have a much higher rate of pay than the soldiers of the line." Their total numbers are about 40,000, made up of the Garde de Paris as above, 31 provincial legions, 1 legion of gendarmeric mobile, and the Gendarmerie coloniale.

Russia also has a gendarmerie, a secret police appointed in all towns of the empire to watch over Russian subjects of all ranks and classes, and to report to the chancery office such information as they receive from their detectives and secret agents. For the history of the old French gendarmerie before 1789 sec Chéruel, Dictionnaire historique des institutions de la France, 2 vols., and Lacroix, Vic militaire et religieuse au moyen âge et à l'époque de la Renaissance; and for the present gendarmerie, organisation de la Gendarmerie, 1871, and Annuaire militaire, 1877.

GENEALOGY. Biblical. The word "genealogy" (yevealoyía), which occurs twice in the New Testament (1 Tim. i. 4; Tit. iii. 9; compare also Heb. vii. 3, 6) in the ordinary concrete sense of "pedigree" or "list of ancestors," of the Old Testament scriptures, but only in Chroniclesis of somewhat frequent occurrence in the authorized version Ezra-Nehemiah, where the words and, which are peculiar to that work, are invariably rendered "genealogy" and "to reckon by genealogy." This translation, however, is of somewhat doubtful accuracy; for, whatever the original ameaning of the root may have been, there seems to be no room for doubt that the noun and the verb denote respectively the roll and the act of registration; connected with it were used in later Hebrew simply to and that the "book" alluded to in Neh. vii. 5 (in A. V. 'register of the genealogy") was genealogical only in so far as the individuals registered in it were classified according to their "houses," "families," and "tribes." While a

catalogue of this sort was admirably fitted to be a permauent record of tribal relations in Israel, as these subsisted at the time of its compilation, there is not any reason to suppose that it made any attempt to trace them throngh previous generations. The scripture genealogies, properly

1 According to Ewald (Gesch. d. V. Isr. i. 261, cf. All. 363), it meant properly to count." In the LXX. the Hithpael is rendered differently in each passage where it occurs; ¿yerealonen is only once given: In Ezra ii. 62 the translation is ypaphy autŵr oi μetwesein (Vulg., scripturam genealogie sua); in Neh. vii. 64 it is ypaphy EAUTŴY Tŷs Ovvodías (scripturam suam in censu). It may be added that the habit of taking a written census of sections of the population, or even of the entire nation, was obviously not unfamiliar to the Jews. This appears from numerous indications in the earlier historical books, e.g., Num. i. 18, where the word (used here only) is, as well as in Chronicles Ezra-Nehemiah. Compare also Ezek. xiii. 9 and Ps. lxxxvii. 6.

2 When, for example, we read in 1 Chr. vii. 6, 7 that Benjamin Lad three sons (Bela, Becher, and Jediael); in viii. 1, 2 that he had five (Bela, Ashbel, Aharah, Nohah, and Rapla); in Numb. xxvi. 38 aguin that he had five, but that their names were Belah, Ashbel, Ahiram, Slutpham, and Hupham; and, finally, in Gen. xlvi. 21 that they numbered ten "souls" (Bela, Becher, Ashibel, Gera, Naaman, Eli, Rosh, Muppin, Huppim, and Ard); or when the descendants of Bela are variously given, in 1 Chr. vii. 7 as Ezbon, Uzzi, Uzziel, Jerimoth, and Irí; in 1 Chr. viii. 3-5. as Addar, Gera, Abihud, Abishua, Naaman, Ahoah, Gera, Shephuphan, and Hurani; and in Numb. xxvi. 40 an Ard aust Naaman, the simple explanation (after all due allowance for corrup tions in the text has been made) seems to be, that in the course of a long history the Benjamite tribe included a varying number of families or clans with varying names. Similar instances might be indefinitely

The law of the 28th Germinal, An VI. (17th April 1797), and the royal ordinance of the 29th October, 1820, organized the gendarmerie, and laid down the general rules that are still in force; dividing it into legions and compames, and the latter into brigades In time of war a colonel of gendarmerie, with the title of grand-multiplied. It ought to be added, however, that criticism has not yet prévôt, is attached to the army with a detachment of gendarmes, for maintaining discipline among the soldiers. Though placed

by any means completed its task on the book of Chronicles in its genes. logical bearings. See Wellhausen, Geschichte Israels i. 230 sq., 1978

« EelmineJätka »