« EelmineJätka »
impression, and has again and again furnished to future | controversialists arguments more specious than solid against the liberty of exporting corn. The criticism of Voltaire, that Galiani's volume united the wisdom of Plato and the wit of Molière, will not be accepted as a decisive judgment on the merits of the treatise; but it may be viewed as a tolerably fair test of the regard in which it was held by Galiani's contemporaries. Galiani returned to Naples after a ten years' residence in Paris, where his reputation as a wit had long surpassed that of an economist or a statesman. Until his death at Naples, on October 30, 1787, he kept up with his old Parisian friends a correspondence, of which the tone on his side can only be compared to the wailing and howling sent forth by Ovid during his banishment to the shores of the Euxine. Absence from Paris was with him the synonym of social and literary death.
To the common editions of Galiani which are found in great public libraries must be added the essay recently published at Naples, L'Abate Galiani, by Alberto Marghieri, 1878, and the copious extracts from his correspondence with Tanucci, likewise published very recently in the new series of Viessoux's L'Archivio Storico, Florence, 1878.
GALICIA, in German Galizien, and in Polish Halicz, a crown-land of Austria which comprises the old kingdoms of Galicia and Lodomeria, the duchies of Auschwitz and Zator, and the grand-duchy of Cracow. Towards the N. and E. it has an extensive and irregular frontier conterminous with the Russian empire; in the S.W. it meets the Hungarian territory along the ridge of the Carpathian Mountains; its western borders, which are of small extent, touch both Austrian and Prussian Silesia; and in the S. it is bounded by the province of Bukowina, which was separated from it in 1849. As its area is 30,299 square miles, or more than 10,000 square miles greater than that of Bohemia, it is the largest of all the crown-lands of Austria. The population in 1869 was 5,418,016, which showed an increase since 1857 of 785,150. Of the whole 2,660,518 wore males, and 2,757,498 females. The density was greatest in the circles of Biala, Tarnow, and Cracow, and least in the circle of Radworna. In 1876 the total was 6,000,326.
About a third of the whole area of Galicia is occupied by the Carpathians, and the greater proportion of the remainder consists of the terraces by which the mountain system gradually sinks down to the great eastern plains of Russia. Only a very small district near the Vistula can properly be described as lowland. The two most prominent summits of the Galician Carpathians are the Babia Gora or Women's Mountain, 5648 feet above the level of the sea, and the Waxmundska, 7189. Of the famous massif of the Tatra, hardly a fourth is within the Galician bound
By its rivers Galicia belongs partly to the basin of the Baltic and partly to the basin of the Black Sea. The Dunajec, the San, and the Premsza, tributaries of the Vistula, are the navigable streams of the western region; and the Dniester, which is the principal river of the east, is navigable as far as Czartoria. There are few lakes in the country except mountain tarns; but considerable morasses exist about the Upper Dniester, the Vistula, and the San, and the ponds or dams in the Podolian valleys are estimated to cover an area of 208 square miles. Of the 35 mineral springs which can be counted in Galicia, the most frequented are Konopowka, south of Tarnopol, and Lubian and Sklo, west of Lemberg. The last is a good example of the intermittent class. The Galician climate is exceedingly severe, the range of temperature being nearly 145°. In July and August the mean temperature is 66° or 67° Fahr.; in March it is 32° or 33°. Winter is long, and the snowfall, which oftens begins in the early part of October, is very abundant. At Cracow the annual precipitation is
about 23 inches, and at Lemberg about 28. Rather more than 6 per cent. of the surface of Galicia is unproductive. Forests occupy upwards of 4 million acres, but they are so badly managed that in some districts straw has to be used as fuel; 1,550,128 acres are devoted to pasture, 8,486,358 are under tillage, and 3,007,024 are under gardens and meadows. Barley, oats, and rye, are the prevailing cereals; but wheat, maize, and leguminous plants are also cultivated, and hemp, flax, tobacco, and hops are of considerable importance. In 1873 the whole crop of cereals amounted to 9,878,563 bushels; and there were 2,016,326 bushels of pulse, and 65,581,331 bushels of potatoes. In 1869 the number of horses in the crown-land was 695,610; of asses and mules, about 2000; of cattle, 2,070,572; sheep, 966,763; goats, 35,825; and swine, 734,572. The stocks of bees were upwards of 257,490, and the yearly produce of honey and wax is about 18,300 and 7166 cwt. respectively. In West Galicia there are mines of coal, ironstone, and zinc ore; and in Eastern Galicia a certain quantity of lignite is obtained. The iron ore is poor, containing only 10 or 11 per cent. of metal; and in 1873 the out-put did not exceed 108,546 cwt. Salt is procured both from mines and from salt-springs in sufficient abundance to make it an article of export to Russia. The great factory at Kalusz for the making of potash was closed in 1875, the company having failed; and the exploitation of the rich petroleum springs of East Galicia languishes for lack of capital. Cracow is the centre of the iron manufacture, but it is of comparatively small development. Tile works are very numerous; stoneware is produced in a few establishments; and the glass works number about 15. In 1874 there were 237 breweries, 598 distilleries, and 3746 mills,-no fewer than 3524 of the mills being driven by water and 172 by wind. Cigars are manufactured at Monasteryska and Winniki, Cracow, Jupielnica, and Zablotow. The textile industries are for the most part very slightly developed, but the linen trade employs 11,255 looms. Railway traffic is rapidly increasing. There is a large transit trade down the river Dniester to Russia by means of light boats built at Zuravero, Halicz, Marianpol, &c., which are usually broken up for firewood when they reach Odessa; and all the navigable streams, both north and south, are used for the transport of wood from the forests. Large quantities of Galician timber thus find their way to Dantzic, Stettin, Hamburg, and Berlin. The country is divided into the eight districts of Lemberg, Zloczow, Tarnopol, Stanislawow, Sambor, Przemysl, Tarnow, and Cracow, which altogether comprise 74 administrative circles. There are in all 83 towns, 230 market villages, and 11,000 haulets, the most populous places being Lemberg, 87,109; Cracow, 49,835; Tarnow, 21,779; Tarnopol, 20,087; Brody, 18,890; Kolomiya, 17,679; Drohibiez, 16,888; Przemysl, 15,185; Stanislau, 14,479; Sambor, 11,749, Jaroslau, 11,166; Rzeszow, 10,090; and Sniatyn, 10,305. The chief town is Lemberg, which is the seat of the royal imperial lieutenancy or K. K. Statthalterei. According to the laws of 1861 the diet of Galicia consists of the three archbishops (those of the Roman Catholic, the Greek Catholic, and Armenian Catholic Churches), the three Roman Catholic bishops, the rectors of the universities of Lemberg and Cracow, 44 representatives of the larger landowners, 4 representatives of the capital, 3 representatives of the chambers of trade and industry, 16 from the towns and industrial centres, and 74 from the rural communes. Sixtythree members are sent to the imperial diet, of whom 20 represent the landowners, 13 the towns, 27 the rural communes, and 3 the chambers of trade, &c. The two principal nationalities in Galicia are the Poles and the Ruthenians the former predominating in the west and the latter in the east. The Poles who inhabit the Carpathians are distin
guished as Goralians (from gor, a mountain), and those of | Of the numerous affluents of the Miño, the most important the lower regions as Mazures and Cracoviaks. The Ruthenian highlanders bear the name of Huzulians.
Galicia (or Halicz) took its rise along with the neighbouring principality of Lodomeria (or Vladimir) in the course of the 12th century-the seat of the ruling dynasty being Halicz or Halitch, a town in the present district of Stanislawow at the confluence of the Luker with the Dniester. Disputes between the Galician and Lodomerian houses led to the interference of the king of Hungary, Bela III, who in 1190 assumed the title of Rex Galatia, and appointed his son Andreas lieutenant of the kingdom. Polish assistance, however, enabled Vladimir the former possessor to expel Andreas, and in 1198 Roman, prince of Lodomeria, made himself master of Galicia also. On his death in 1205 the struggle between Poland and Hungary for supremacy in the country was resumed; but in 1215 it was arranged that Daniel, son of Roman, should be invested with Lodomeria, and Koloman, son of the Hungarian king, with Galicia. Koloman, however, was expelled by Mstislaff of Novgorod; and in his turn Andreas, Mstislaff's nominee, was expelled by Daniel of Lodomeria, a powerful prince, who by a flexible policy succeeded in maintaining his position. Though in 1235 he had recognized the overlordship of Hungary, yet, when he found himself hard pressed by the Mongolian general Batu, he called in the assistance of Innocent IV. and accepted the crown of Galicia from the hands of a papal legate; and again, when Innocent disappointed his expectation, he returned to his former connexion with the Greek Church. On the extinction of his line in 1340 Casimir III. of Poland incorporated Galicia and Lemberg; on Casimir's death in 1370 Louis the Great of Hungary, in accordance with previous treaties, became king of Poland, Galicia, and Lodomeria; and in 1382, by the marriage of Louis's daughter with Ladislaus II., Galicia, which he had regarded as part of his Hungarian rather than of his Polish possessions, became definitively assigned to Poland. On the first partition of Poland, in 1772, the kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria came to Austria, and to this was added the district of New or West Galicia in 1795; but at the peace of Vienna in 1809 West Galicia and Cracow were surrendered to the grand-duchy of Warsaw, and in 1810 part of East Galicia, including Tarnopol, was made over to Russia. This latter portion was recovered by Austria at the peace of Paris, and the former came back on the suppression of the independence of Cracow in 1846. Within the short period since 1860 great advances have been made in many ways in the development of the natural resources of the .country and in the education of the people; and the general prosperity of the kingdom is evidenced by the rapid growth of several of its larger towns.
See Lin de Lilienbach, "Description du bassin de la Galicie et de la Podolie," in Mémoires de la société géologique de France, tome i., mém. iv., 1833-34; Schmedes, Geogr.-statist. Uebersicht Galiziens, Lemberg, 1869; Lipp, Verkehrsund Handelsverhältnisse Galiziens, Prague, 1870; Zehlicke, "Die polit. und socialen Zustände Galiziens," in Unsere Zeit, 1870; "Die Ruthener in Galizien,' in Die Globus, 1870; Pilat, Statist. Mittheil. über die Verhältnisse Galiziens, Lemberg, 1874; Ortsrepertorium des Königreichs Galizien und Lodomerien (official), Vienna, 1874; Zelicke, "Die deutschen Kolonien la Galizien," in Im Neuen Reich, 1876; Kelb in Jahrbericht der K. Geol. Reichs-Anstalt, 1876; "Culturfortschritte in Galizien," in Das Ausland, 1876. Remarkable sketches of Galician life have been given by Sacher-Masoch, whose works are well known in France and Germany. A rich literature on the subject exists in Polish.
GALICIA (Gallæcia or Callæcia, Καλλαικία, Καλαικία), an ancient kingdom, countship, or province in the N.W. angle of Spain, now divided into the provinces of Coruña, Lugo, Orense, and Pontevedra, lies between 41° 51′ and 43° 47' N. lat., 6° 50′ and 9° 16′ W. long., and is bounded on the N. and W. by the Bay of Biscay and the Atlantic, on the S. by the Portuguese provinces of Entre Douro e Minho and Traz os Montes, and on the E. by Leon and the Asturias. The greatest length is about 125 miles, greatest breadth 115 miles; area, 11,222 square miles; population (1867), 1,937,792. Galicia is traversed from E. to W. by a continuation of the great Pyrenean and Cantabrian chain; and its surface is further broken by two spurs from that system, which, running in a south-westerly direction, enclose the basin of the Miño. The average elevation of the province is considerable, and the maximum height (6593 feet) is reached in the Peña Trevinca on the east border of Orense. The principal river is the Miño (Portuguese, Minho; Latin Minius; so named, it is said, from the minium or vermilion found in its bed), which, rising near Mondoñedo, within 20 miles of the northern coast, after a course of 170 miles in a south and south west direction, enters the Atlantic near the port of La Guardia. It is navigable by small vessels on the lower part of its course.
are on the left the Sil, which rises among the lofty mountains between Leon and Asturias, and on the right the Tea, which rises on the eastern flank of Monte Fano. Among other rivers having a westerly direction may be mentioned the Tambre, the Ulla, and the Lerez or Ler, which fall into the Atlantic by estuaries or rias called respectively Ria Muros y Noya, Ria Arosa, and Ria Pontevedra. The rivers of the northern versant, such as the Eume, the Juvia, and the Mero, are, like those of the Asturias, for the most part short, rapid, and subject to violent floods. The coast-line of Galicia, extending to about 240 miles, is everywhere bold and deeply indented, presenting a large number of secure harbours, in this respect forming a marked contrast to the neighbouring province. The Eo, which bounds Galicia on the east, has a deep estuary, the Rivadeo, which offers a safe and commodious anchorage in 3 fathoms water at ebb tide. Further to the west is Vivero Bay, 1 mile wide and 3 in length, affording good anchorage throughout, with from 6 to 8 fathoms of water. The Ria del Varquero y Vares is of a similar character; while the harbour of Ferrol (see FERROL) ranks among the best in Europe. On the opposite side of Betanzos Bay (the péyas un or Portus Magnus of the ancients) is the great port of Coruña (see CORUNNA). The principal port on the western coast of Galicia is that formed by the deep and sheltered bay of Vigo, which is navigable for vessels of 500 tons to a distance of 16 miles from the ocean; but there are also good roadsteads at Corcubion under Cape Finisterre, at Marin, and at Carril. The climate of the Galician coast is mild and equable, but the interior, owing to the great elevation (the town of Lugo is upwards of 1900 feet above the sea level), has a wide range of temperature. The rainfall is exceptionally large, and snow lies on some of the loftier elevations for a considerable portion of the year. The soil is on the whole fertile, and the produce very varied. A considerable quantity of timber is grown on the high lands, and the rich valley pastures support large herds of cattle, while the abundance of oak and chestnut favours the rearing of swine. In the lowland districts good crops of maize, wheat, barley, oats, and rye, as well as of turnips and potatoes, are obtained. The fruit also is of excellent quality and in great variety, although the culture of the vine is limited to some of the warmer valleys in the southern districts. The dehesas or moorlands abound in game, and fish are plentiful in all the streams. The mineral resources of the province, which are considerable, were known to some extent to the ancients. Strabo speaks of its gold and tin, and Pliny mentions the gemma Gallaica. Mines of lead, tin, copper, and iron pyrites continue to be wrought, though under considerable disadvantages, and chiefly by foreign capitalists. Galicia is also remarkable for the number of its sulphur and other warm springs, the most important of which are those at Lugo and those from which Orense is said to take its name (Aquæ urentes).
Ethnologically the Galicians (Gallegos) are allied to the Portuguese, whom they resemble in dialect, in appearance, and in habits more than the other inhabitants of the peninsula. The men are well known all over Spain, and also in Portugal, as hardy, honest, and industrious, but for the most part somewhat unskilled, labourers; indeed the word Gallego has come to be almost a synonym in Madrid for a "hewer of wood and drawer of water." Agriculture engages the greater part of the resident population, both' male and female; other industries are little developed, and the fisheries are not extensive. There are a few linen and cotton factories in the larger towns. The principal exportä are live cattle, preserved meats, eggs, bones, mineral ore, fish oil, salt fish (especially sardines), chestnuts and other nute, grain (especially maize), and potatoes. The first-men
tioned item is the most considerable; the exports to to Hiram (1 Kings ix. 11; 2 Chr. viii. 2); and here, notEngland from Coruña alone having mounted in 1875 to withstanding the conquests made successively by Joshua, 17,000 head, at an average value of £15. The chief im- several of the judges, David, and Solomon, the population ports are coal, iron, tobacco, and manufactured goods. seems to have retained a prevailingly ethnic character; Apart from the few carreteras reales or royal roads, which for even in Isaiah's time "the land of Zebulun and are, as elsewhere in the Peninsula, unexceptionable, the the land of Naphtali" is called "Galilee of the Genmeans of internal communication in Galicia are decidedly tiles" (Isa. ix. 1). After the deportation by Tiglath Pileser defective. The only railways are those betwixt Lugo and (2 Kings xv. 29), in which it is to be presumed that chiefly Coruña (61 miles), and betwixt Santiago and Carril (24 Israelites were carried away, this ethnic character would miles). Another line, from Vigo to Orense, has been in most probably be intensified and extended rather than course of construction for some time, and it is also proposed | diminished either in area or in amount; and already in the to connect Lugo with Astorga. Galicia has 10 cities and time of the Maccabees, accordingly, we find the word appar115 towns. The capital is Santiago, which is also an arch-ently used in a considerably wider sense than in earlier bishopric, with a population of 29,000. Lugo, Tuy, Mon- times (1 Macc. v. 14, 15, x. 30; cf. Tob. i. 2). The later doñedo, Orense, are also episcopal sees. The largest city is extension of the designation cannot be more particularly Coruña, the seat of the audiencia (population about 40,000). traced, but we know with considerable exactness what the The others are Ferrol, Vigo, Betanzos, and Pontevedra. limits were at the time of the Talmudists. The southern Gallacia, the country of the Callaici or Gallaici, seems to have boundary was defined by the towns of Bethshean (Beisân), been very imperfectly known to the earlier geographers. Accord Ginea (Jenîn), Caphar Utheni (Kefr Adân), and by the ing to Eratosthenes the entire population of the peninsula were at ridge of Carmel; on the east the Jordan formed the limit; one time called Galatæ. The region properly called by their name, while on the west and north the line ran from Carmel to bounded on the S. by the Douro and on the E. by the Navia, was first entered by the Roman legions under Decius Junius Brutus in Accho (Akka), and thence ascended eastwards by a great 137-6 B.C. (Livy, lv., lvi., Epit.); but the final subjugation cannot valley just south of Achzib (ez Zîb) extending 8 miles, past be placed earlier than the time of Augustus. Under the Antonines, Kabartha (el Kâbry), Gathin (J'athûn), and Beth Zanita possibly even under Hadrian, Gallæcia and Asturia were erected into a separate Provincia Cæsaris, having been regarded previously (Zueinîta), to Gelila (Jelil), where it turned north near as merely a portion of Lusitania. On the partition of Spain, which M'alia, probably the Melloth which Josephus notices as on followed the successful invasions of the Suevians, Alans, and Van- his boundary (B. J., iii. 3, 1). From Melloth it ran 12 dals, Gallæcia fell to the lot of the first-named (411 A.D.). After an independent subsistence of nearly 200 years, the Snevian kingdom and then appears to have run east along a high ridge by miles north to Kania and Aiya (probably Kânah and 'Aiya), was annexed to the Visigothic dominions under Leovigild in 590. In 713 it was occupied by the Moors, who in turn were driven out Berii and Tirii (Beriâs and Tîreh), and thence, after a of it about the year 734 by Alphonso I. of Asturias and his brother course of 5 miles, it trended north-east by Tifni (Tibnîn), Froela. During the 9th and 10th centuries it was the subject of Sifneta (Safed el Battîkh), Ailshitha ('Atshith), and Aulam dispute between more than one count of Galicia and the suzerain, and its coasts were repeatedly ravaged by the Norsemen. When (Almôn), arriving thus at the deep gorge of the Leontes. Ferdinand I. divided his kingdom among his sons in 1063, Galicia Turning east it passed Migdol Kherub (el Khurbeh) and the was the portion allotted to Garcia, the youngest of the three. Ten "hollow of Ayun" (Merj 'Ayûn), past Takra (unknown) years afterwards it was forcibly reannexed by Garcia's brother to Tortalga ("the snowy mountain," or Hermon), and to Alphonso, and thenceforward it remained an integral part of the kingdom of Castile or of Leon. The honorary title of count of Kisrîn and the bounds of Iitir--that is, to Cæsarea Philippi Galicia has frequently been borne by younger sons of the Spanish (now Bânias), and thus to beyond Jordan. The boundary sovereign. In the patriotic struggles of 1808 the junta of Galicia between Upper and Lower Galilee was natural, being marked took an important part. For administrative purposes the ancient on the east by the town of Caphar Hananya (Kefr 'Anân),' province has since 1833 been divided into four, namely, Coruña, situated at the foot of the high ridge which formed the Lugo, Orense, and Pontevedra. actual line; Bersobe, on the same boundary (Josephus, B. J., iii. 3, 1), is not as yet known.
GALILEE (Taλıλaía, ), the most northerly of the three provinces into which Palestine was at the Roman period divided, was bounded on the E. by the Jordan, on the S. by Samaria, on the W. by the Mediterranean, on the N.W. by Phoenicia, and on the N. by the Leontes, the extreme length being about 60 miles, the extreme breadth 30, and the area 1000 square miles. The Galilee thus defined, however, though doubtless the Galilee of Herod's tetrarchy and of later centuries, was hardly that of ordinary parlance at the beginning of the Christian era. Josephus himself, while substantially giving these boundaries (B. J., iii. 3, 1, and elsewhere), yet incidentally in one place speaks of Upper Galilee as constituting the whole of Galilee proper (Ant. xx. 6, 1), and elsewhere in giving Xaloth (Iksâl) and Dabaratta (Debûrieh) as boundary towns, seems to exclude from Galilee the plain of Esdraelon. In the early period of the history of Israel, the word ba or, meaning a circle, was hardly a proper name at all, but was applied to several districts with considerable generality. Thus in Josh. xiii. 2 and Joel iv. 4 reference is made to the "borders" Or "coasts" (Geliloth) of the Philistines. In Josh. xxii. 10, 11, however, the "Geliloth" of Jordan means the plain of Jordan referred to in Ezekiel xlvii. 8 as "the eastern Gelilah" (compare Josh. xviii. 7); while in Josh. xx. 7, xxi. 32, hag-Galil denotes the north portion of the territory of Naphtali westward of Merom, where Kadesh, one of the six cities of refuge, lay. Here were situated the twenty "worthless" cities which Solomon gave
Lower Galilee.-The whole of Galilee presents country more or less disturbed by volcanic action. In the lower division the hills are all tilted up towards the east, and broad streams of lava have flowed over the plateau above the sea of Galilee. In this district the highest hills are only about 1800 feet above the sea. The ridge of Nazareth rises north of the great plain of Esdraelon, and north of this again is the fertile basin of the Buttauf, separated from the seacoast plains by low hills. East of the Buttauf extends the basaltic plateau called el Ahma ("the inaccessible"), rising 1700 feet above the sea of Galilee. North of the Buttauf is a confused hill country, the spurs falling towards a broad valley which lies at the foot of the mountains of Upper Galilee. This broad valley, running westwards to the coast, is the old boundary of Zebulun-the valley of Jiphthah-el (Josh. xix. 14). The great plain of Esdraclon is of triangular form, bounded by Gilboa on the east and by the ridge which runs to Carmel on the west. It is 14 miles long from Jenin to the Nazareth hills, and has a mean measurement of 9 miles east and west. It rises 200 feet above the
sea, the hills on both sides being some 1500 feet higher. The whole drainage is collected by the Kishon, which runs through a narrow gorge at the north-west corner of the plain, descending beside the ridge of Carmel to the sea. The broad valley of Jezreel on the east, descending towards, the Jordan valley, forms the gate by which Palestine is entered from beyond Jordan. Mount Tabor stands isolated
ing to a mountain and plain, near an ancient ruin, in the required position. The little village of Kades represents the once important town of Kadesh Naphtali (Josh. xix. 37). The ruins are here extensive and interesting, but belong apparently to the Greek period.
The population of Galilee is mixed. In Lower Galilee the peasants are principally Moslem, with a sprinkling of Greek Christians round Nazareth, which is a Christian town. In Upper Galilee, however, there is a mixture of Jews and Maronites, Druses and Moslems (natives or Algerine settlers), while the slopes above the Jordan are inhabited by wandering Arabs. The Jews are engaged in trade, and the Christians, Druses, and Moslems in agriculture; and, the Arabs are an entirely pastoral people.
The principal products of the country are corn, wine, oil, and soap (from the olives), with every species of pulse and gourd.
in the plain at the north-east corner, and rather further | Hazor, has been found by the survey party in 1877 applysouth the conical hill called Neby Duby rises between Tabor and Gilboa. The whole of Lower Galilee is well watered. The Kishon is fed by springs from near Tabor and from a copious stream from the west side of the plain of Esdraelon. North-west of Nazareth is Wâdy el Melek, an open valley full of springs. The river Belus, just south of Acre, rising in the sea coast marshes, drains the whole valley of Jiphthahel. On the east the broad valley of Jezreel is full of inagnificent springs, many of which are thermal. The plains of Esdraelon, and the Buttauf, and the plateau of el Ahma, are all remarkable for the rich basaltic soil which covers them, in which corn, cotton, maize, sesame, tobacco, millet, and various kinds of vegetable are grown, while indigo and sugar-cane were cultivated in former times. The Nazareth hills and Gilboa are bare and white, but west of Nazareth is a fine oak wood, and another thick wood spreads over the northern slopes of Tabor. The hills west of the great plain are partly of bare white chalk, partly covered with dense thickets. The mountains north of the Buttauf are rugged and covered with scrub, except near the villages, where fine olive groves exist. The principal places of importance in Lower Galilee are Nazareth (10,000 inhabitants), Sepphoris (now Seffûrieh), a large village standing above the Buttauf on the spurs of the southern hills, and Jenin (En Gannim), a flourishing village, with a palm garden (3000 inhabitants). The ancient capital, Jezreel (Zerin), is now a miserable village on a precipitous spur of Gilboa; north of this are the small mud hamlets, Solam (Shunem), Endûr (Endor), Nein (Nain); on the west side of the plain is the ruin of Lejjûn (the Legio of the 4th century, which was then a place of importance). In the hills north of the Buttauf is Jefât, situated on a steep hilltop, and representing the Jotapata defended by Josephus. Kefr Kenna, now a flourishing Christian village at the foot of the Nazareth hills, south of the Buttauf, represents the probable site of Cana of Galilee, and the ruin Kâna, on the north side of the same plain, represents the site pointed out to the pilgrims of the 12th and 13th centuries.
The antiquities of Galilee include cromlechs and rude stone monuments, rock-cut tonibs, and wine-presses, with numerous remains of Byzantine monasteries and fine churches of the time of the crusades. There are also remains of Greek architecture in various places, but the most intresting buildings are the ancient synagogues. These have not been found in other parts of Palestine, but in Galilee eleven examples are now known. They are rectangular, with the door to the south, and three rows of columns forming four aisles east and west. The architecture is a peculiar and debased imitation of classic style, attributed by architects to the 2d century of our era. The builder of the examples at Kefr Birim, el Jish, and Meirûn is known to have been the famous Simeon bar Jochai, who lived about 150 A.D., and built 24 synagogues in Galilee. The similarity of style renders it probable that the other examples at Tell Hûm, Kerâzeh, Nebartein, Umm el 'Amed, and Sufsâf were also his work. Both at el Jish and at Kefr Birim there are two synagogues, large and small. At Irbid, above Tiberias, is another synagogue of rather different character, which is said to have been built by Rabbi Nitai. Traces of synagogues have also been found on Carmel, and at Tireh, west of Nazareth. It is curious to find the representation of various animals in relief on the lintels of these buildings. Hebrew inscriptions also occur, and the carved work of the cornices and capitals is very rich. These synagogues were erected at a time when the Galilean Jews were flourishing under the Roman empire, and when Tiberias was the central seat of Jewish learning and of the Sanhedrin.
Upper Galilee.-The mountains are tilted up towards the sea of Galilee, and the drainage of the district is towards the north-west. On the south the rocky range of Jebel Jermuk rises to 4000 feet above the sea; on the east a narrow ridge 2800 feet high forms the watershed, with steep eastern slopes falling towards Jordan. Immediately west of the watershed are two small plateaus, covered with basaltic debris, near el Jish and Kades. On the west are rugged mountains with deep intricate valleys. The main In the 12th century Galilee was the outpost of the Chrisdrains of the country are-first, Wâdy el 'Ayûn, rising north tian kingdom of Jerusalem, and its borders were strongly of Jebel Jermuk, and running north-west as an open valley, protected by fortresses, the magnificent remains of which and secondly, Wâdy el Ahjâr, a rugged precipitous gorge still crown the most important strategical points. Toron running north to join the Leontes. The district is well (now Tibnin) was built in 1104, the first fortress erected by provided with springs throughout, and the valleys are full the crusaders, and standing on the summit of the mountains of water in the spring time. Though rocky and difficult, of Upper Galilee. Beauvoir (Kaukab, built in 1182) stood Upper Galilee is not barren, the soil of the plateaus is rich, on a precipice above Jordan south-west of the Sea of Galilee, and the vine flourishes in the higher hills, especially in the and guarded the advance by the valley of Jezreel; and about neighbourhood of Kefr Birim. The principal town is Safed, the same time Château Neuf (Hunîn) was erected above the perched on a white mountain 2700 feet above the sea. It Hûleh lake. Belfort (esh Shukîf), on the north bank of has a population of about 9000, including Jews, Christians, the Leontes, the finest and most important, dates somewhat and Moslems. It is one of the four sacred cities in Pales earlier; and Montfort (Kalat el Kurn) stood on a narrow tine revered by the Jews, to which nationality the majority spur north-east of Acre, completing the chain of frontier of the inhabitants belong. Among the smaller towns we fortresses. The town of Bânias, with its castle, formed also may notice Meirûn, near Safed, a place also much re- a strong outpost against Damascus, and was the scene, in vered by the Jews as containing the tombs of Hillel, common with the other strongholds, of many desperate Shammai, and Simon bar Jochai. A yearly festival of most encounters between Moslems and Christians. Lower Galilee curious character is here celebrated in honour of these rabbis. was the last remaining portion of the Holy Land held by the The site of Hazor, one of the chief towns of Galilee in Christians. In 1250 the knights of the Teutonic order Bible times, has also been lately recovered. It was situated, owned lands extending round Acre as far east as the Sea of according to Josephus, above the Lake Semechonitis (Bahr Galilee, and including Safed. These possessions were lost el Hüleh), and the name Hudîreh, identical with the Hebrew in 1291, on the fall of Acre. (C. R. a.)
shaped, 12 English miles in length, and 71 at its greatest width. The level is now known to be 682.5 feet below the Mediterranean. The water is fresh and clear, and large shoals of fish abound in it. The formation of the lake basin occurred later than the Chalk period, and was due to a subsidence of the strata, which appears to have been sudden and violent, and probably accompanied by extensive volcanic eruptions from three centres east, west, and north of the lake. The district has always been liable to volcanic disturbance and to earthquakes. In 1837 Safed and Tiberias were destroyed by earthquake, and the temperature of the hot springs round the lake was then observed to rise considerably for a time.
The Sea of Galilee is best seen from the top of the western precipices, and presents a desolate appearance. On the north the hills rise gradually from the shore, which is fringed with oleander bushes and indented with small bays. The ground is here covered with black basalt. On the west the plateau of el Ahma terminates in precipices 1700 feet above the lake, and over these the black rocky tops called "the Horns of Hattin" are conspicuous objects. On the south is a broad valley through which the Jordan flows. On the east are furrowed and rugged slopes, rising to the great plateau of the Jaulan (Gaulonitis). The Jordan enters the lake through a narrow gorge between lower hills. A marshy plain, 24 miles long and 1 broad, called el Batihah, exists immediately east of the Jordan inlet. There is also on the west side of the lake a small plain called el Chuweir, formed by the junction of three large
valleys. It measures 3 miles along the shore, and is 1 mile wide. This plain, naturally fertile, but now almost uncultivated, is recognized to be the plain of Gennesareth, described by Josephus (B. J., iii. 10, 8). The shores of the lake are of fine shingle. On the east the hills approach in one place within 40 feet of the water, but there is generally a width of about of a mile from the hills to the beach. On the west the flat ground at the foot of the hills has an average width of about 200 yards. A few scattered palms dot the western shores, and a palm grov is to be found near Kefr Hârib on the south-east. Thermal springs are found on each side of the lake, with an average temperature of about 80° Fahr. The hot baths south of Tiberias include seven springs, the largest of which has a temperature of 137° Fahr. The plain of Gennesareth, with its environs, is the best watered part of the lake-basin. North of this plain are the five springs of et Tâbghah, the largest of which was enclosed about a century ago by Aly, son of Dhahr el 'Amr, in an octagonal reservoir, and the water led off by an aqueduct 52 feet above the lake. The Tabghah springs, though abundant, are warm and brackish. At the north end of the plain is 'Ain et Tinch ("spring of the fig-tree"), also a brackish spring with a good stream; south of the plain is 'Ain el Bardeh ("the cold spring"), which is swcut, but scarcely lower in temperature than the others. The most important spring 1emains still to be noticed, namely, 'Ain el Madâwerah ("the round spring"), situated 1 mile from the south end of the plain and half a mile from the shore. The water rises in a circular well 32 feet in diameter, and is clear and sweet, with a temperature of 73° Fahr. The bottom is of loose sand, and the fish called coracinus by Josephus (B. J., iii. 10, 8) is here found in abundance. Dr Tristram was the first explorer to identify this fish, and points out that it could not exist in the other springs. We are thus able to identify the "round spring" with the fountain of Capharnaum, which, according to Josephus, watered the plain of Gennesareth.
The principal sites of interest round the lake may be enumerated from north to west and from south to east. Kerâzeb, the undoubted site of Chorazin, stands on a rocky spur 900 feet above the lake, 2 miles north of the shore, Foundations and scattered stones cover the slopes and the flat valley below. On the west is a rugged gorge. In the middle of the ruins are the remains of a synagogue of richly ornamental style built of black basalt. A small spring occurs on the north. Tell Hûm is an important ruin on the shore south of the last mentioned site. The remains consist of foundations and scattered stones (which in spring are concealed by gigantic thistles) extending about half a mile along the shore. The foundations of a fine synagogue, measuring 75 feet by 57, and built in white limestone, have been excavated. A conspicuous building has been erected close to the water, from the fragments of the Tell Hûm synagogue. Since the 4th century Tell Hum has been pointed out by all the Christian writers as the site of Capernaum, but the fatal objections to such an identification are-(1) the great distance from the fountain of Capharnaum, and (2) the fact that Jewish tradition preserves another site. The ruins at Tell Hûm are not of necessity as old as the time of Christ. The name Hûm means black," and is probably connected with the surrounding black basalt. The place seems to be mentioned in the Talmud under the titles Caphar Ahim and Caphar Tanhumin (see Neubauer's Geog Tal., p. 220). Minyeh is a ruined site at the north end of the plain of Gennesareth, 2 miles from the last, and close to the shore. There are extensive ruins on flat ground, consisting of mounds and foundations, with traces of a wall once surrounding the site. Masonry of well-dressed stones has also been here discovered in course of excavation. Near the ruins are remains of an old khân, which appears to have