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been built" in the Middle Ages ; and abo:e this a curious | rocky spur opposite Tiberias. Two large ruined buildings hillock, with an artificial rock-platform, called el 'Oreimel, remain, with traces of an old street and fallen columns and “ the little knoll.” Immediately to the north-east a preci capitals. A strong wall once surrounded the town; a pice projects to the lake, and the aqueduct from the Tabghah, narrow neck of land exists on the east where the rock has spring is led to an ancient rock-cut channel, which setirato | been scarped. Rugged valleys enclose the site on the north have been once intended for a road in the face of the cliff. / and south; broken sarcophagi and rock-cut tombs are In the 17th century Quaresmius speaks of this place, found beneath the ruin. This site answers to the de Minyeh, as the site of Capernaum. In the 14th Isaac scription Josephus gives of Gamala, an important fortress Chelo was apparently shown the same site as containing the besieged by Vespasian (Bell. Jud., iv. 1, 1). Gersa, an tomb of Nahum, and as being the “city of the Minai.” The insignificant ruin north of the last, is thought to represent “ Minai," or sorcerers," are nientioned in the Talmud, and the Gerasa or Gergesa of the 4th century, situated east of by this title the Jews stigmatized the early Christians; and the lake; and the projecting spur of hill south of this ruin these “Minai" are called in one passage of the Talmud is conjectured to be the place where the swine “ran “sons of Capernaum." There is thus a close connexion violently down a steep place” (Matt. viii. 32). The site between this Minyeh-named from the Minai-and the of Bethsaida Julias, east of Jordan, is also unknown. It town of Capernaum. The position of the site is also has been supposed (and the theory is supported by even suitable for that of Capernaum, being in the plain of so important an authority as Reland) that two separate Gennesareth, two miles from the “round spring,” or places named Bethsaida are mentioned in the New Testafountain of Capharnaum. No other site of any importance inent. The grounds for this conclusion are, however, very exists in the plain of Gennesareth. See CAPERNAUM. insufficient; and only one Bethsaida is mentioned by

South of the plain of Gennesareth is the undisputed site Josephus. It was near the Jordan iulet, on the east side of the New Testament town of Magdala. A few Jotus trees of the river, and under its later Greek name of Julias, it is and some rock-cut tombs are here found beside a miserable mentioned, with Hippos, by Pliny. The site usually pointed mud hamlet on the hill slope, with a modern tomb-house or ont is the ruin of et Tell, north of the Batihah plain ; the kubbeh. Passing beneath rugged cliffs á recess in the hills remains are, however, modern and insignificant. Just south is next reached, where stands Tabarîya, the ancient Tiberias of the same plain is a ruined village called Mes’aidiyeh, the or Rakkath, containing 3000 inhabitants, more than half of name of which approaches Bethsaida in sound but not in whom are Jews. The walls, flanked with round towers, meaning. This is the site pointed out by Vandevelde, and and now partly destroyed by the earthquake of 1837, were it is possible that the course of Jordan has shifted westbuilt by Dhahr el 'Amr, as was the serai or court-house. wards, and that the old mouth is marked by the two creeks The two mosquez, now partly ruinous, were erected by his running into the shore on the east, in which case the site sons. There are remains of a crusading church, and the of Mes’aidiyeh might be accepted as the Bethsaida of the tomb of the celebrated Maimonides is shown in the town, gospels, which appears to have been east of Jordan. while Rabbi Akiba and Rabbi Meir lie buried outside. The Literature. The most important works on tho subject of Galile ruins of the ancient city, including granite columns and and the Sea of Galilee aro the following:- Robinson's Biblical traces of a sea-wall with towers, stretch southwards a mile Researches; Stanley's Sinai and Palestine; Tristram's Land of

Israel; Warren and Wilson's Recovery of Jerusalem; Conder's Tent beyond the modern town. An aqueduct in the cliff once Work' in Palestine; and the Memoirs of the Survey of Palesting brought water a distance of 9 miles from the south. (sheets 1-6, 8, 9).

(C. R. C.) Kerak, at the south end of the lake, is an important GALILEO. Galileo Galilei (1564–1642), one of the site on a peninsula surrounded by the water of the lake, earliest and greatest of experimental philosophers, was born by the Jordan, and by a broad water ditch, while on the at Pisa, February 18, 1564. His father, Vincenzo, was an north-west a narrow neck of land remains. The plateau impoverished descendant of a noble Florentine house, which thus enclosed is partly artificial, and banked up 50 or had exchanged the surname of Bonajuti for that of Galilei, 60 feet above the water. A ruined citadel remains on the on the election, in 1343, of one of its members, Galileo de north-west, and on the east was a bridge over the Jordan ; Bunajuti, to the college of the twelve Buonuomini. The

1 broken pottery and fragments of sculptured stone strew the family, which was fifteen times represented in the signoria, site. The ruin of Kerak answers to the description given and in 1445 gave a gonfalonier to Florence, flourished with by Josephus of the city of Tarichea, which lay 30 stadia the republic and declined with its fall. Vincenzo Galilei from Tiberius, the hot baths being between the two cities. was a man of better parts than fortune. He was a comTaricheæ was situated, as is Kerak, on the shore below the petent mathematician, wrote with considerable ability on cliífs, and partly surrounded by water, while before the city the theory and practice of music, and was especially diswas a plain (the Ghôr). Pliny further informs us that tinguished amongst his contemporaries for the grace and Taricheze was at the south end of the Sea of Galilee. skill of his performance upon the lute. By his wife, Giulia Sinnabreh, a ruin on a spur of the hills close to the last- de' Ammannati of Pistoja, he had two sons, Galileo and mentioned site, is undoubtedly the ancient Sinnabris, where Michelangiolo, and two daughters, Virginia and Livia? Vespasian (Joseph., B. J., ji. 9, 7) fixed his camp, advanc- From his earliest childhood Galileo was remarkable for ing from Scythopolis (Beisân) on Taricheæ and Tiberias. intellectual aptitude, as well as for mechanical invention. Sinnabris was 30 stadia from Tiberias, or about the dis- His favourite pastime was the construction of toy-machines, tance of the ruin now existing.

not the less original and ingenious that their successful The eastern shores of the Sea of Galilee have been less working was usually much hindered by the scarcity of suitfully explored than the western, and the sites are not so able materials. His application to literary studies was perfectly recovered. The town of Hippos, one of the cities equally conspicuous. In the monastery of Vallombrosa, of Decapolis, was situated 30 stadia from Tiberias, and 60 near Florence, where his education was principally constadia from Gadara (Umm Keis). It is conjectured that ducted, he not only made himself acquainted with the best the town Susitha, mentioned in the Talmud, is the same Latin authors, but acquired a fair command of the Greek place, and the name Susyeh seems to have existed east of tongue, thus laying the foundation of the brilliant and the Sea of Galilee at a late period. Susitha from “sus,” | elegant style for which his writings were afterwards dismeaning " horse,” is, etymologically at least, suggestive tinguished From one of the monks he also received of the Greek "hippos.” The site is at present unknown. instruction in logic, according to the system tlien in vogue Kalat_el_Hosu ("castle of the stronghold ") is a ruin on a | but the futilities of the science reyolted, while its subtletier


failed to interest his understanding, and he was soon | undying hostility of the bigoted Aristotelians of that day. permitted to abandon a study so distasteful to him. A From the leaning tower of Pisa be afforded to all the prodocument published by M. Selmi in 1864 proves that he fessors and students of the university ocular demonstration was at this time so far attracted towards a religious life as of the falsehood of the Peripatetic dictum that heavy bodies to have joined the novitiate of the order ; but his father, fall with velocities proportional to their weights, and with who had other designs for him, seized the opportunity of unanswerable logic demolished all the time-honoured maxims an attack of ophthalmia to withdraw him permanently from of the schools regarding the motion of projectiles, and the care of the monks. Having had personal experience of elemental weight or levity. But while he convinced, he the unremunerative character both of music and of mathe- failed to conciliate his adversaries. The keen sarcasm of matics, he desired that his son should apply himself to the his polished rhetoric was not calculated to soothe the more profitable study of medicine, and, not without some susceptibilities of men already smarting under the deprivastraining of his slender resources, placed him, before he had tion of their most cherished illusions. He seems, in addicompleted his eighteenth year, at the university of Pisa. tion, to have compromised his position with the grand-ducal He accordingly matriculated, November 5, 1581, and im- family by the imprudent candour with which he condemned mediately entered upon attendance at the lectures of the a machine for clearing the port of Leghorn, invented by celebrated physician and botanist, Andrea Cesalpino Giovanni de' Medici, an illegitimate son of Cosmo I.

The natural gifts of the young student, not less multi- Princely favour being withdrawn, private rancour was free farious than those of an earlier Tuscan prodigy, Leonardo to show itself. He was publicly hissed at his lecture, and da Vinci, seemed at this time equally ready to develop in found it prudent to resign his professorship and withdraw ang direction towards which choice or hazard might incline to Florence in 1591. Through the death of his father in them. In musical skill and invention he already vied with July of that year family cares and responsibilities devolved the best professors of the art in Italy; his personal taste upon him as eldest son, and thus bis nomination to the chair would have led him to choose painting as bis profession, of mathematics at the university of Padua, secured by the inand one of the most eminent artists of his 'ay, Lodovico fuence of the Marchese Guidubaldo with the Venetian senate, Cigoli, owned that to his judgment and counsel he was was welcome, as affording a relief from pecuniary embarrassmainly indebted for the success of his works ; his wit and ment, no less than as opening a field for scientific distinction. eloquence gave promise that he would one day add to the His residence at Padua, which extended over a period of literary glories of his country; while his mathematical and eighteen years, from 1592 to 1610, was a course of uninmechanical genius only awaited a suitable opportunity for terrupted prosperity. His appointment was three times full display and development. In 1583, while watching renewed, on each occasion with expressions of the highest the vibrations of the great bronzé lamp still to be seen esteem on the part of the governing body, and his yearly swinging from the roof of the cathedral of Pisa, he observed salary was progressively raised from 180 to 1000 forins. that, whatever the range of its oscillations, they were

His lectures were attended by persons of the highest disinvariably executed in equal times. The experimental tinction from all parts of Europe, and such was the charm verification of this fact led him to the important discovery of his demonstrations that a hall capable of containing 2000 of the isochronism of the pendulum. He at first applied people had eventually to be assigned for the accommodation the new principle to pulse-measurement, and more than of the overflowing audiences which they attracted. His fifty years later turned it to account in the construction of ingenious invention of the proportional compasses-an an astronomical clock. Up to this time he was entirely instrument still used in geometrical drawing—dates from ignorant of mathematics, his father having carefully held 1597; and about the same time he constructed the first him aloof from a study which he rightly apprehended would thermometer, consisting of a bulb and tube filled with air lead to his total alienation from that of medicine. Acci- , and water, and terminating in a vessel of water. In this dent, however, frustrated this purpose. A lesson in Instrument, the results of varying atmospherio pressure were geometry, given by Ostilio Ricci to the pages of the grand not distinguishable from the expansive and contractive ducal court, then temporarily resident at Pisa, chanced to effects of beat and cold, and it becarne an efficient measure have Galileo for an unseen listener; his attention was of temperature only when Rinieri, in 1646, introduced the riveted, his dormant genius was roused, and he threw all improvement of hermetically sealing the liquid in glass. bis energies into the new pursuit thus unexpectedly pre- The substitution, in 1670, of mercury for water completed sented to him. With Ricci's assistance, he rapidly mastered

the modern thermometer. the elements of the science, and eventually extorted his Galileo seems, at an early period of his life, to have father's reluctant permission to exchange Hippocrates and adopted the Copernican theory of the solar system, and was Galen for Euclid and Archimedes. In 1586 he was with deterred from avowing his opinions—as is proved by his drawn from the university, through lack of means, before letter to Kepler of August 4, 1597—by the fear of ridicule he had taken a degree, and returned to Florence, where his rather than of persecution. The appearance, in September family habitually resided. We next hear of him as lectur- 1604, of a now star in the constellation Serpentarius, ing before the Florentine Acade ny on the site and dimen. afforded him indeed an opportunity, of which he eagerly sions of Irante's Inferno; and he shortly afterwards pub- availed himself, for making an onslaught upon the Aristolished an essay descriptive of his invention of the hydro- telian axiom of the incorruptibility of the heavens ; but he statical balance, which rapidly made his name known continued to conform his public teachings in the main to throughout Italy. His first patron was the Marchese Ptolemaic principles, until the discovery of a novel and Guidubaldo del Monte of Pesaro, a man eminent for his potent implement of research placed at his command startscientific attainments, as well as influential by his family ling and hitherto unsuspected evidence as to the constituconnexions. At his request he wrote, in 1588, a treatise

tion and mutual relations of the heavenly bodies. Galileo on the centre of gravity in solids, which obtained for him,

was not the original inventor of the telescope. That together with the title of “the Archimedes of his time,”

1 The word telescope, from Tiae, far, okonéw, to view, was invented the bonourable though not lucrative post of mathematical by Demiscianus, an eminent Greek scholar, at tho request of Prince lecturer at the Pisan university. During the ensuing two cesi, president of the Lyncean Academy. It was used by Galileo as years (1589-91) he carried on that remarkable series of early as 1612, but was not introduced into English until much later. experiments, by which he established the first principles of <stronomy, as a term requiring explanation, trunk or cylinder being

In 1655 the word telescope was inserted in Bagwell's Mysteries of dynamical science, and by which he earned for bimself the commonly used instead


honour must be assigned to Hans Lippersley, on obscure | Quirinal Palace the telescopic wonders of the heavens to optician of Middleburg, who, on the 21st of October 1608, the most eminent personages at the pontifical court. Enoffered to the states of Holland three instruments by which couraged by the flattering reception accorded to him, le the apparent size of remote objects was increased. But ventured, in lis Letters on the Solar Spots, printed at Rome here his glory ends, and that of Galileo begins. The in 1613, to take up a more decided position towards that rumour of the new inventiou, which reached Venice in doctrine on the establishment of which, as he avowed in a April on May 1609, was sufficient to set the Italian philo- letter to Belisario Vinta, secretary to the grand-duke, "all sopher on the track; and after one night's profound his life and being henceforward depended.” Eveu in the meditation on the principles of refraction, he succeeded in time of Copernicus some well-meaning persons had susproducing a telescope of threefold magnifying power. Upon pected a discrepancy between the new view of the solar this first attempt le rapidly improved, until he attained to system and certain passages of Scripture-a suspicion a power of thirty-two, and his instruments, of which he strengthened by the anti-Christian inferences drawn from manufactured hundreds with his own hands, were soon in it by Giordano Bruno; but the question was never formally request in every part of Europe. Two lenses only—a plano debated until Galileo's brilliant discoveries, enhanced by convex anda plano-concave-were needed for the composition his formidable dialectic and enthusiastic zeal, irresistibly of cach, and this simple principle is that still employed in challenged for it the attention of the authorities. Although the construction of opera-glasses.' Galileo's direction of his he earnestly deprecated the raising of the theological issue, new instrument to the heavens formed an era in the history and desired nothing better than permission to pursue unof astronoiny. Discoveries followed upon it with astound- molested his physical denonstrations, it inust be admitted ing rapidity and in bewildering variety. The Silereus that, the discussion once set on foot, lie threw himself into Nuncius, published at Venice in the early part of 1610, it with characteristic impetuosity, and thus helped to precontained the first-fruits of the new mode of investigation, cipitate a decision which it was his ardent wish to avert. which were sufficient to startle and surprise the learned on In December 1613 a Benedictine monk named Benedetto both sides of the Alps. The mountainous configuration of Castelli, at that time professor of mathematics at the unithe moon's surface was there first described, and the 80- versity of Pisa, wrote to inform Galileo of a recent discusBalled “phosphorescence" of the dark portion of our sion at the grand-ducal table, in which he had been called satellite attributed to its true cause—namely, illumination upon to defend the Copernican doctrine against theological by sun-light reflected from the earth. All the time-worn objections. This task Castelli, who was a steady friend and fables and conjectures regarding the composition of the disciple of the Tuscan astronomer, seems to have discharged Milky Way were at once dissipated by the simple statement with moderation and success. Galileo's answer, written, that to the eye, reinforced by the telescope, it appeared as as he said himself, currente calamo, was an exposition of a a congeries of lesser stars, while the great nebulæ were formal theory as to the relations of physical science to Holy equally declared to be resolvable into similar elements. Writ, still further developed in an elaborate apology adBut the discovery which was at once perceived to be most dressed by him in the following year (1614) to Christina important in itself, and most revolutionary in its effects, of Lorraine, dowager grand-duchess of Tuscany. Not was that of Jupiter's satellites, first seen by Galileo sa isfied with explaining adverse texts, he met his opponJanuary 7, 1610, and by him named Sidera Medicea, in ents with unwise audacity on their own ground, and endeahondur of the grand-duke of Tuscany, Cosmo II., who had voured to produce scriptural confirmation of a system which been his pupil, and was about to become his employer. An to the ignorant many seemed an incredible paradox, and to illustration is, with the general run of mankind, more the scientific few was a beautiful but daring innovation. powerful to convince than an argument; and the cogency The rising agitation on the subject which, originating proof the visible plea for the Copernican theory offered by the bably with the sincere upholders of the integrity of Scripminiature system, then for the first time disclosed to view, ture, was fomented for their own purposes by the rabid was recognizable in the triumph of its advocates, as well | Aristotelians of the schools, was heightened rather than as in the increased acrimony of its opponents.

allayed by these manifestoes, and on the fourth Sunday of In September 1610 Galileo finally abandoned Padua for the following Advent found a voice in the pulpit of Santa Florence. His researches with the telescope liad been re- Maria Novella. Padre Caccini's denunciation of the new warded by the Venetian senate with the appointment for astronomy was indeed disavowed and strongly condemned life to his professorsliip, at an unprecedentedly high salary. by his superiors ; nevertheless, on the 5th of February His discovery of the “ Medicean Stars” was acknowledged 1615, another Dominican monk named Lorini laid Galileo's by his nomination (July 12, 1610) as philosopher and letter to Castelli before the Inquisition, mathematician extraordinary to the grand-duke of Tuscany. Cardinal Robert Bellarmine was at that time by far the The emoluments of this office, which involved no duties most influential member of the Sacred College.

He was a save that of continuing his scientific labours, were fixed man of vast learning and upright piety, but, although perat 1000 scudi; and it was the desire of increased leisure, sonally friendly to Galileo, there is no doubt that he saw rather than the promptings of local patriotism, which in his scientific teachings a danger to religion. The year induced him to accept an offer, the first suggestion of 1615 seems, however, to have beeu a period of suspense. which had indeed come from himself. Before the close Galileo received, as the result of a conference between of 1610 the memorable cycle of discoveries begun in Cardinals Bellarmine and Del Monte, a semi-official warning the previous year was completed by the observation of to avoid theology, and limit himself to physical reasoning. the ansated or, as it appeared to Galileo, triple form “Write freely," he was told by Monsignor Dini, “but keep of Saturn (the ring-formation was first recognized by outside the sacristy." Unfortunately, he had already comHuygens in 1655), of the phases of Venus, and of the mitted himself to dangerous ground. In December he respots upon the sun. Although his priority in several of paired personally to Rome, full of confidence that the weight these discoveries has been contested, inquiry has in each of his arguments and the vivaeity of bis eloquence could case proved favourable to his claims. In the spring of 1611 not fail to convert the entire pontifical court to his views he visited Rome, and exhibited in the gardens of the He was cordially received, and eagerly listened to, but his

imprudent ardour served but to injure his cause. On the · Leonarilo ila Vinci, more than a hundred years earlier, hau come

24th of February 1616 the consulting theologians of the to the same conclusion.

Holy Office characterized the two propositions—that the sun


is immovable in the centre of the world, and that the carth | which he was received on his visit of congratulation to has a diurnal motion of rota:ion---the first as "absurd in Lome in 1624 encouraged him to hope for the realization philosophy, and formally heretical, because expressly con- of his utmost wishes. He received every mark of private trary to Holy Scripture," and the second as “open to the favour. The pope admitted him to six long audiences in same censure in philosophy, and at least erroneous as to the course of two months, wrote an enthusiastic letter to faith." Two days later Galileo was, by command of the pope the grand-duke praising the great astronomer, not only for (Paul V.), summuned to the palace of Cardinal Bellarmine, his distinguished learning, but also for his exemplary piety, and there officially admonished not thenceforward to "hold, and granted a pension to his son Vincenzo, which was afterteach, or defend” the condemned doctrine. This injunction wards transferred to himself, and paid, with some irreguhs promised to obey. On the 5th of March the Congrega- larities, to the end of his life. But on the subject of the tion of the Index issued a decree reiterating, with the decree of 1616, the revocation of which Galileo had hoped Gmission of the word "heretical,” thu censure of the theo to obtain through his personal influence, he found him inlogians, suspending, usque corrigatur, the great work of exorable. Nevertheless, the sanguine philosopher trusted, Copernicus, De Revolutionibus orbium coelestium, and ab- not without reason, that it would at least be interpreted in solutely prohibiting a treatise by a Carmelite monk named a liberal spirit, and his friends encouraged his imprudent Foscarini, which treated the same subject from a theological confidence by eagerly retailing to him every papal utterance point of view. At the same time it was given to be under which it was possible to construe in a favourable sense. To stood that the new theory of the solar system might be held Cardinal Hohenzollern Urban was reported to have said ex hypothesi, and the trivial verbal alterations introduced that the theory of the earth's motion had not been and into the Polish astronomer's book in 1620, when the work could not be condemned as heretical, but only as rash ; and of revision was completed by Cardinal Gaetani, confirmed in 1630 the learned Dominican monk Campanella wrote to this interpretation. This edict, it is essential to observe, Galileo that the pope bad expressed to him in conversation of which the responsibility rests with a disciplinary con- his disapproval of the prohibitory decree. Thus, in the full gregation in no sense representing the church, was never anticipation of added renown, and without any misgiving confirmed by the pope, and was virtually repealed in 1757 as to ulterior consequences, Galileo set himself, on his ro. under Benedict XIV.

turn to Florence, to complete his famous but ill-starred Galileo returned to Florence three months later, not ill. work, the Dialogo dei due Massimi Sistemi del Mondo. pleaseil, as his letters testify, with the result of his visit to Finished in 1630, it was not until January 1632 that it Rone. Ho brought with him, for the refutation of emerged from the presses of Landini at Florence. The book calumnious reports circulated by his enemies, a written was orginally intended to appear in Rome, but unexpected certificate from Cardinal Bellarmine, to the effect that no obstacles interposed. The Lyncean Academy collapsed with abjuration had been required of or penance imposed upon the death of Prince Federigo Cesi, its founder and presi. him. During a prolonged audience, he had received from dent; an outbreak of plague impeded communication the pope assurances of private esteem and personal proteo- between the various Italian cities; and the imprimatur tion; and he trusted to his dialectical ingenuity to find the was finally extorted, rather than accorded, under the presmeans of presenting his scientific convictions under the sare of private friendship and powerfal interest. A tumult transparent veil of an hypothesis. Although a sincere of applause from every part of Europe followed its publicaCatholic, he seems to have laid but little stress on the secret tion; and it would be difficult to find in any language a admonition of the Holy Office, which his sanguine tempera- book in which animation and elegance of style are so hapmeat encouraged him gradually to dismiss from his mind. pily combined with strength and clearness of scientific exHe preserved no written memorandum of its terms, and it position. Three interlocutors, named respectively Salviati, Fas represented to him, according to his own deposition in Sagredo, and Simplicio, take part in the four dialogues 1633, solely by Cardinal Bellarmine's certificate, in wbich, of which the work is composed. The first-named ex. for obvious reasons, it was glossed over rather than ex- pounds the views of the author; the second is an eager and pressly recorded. For seven years, however, during which intelligent listener; the third represents a well-meaning be led a life of studious retirement in the Villa Segni at but obtuse Peripatetic, whom the others treat at times with Bellosguardo, near Florence, he maintained an almost un- undisguised contempt. Salviati and Sagredo took their broken silence. At the end of that time he appeared in names from two of Galileo's early friends, the formera learned public with his Saggiatore, a polemical treatise written in Florentine, the latter a distinguished Venetian gentleman; reply to the Libra Astronomica of Padre Grassi (under the Simplicio ostensibly derived his from the Cilician com. pseudonym of Lotario Sarsi), the Jesuit astronomer of the mentator of Aristotle, but the choice was doubtless insti. Collegio Romano. The subject in debate was the nature gated by a sarcastic regard to the double meaning of the of comets, the conspicuous appearance of threo of which word. There were not wanting those who insinuated that bodies in the year 1618 furnished the occasion of the Galileo intended to depict the pope himself in the guise of controversy. Galileo's views, although erroneous, since he the simpleton of the party ; this charge, however, was not held comets to be mere atmospheric emanations reflecting only preposterous in itself

, but wholly unsupported by sunlight after the evanescent fashion of a halo or a rainbow, intrinsic evidence, and Urban was far too sagacious to were expressed with such triumphant vigour, and embel- give any permanent credit to it. lished with such telling sarcasms, that his opponent did not It was at once evident that the whole tenor of this reFenture upon a reply. The Saggiatore was printed at Romemarkable work was in flagrant contradiction with the edict in October 1623, by the Academy of the Lincei, of which passed sixteen years before its publication, as well as with Galileo was a member, with a dedication to the new pope, the author's personal pledge of conformity to it. The Urban VIII., and notwithstanding some passages containing ironical submission with which it opened, and the assumed

covert defence of Copernican opinions, was received with indetermination with which it closed, were hardly intended acclamation by the ecclesiastical, no less than by the scien- to mask the vigorous assertion of Copernican principles tific authorities. Everything seemed now to promise a which formed its substance. It is a singular circumstance, close of unbroken prosperity to Galileo's career. Maffeo however, that the argument upon which Galileo mainly Barberini, his warmest friend and admirer in the Sacred relied as furnishing a physical demonstration of the truth of College, was, by the election of August 8, 1623, seated on the new theory rested on a misconception. The ebb and flow the pontifical throne; and the marked' distinction with of the tides, he asserted, were & visible effect of the terres


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trial double movement, since chey resulted from the ine- he had three childron—a son who married and left descend. quality of the absolute velocities through space of the ants, and two daughters who took the veil at an early age. various parts of the earth's surface, produced by the motion Notwithstanding this stain on the morality of his early life, of rotation. To this notion, which took its rise in a con. which was in some degree compensated by the regularity fusion of thought, he attached capital importance, and he of his subsequent conduct, Galileu's general character was treated with scorn Kepler's suggestion that a certain occult one which commanded the respect of all who approached attraction of the moon was in some way concerned in the him. His prodigious mental activity continued undiminphenomenon. The theological censures which the book did ished to the last, nor were his latter years the least profitnot fail to incur were not slow in making themselves felt. able to science of his long and eventful career. In 1636 Towards the end of August the sale was prohibited ; on the he completed his Dialoghi delle Nuove Scienze, in which he 1st of October the author was cited to Rome by the recapitulated the results of his early experiments and Inquisition. He pleaded his age, now close upon seventy mature meditations on the principles of mechanics. This, years, his infirm health, and the obstacles to travel caused in many respects his most valuable work, was printed by by quarantine regulations ; but the pope was sternly indig- the Elzevirs at Leyden in 1638, and excited admiration nant at what he held to be his ingratitude and insubordiná- equally universal and more lasting than that accorded to tion, and no excuse was admitted. At length, on the 13th his astronomical treatises. His last telescopic discoveryof February 1633, he arrived at the residence of Niccolini, that of the moon's diurnal and monthly librations was the Tuscan ambassador to the pontifical court, and there made in 1637, only a few months before his eyes were for abode in deep dejection for two months. From the 12tb ever closed in hopeless blindness. It was in this condition to the 30th of April he was detained in the palace of the that Milton found him when he visited him at Arcetri in Inquisition, where he occupied the apartments of the fiscal, 1638. But the fire of his genius was not even yet extinct. and was treated with unexampled indulgence. On the He continued his scientific correspondence with unbrcken 30th he was restored to the hospitality of Niccolini, his interest and undiminished logical acumen; he thought out warm and geuerous partisan. The accusation against him the application of the pendulum to the regulation of clockwas that he had written in contravention of the decree of work, which Huygens successfully realized seventeen years 1616, and in defiance of the command of the Holy Office later; and he was engaged in dictating to his disciples, communicated to him by Cardinal Bellarmine; and his Viviani and Torricelli, his latest ideas on the theory of defence consisted mainly in a disavowal of his opinions, / impact when he was seized with the slow fever which and an appeal to his good intentions. On the 21st of in two months brought him to the grave. On the 8th June he was finally examined under menace of torture; but January 1642 he closed his long life of triumph and he continued to maintain his assertion that, after its con- humiliation, and the coincidence of the day of his birth demnation by the Congregation of the Index, he had never with that of Michelangelo's death was paralleled by the held the Copernican theory. Since the publication of the coincidence of the year of his death with that of the birth documents relating to this memorable trial, there can no of Isaac Newton. longer be any doubt, not only that the threat of torture was The direct services which Galileo rendered to astronomy not carried into execution, but that it was never intended are virtually summed up in his telescopic discoveries. To that it should be. On the 22d of June, in the church of the theoretical perfection of the science he contributed little Santa Maria sopra Minerva, Galileo read his recantation, or nothing He pointed out indeed that the so-called and received his sentence. He was condemned, as “vehe- “ third motion," introduced by Copernicus to account for mently suspected of heresy," to incarceration at the pleasure the constant parallelism of the earth's axis, was a superfluous of the tribunal, and by way of penance was enjoined to complication. But he substituted the equally unnecessary recite once a week for three years the seven penitential hypothesis of a magnetic attraction, and failed to perceive psalms. This sentence was signed by seven cardinals, but that the phenomenon to be explained was, in relation to lid not receive the customary papal ratification. The absolute space, not a movement, but the absence of movelegend according to which Galileo, rising from his knees ment. The circumstance, however, which most seriously after repeating the formula of abjuration, stamped on the detracts from his scientific reputation is his neglect of the ground, and exclaimed, “E pur si muove /is, as may discoveries made during his life-time by the greatest of his readily be supposed, entirely apocryphal. The earliest contemporaries. Kepler's first and second laws were pubascertained authority for it is the seventh edition of an lished in 1609, and his third ten years later. By these Historical Dictionary, published at Caen in 1789. It momentous inductions the geometrical theory of the solar seems probable that Galileo remained in the custody of the system was perfected, and a hitherto unimagined symmetry Inquisition from the 21st to the 24th of June, on which day was perceived to regulate the mutual relations of its memho was relegated to the Villa Medici on the Trinità de' bers. But by Galileo they were passed over in silence. In Monti. Thence, on the 6th of July, he was permitted to his Dialogo dei Massimi Sistemi, printed not less than depart for Siena, where he spent several months in the thirteen years after the last of the three laws had been given house of the archbishop, Ascanio Piccolomini, one of his to the world, the epicycles by which Copernicus, adhering numerous and trusty friends. It was not until December to the ancient postulate of uniform circular motion, had that his earnest desire of returning to Florence was realized, endeavoured to reduce to theory the irregularities of the and there, in the Villa Martellini at Arcetri, he spent the planetary movements were neither expressly adopted nor remaining eight years of his life in the strict retirement / expressly rejected ; and, after exhausting all the apologies which was the prescribed condition of his comparative offered, the conclusion seems inevitable that this grave freedom.

defection from the cause of progress had no other motive Domestic afflictions combined with numerous and painful than the reluctance of the Florentine astronomer to accept infirmities to embitter his old age. His sister-in-law and discoveries which lie had not originated,—this not through her whole family, who came to live witlihim on his return / vulgar jealousy, of which he was incapable, but through a from Rome, perished shortly afterwards of the plague ; and certain unconscious intellectual egotism, not always unon the Ist of April 1634 died, to the inexpressible grief of known to the greatest minds His name, however, is justly, her father, bis eldest and hest-beloved daughter, a nun in associated with that vast extension of the bounds of the the convent of San Matteo at Arcetri. Galileo was never visible universe which has rendered modern astronomy the married; but by a Venetian woman named Marina. Gainba / most sublime of sciences, and his telescopic observations



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