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compared with him in intellectual ability, foresight, opposer of the annexation of Texas and of the war with judgment, moderation or convincing speech, though Mexico. many surpassed him in eloquence. He was always Gallatin was an idealist in Civil Service. His thought dignified and calm, never descending to personalities, was that employees of the government should be but carrying his point by sheer force of reason. For
trained to the work and then have permanent positions, opponents he had John Marshall, Griswold, Bayard,
taking no part in politics. It was the opposite of the Harper, Dana, and other distinguished men. He had
Jackson policy, which afterwards carried everything besides to contend against an imperfect knowledge of before it. Jefferson was infected by the spoils system English and bad pronunciation. Ilis ultimatums were and failed to support Gallatin. Another idea of his the result of hard study. Ile informed himself of the
was good management of the navy and in this also he minutest details and depended upon his grasp of a sub- was defeated. He held his place in the cabinet against ject more than his command of words. In his own all opposition of Jefferson to his policy and plans and party, as possible rivals for the foremost place, there bore the attacks of Duane and Leit without aid from were only Madison and Livingston ; both great men, his chief. Yet that Jefferson was able to defend him but not possessed of the qualities necessary for parlia- was proved by his treatment of Burr and Randolph. mentary leadership. He was never a radical Republi- Gallatin believed in simplicity of government, no debts, can, but maintained an equilibrium between the two no taxes-and saw his plans again defeated by war. parties on an individual platform. He often expressed But, though all his theories failed, one after the other views at variance with those of his party, so he aflil- his methods prevailed, and carried the party through ated with all men, on some points maintaining only a perilous period. his opposition to strong governments, when he identified himself with the Republicans.
In religion Gallatin was a Calvinist of a severe type.
He was austere, having no Gallic lightness of characHe filled the position in Congress of financier for his party and succeeded in modifying the radical meas- He married a Sarah Nicholson for a second wife and ures of llamilton and improving the financial schemes left three children. In his home life he was tender and of the government. His leadership laid him open to all
loving but never indulgent. He had the characteristics the bitter personal attacks of the time, but he was
of the Scotch and of the Puritans, He was reticent, never betrayed into retorts of the same kind, so
cool and tenacious, with severe morals. He stood unthat the assaults of his opponents lost their point. His
moved amid storms of invectives. was always the important speech of the opposition. His only mistakes were when he gave up his individual
Though he was not so great a man as Hamilton, he judgment in loyalty to his party. When the Republi
had sterling qualities which were needed by the times. cans began to be deserted by their leaders in Pennsyl
He evinced cool judgment, rather than brilliancy, for
the conduct of affairs. vania, still steady, he stood alone, and then when quarrels split the opposition he carried the Republicans
He died in 1849, busy with private and public affairs into power.
When the country was in peril from the to the last day of his life. growing power, it was Gallatin and Jefferson who aver. AUTHORITIES.-- The Life of Albert Gallatin, by H. ted the calamity. The year 1801 was carried through Adams; Writings of Albert Gallatin, by H. Adams; without disaster, because these two men were at the Albert Gallatin, by H. C. Lodge. helm. The "war party” was crushed.
When Jefferson came into power, Gallatin, and Madison with GALLE, or Point de Galle, a town and port in the himn, formed a triumvirate which ruled the United States for twelve years. Gallatin took the treasury portfolio at a time when
southern province of Ceylon, on the south-western coast, Hamilton's brilliant policy needed modification. Debt was about 72 miles S. of Colombo, with which it is connected accumulating, and expenditures were greater than the cuntry could bear. It took & wise mind and a firm hand to pilot the
by a good carriage road. It was made a municipality in finances of the country into a safe port. Revenue must be 1865, and divided into the five districts of the Fort, increased internal taxes must be reduced. The maryhowever: Callowelle
, Galopiadde, Hirimbure, and Cumbalwallit
. . Gallatin freedom from debt aad opposed war with the Barbary States. The fort, which is more than a mile in circumference, After six years' work with the debt nearly out of sight, foreign wars broke out and crippled Gallatin's plans. He fought the
commands the whole barbour, but is commanded by a sympathy with Napoleon and urged peace with England at any range of hills. Within its enclosure are not only several cost. At this time, this opposer of strong governments became the champion of some of the most oppressive laws which have
Government buildings, but an old church erected by the ever been framed, and failed in his efforts. He was not sustained Dutch East India Company, a mosque, a Wesleyan chapel, by Jefferson, and though retaining his place in the cabinet under Madison, he had new difficulties to encounter.
a hospital, and a considerable number of houses occupied
A strong fuction had grown up against him in Congress, headed by Senator Smith, by Europeans. The old Dutch building known as the of Maryland. Every measure of Gallatin's was frustrated. The queen's house or governor's residence, which dated from bank was defeated, the foreign policy overthrown and the legislative power of the governinent weakened. Bonaparte did the year 1687, was in such a dilapidated state that it was the rest, and thus the war of 1812 with England was precipitated. sold by Governor Gregory in 1873. Elsewhere there are At Gallatin's instance Robert Smith, broch rof Senator Smith, was disinissed from the cabinet, and Gallatin was master of the
few buildings of individual note, but the general style of situation. Then, for the only time in his lifc, this staunch Swiss domestic architecture is pleasant and comfortnble, though weakened, and made such reports of the finances of the country as strengthened the war party. His object has been variously
not pretentious. One of the most delightful features of accounted for, but the fact remains that these false reports did the place is the profusion of trees, even within the town, incalculable harm and finished the work which ended in a three years' war with England. But he took the finances up with a
and along the edge of the shore-suriyas, palms, cocoa-nut strong hand after the beginning of the war, resigned from the trees, and bread-fruit trees. The ramparts towards the sea treasury; and heading n commission, bombarded English diplo- furnish fine promenades. In the harbour deep water is mats and compelled peace. At the close of the wir he went to Paris as American Minister to France, a position which he held found close to the shore, and the outer roads are spacious; for seven years. After having been one of the greatest financiers but the south-west monsoon renders entrance difficult, the country has seen, he became a diplomat second only to Franklin. In Paris he was surrounded by the most distinguished and not unfrequently drives vessels from their moorings. society of Europe, and did much toeffect the stability of American Galle is an important point on the lines of communication commerce. In 1823 he returned to the l'nited States, and after returning from a mission to England, on which he had been sent
between Calcutta and Australia, and between Suez and by John Quincy Adams, he retired to private life.
Singapore. The Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation This versatile man then turned his attention to In- Company, the Messageries Maritimes, and the British India dian ethnology, he being the first student of the subject Steam Navigation Company have agencies at the port. who ever contributed any scientific knowledge to it. The trade is mainly in the productions of the surrounding When more than eighty years old he appeared as an Iroczntry, of which in 1873 there was shipped 11,477 cwts.
of cocoa-nut oil, 10,083 cwts. of cinnamov, 23,377 cwts. of of gallic acid, C,K,(OH),.CO(OH).O.CO.(OH),C,,, plumbago, and 22,932 cwts, of coir. Cotton goods are the by the assimilation of a molecule of water is then con. principal import, 143,410 pieces being the amount for 1873. verted into two molecules of gallic acid (see Armstrong, The inhabitants of Galle are of very mingled origin, com- Organic Chemistry, p. 304, 1874). Gallic acid may be prising not only Singhalese European residents and Eurasian produced by heating an aqueolis solution of diiodohalf-castes, who are locally denominated “ Burghers," as salicylic acid with excess of alkaline carbonate, by acting being mainly the descendants of the old Dutch settlers, on dibromosalicylic acid with moist silver oxide, and by but also “Moors Moormen” (that is, Arabians or other chemical methods. It crystallizes in white or pale semi-Arabians), Hicdus, Parsees, people from the Coro- fawn-coloured acicular prisms or silky needles, and is mandel coast, and Maldivian3. The Moors are largely soluble in alcohol and. ether, and in 100 parts of cola, and engaged as lapidaries and workers in tortoise-shell; and the 3 of boiling water, is without odour, and has an astringent, urgency of the itinerant vendors is one of the inevitable acidulous taste, and an acid reaction. Dried at 100° C. plagues of the European visitor to the town. According it loses 9.5 per cent. of its weight of water; at about to the returns of 1871, the total population of the munici- 200° C. it melts; and at 210 to 215° it is resolved into pality was 47,059, distributed in 8979 families, occupying carbon dioxide and pyrogallol, CoH3(OH)3. With ferric 7496 houses, and consisting of 24,294 males and 22,765 salts its solution gives a deep blue colour, and with ferrous females,
salts, after exposure to the air, an insoluble, blue-black, Galle, according to Sir J. E. Tennent, is the Tarshish of Solomon; ferroso-ferric gallate. Bases of the alkali metals give willi bat of this opinion there is no proof, even if it were certain that it four series of salts; these are stable except in alkaline the Jewish fleets visited the island of Coylon at all. The place is mentioned by none of the Greek or Latin geographers, unless the solutions, in which they absorb oxygen and turn brown. identification with Ptolemy's Avium Promontorium or Cape of Birds
Solution of acid calcium carbonate becomes with gallic acid, be a correct one. It is hardly inentioned in the native chronicles on exposure to the air, of a dark blue colour. Unlike before 1267, and Ibn Batuta, in the middle of the 14th century, tannic acid, gallic acid does not precipitate albumen or salts distinctly states that Kali,--that is, Gallo,- was a small town. It was not till the period of Portuguese occupation that it rose to im
of the alkaloids, or, except when mixed with gum, gelatin. portance. When the Dutch i ucceeded the Portuguese they greatly Salts of gold and silver are reduced by it, slowly in cold, strengthened the fortifications, which had been vigorously defended instantaneously in warm solutions, hence its employment against their admiral, Kosten; and under their rule the place had in photography. With phosphorus oxychloride at 120°C. the rank of a coinmandancy. In the marriage treaty of the infanta of Portugal with Charles II. of England it was agreed that if the gallic acid yields tannic acid, and with concentrated Portuguese recovered Ceylon they were to hand over Galle to the sulphuric acid at 100°, rufigallie acid, C,H,Og. PhosEnglish; but as the Portuguese did not recover Ceylon the town phorus .perchloride, and also, after scveral hours, solution was left to fall into English hands at the conquest of the island in 1796. The name Galle is derived from tho Singhalese galia,
of arsenic acid near the boiling point (J. Löwe, quoted equivalent to rock; but the Portuguese and Dutch settlers, being
Chem. News, xix., 1869, p. 41), convert it into ellagic acid, better fighters than philologists, connected it with the Latin galinis C147,0,+H,0, a substance which occurs in gall-nuts, in a cock, and the image of a cock was carved as a symbol of the town the external membrane of the episperm of the walnut (T. in the front of the old Government house.
L. Phipson, Chem. News, xx. p. 116), and probably many GALLIC ACID, trioxybenzoic acid, or dioxysalicylic plants, and composes the “bezoar stones” found in the acid, C8,05 + H2O or CH,(OH)3.CO(OH) + 8,0, the intestines of Persian wild goats. Gallic acid may be estiacidum gallicum of pharmacy, is a substance discovered by mated, after removal of tannic acid by gelatin, by means Scheele, which exists as such in the leaves of the bearberry, of permanganate of potassium, with which it evolves carbon in pomegranate root-bark, and in tea, in gall-nuts to the ex- dioxide, and (F. Jean, Compt. Rend., lxxxii., 1876, pp. tent of about 3 per cent., and in other vegetable productions. 982-4) by means of iodine in the presence of an alkaline It may be prepared by keeping moist and exposed to the carbonate. air for from four to six weeks, at a temperature of 20° Gallic acid hias been advantageously employed as an to 25° C., a paste of powdered gall-nuts and water, and internal medicinal agent in scarlatinal albuminuria, in which Temoving from time to time the mould which forms on its its effect appears to be due to an astringent and tonic surface; the paste is then boiled with water for twenty / action on the inflamed capillaries of the kidneys; in other micutes to obtain a solution of the gallic acid ; this is forms of albuminuria ;? in cases of chyluria, in which, filtered through calico, and the deposit of acid it affords on as not causing nausea and headache, it is preferable to cooling is drained by pressuro between folds of bibulous tannic acid ;) and in pyrosis, diarrhea, some forms of paper, and purified by dissolving in boiling water, by re- dysentery, and tabes and rickets, and atonic states of the crystallization at about 27° C., and washing of the crystals alimentary canal and of the body generally. In checking with ice-cold water. The production of the acid appears the night-sweats of phthisis it has been found of especial to be due to the presence in the galls of a forment. This service.* As a hæmostatic, when administered interually, is not contained in Chinese gall-nuts, which consequently it has proved of value in hæmatemesis, epistaxis, fungus require the addition of yeast or of common galls to deter- hæmatodes, menorrhagia, 6 and more particularly in ming the decomposition of their tannin necessary for the hæmaturia. Gallic acid has been highly recommeniled in formation of gallic acid (see C. H. Viedt, Dingler's Polyt. hæmoptysis, in which, however, ergot, from its not ocJourn., ccxvi., 1875, p. 454). Powdered gall-nuts, contain: casioning griping and constipation, or interfering with a ing 43 per cent. of tannic acid, were found by di. Sacc to liberal use of milk, has been found a better remedy:8 Jt Field 50-4 per cent of pure dry gallic acid (Compt. Rend., may be given in considerable quantities without any evil lxxii., 1871, p. 766). Gallic acid is most readily obtained by consequences. The effects of too large a dose are to render boiling with weak solution of acids the tannin procured from oak-galls by means of alcohol and etber. The changes 1 Braithwaite's Retrospect, Ixxiii., 1876, 114. which take place in this, as in the first described mode of
? Lancet, 1878, ii. 580; Med. Times, 1853, ii, 57, and 18.54, i. preparation, apparently consist in the splitting up of tannin,
594 ; accorling to Parkes (ib., 1854, ii. rp. 28, 29., frrrio chloride
is superior to it as a means of reducing the albumen in nephritis. or gallo-tannic acid, which, according to some experiments, Bence Jones, Ved. Times, 1952, ii. 65.3, au 18.33, ii. 494. is a glucoside of tannic acid, cf the formula C3, 8, 299, tó 4 Th., 1854, 591; and Brit. and Frir. Am..Chir. Pro's, 1862, give with two molecules of water two molecules of digallic.
8 Vler, Tiners, 1858. li. 373.
lb., 1862, i. 49 ; and Lancet, 1861), ii. 254. or tannic acid, C70, and glucose, C10 The former
? Willianıs, buiking's l_structs, 1862, i 73 ; and Waters. Ilinca body, which may be represented as an etheric anhydride / 1871, i. 56.
8 Willianıson, Lauert, 1876, ii. 696.
the pulse hard and wiry, and to produce pallor, a whizzing | Dardanelles, on a narrow peninsula 130 miles S.W. of sound in the ears, dizziness, and faintness. Its administra- Constantinople, and 90 miles due S. of Adrianople, in tion in a case of Bright's disease described by Dr Bence 40° 24' N. lat. and 26° 40' 30" E. long. Nearly opJones was followed by epilepsy (see Hed. T'imes, 1853, ii. posite is Lapsaki on the Asiatic side of the channel, 495). As a topical styptic application, gallic is inferior to which is here about 2 miles wide. The town of Gallipoli tanni acid. With glycerin it is combined to form the presents a miserable aspect; the streets are narrow, the pharmaceutical preparation glycerinum acidi gallici. houses mostly of wood and ill built, though there are a
GALLIENUS, P. LICINIUS (218–268), Roman emperor, few better structures near the harbour, and the Anglo son of the emperor Valerian, was born about 218. From French occupation of 1853-6 led to some improvements. 253 to 260 he reigned conjointly with his father, and gave The only. noteworthy buildings are the large, crowded, proof of both bravery and ability, especially in the defeat and well-furnished bazaars, with leaden domas. There near Milan of 300,000 Alemanni, with a force of only are several mosques, none of them remarkable, and many 10,000 Romans. When, however, his father was defeated interesting Roman and Byzantine remains, especially a and taken prisoner by Sapor, king of Persia, in 260, magazine of the emperor Justinian, a square castle and Gallienus made no effort to obtain his release, or to with tower attributed to Bajazet I., and some tumuli on the stand the incursions of the invaders who threatened the south, said to be the tombs of the Thracian kings. The empire from all sides. He occupied part of his time in lighthouse, built on a cliff, has a fine appearance as seen dabbling in literature, science, and various trifling arts, but from the Dardanelles. Gallipoli is the residence of a gave himself up chiefly to excess and debauchery. His captain-pasha and the seat of a Greek bislop. It has two generals rebelled against him in almost every province of good harbours, and is the principal station for the Turkish the empire, and this period of Roman history came to be fleet. From its position as the key of the Dardanelles, it called the reign of the thirty tyrants, although in reality the was occupied by the allied French and English armies in usurpers numbered only nineteen. Gallienus was killed at 1854. Then the isthmus a few miles to the north of the Milan in 268 while besieging Aureolus, who had been pro- town, between it and Boulair, was fortified with strong claimed emperor by the Illyrian legions.
earthworks by English and French engineers mainly on the GALLINULE. See MOORHEN,
lines of the old works constructed in 1357, when the Turks GALLIO, JUNIUS ANNÆUS, proconsul or “ deputy" of first crossed over into Europe, nearly 100 years before they Achaia at the time of the apostle Paul's first visit to gained possession of Constantinople. These fortifications Corinth (53 A.D.), was the son of M. Annæus Seneca, a were renewed and enlarged in January 1878, on the Roman eques and rhetorician, and was born at Cordova Russians threatening to take possession of Constantinople. about the beginning of the Christian era. His mother's The peninsula thus isolated by the fortified positions has name was Helvia; and L. Annæus Seneca, the philosopher, the Gulf of Saros on the N. W., and extends some 50 miles and L. Annæus Mela, the geographer, were his full brothers, to the S.W. The guns of Gallipoli command the Dardahis own proper name being İlarcus Annæus Novatus. nelles just before the strait joins the Sea of Marmom. After he had received a careful education from his father The town itself is not very strongly fortified, the prinat Cordova, he went to Rome, where he attracted the notice cipal fortifications being further down the Dardanelles, of L. Junius Gallio, a rhetorician of some repute, who ulti- where the passage is narrower. The district of Gallipoli inately adopted him, thus conferring the name by which he is exceedingly fertile and well adapted for agriculture; is usually known. The terms on which he lived with his a great variety of crops are raised, but, previous to the kindred and with the world are well illustrated in the war of 1877–8; nearly all progress was stopped on acepithet "dulcis” applied to him by Statius (Silv., ii
. 7, 32), count of the maladministration of the Turkish authorities. and by Seneca (Nat. Qu., 4 pref.-"nemo mortalium uni Nevertheless considerable quantities of the various cereals tam dulcis est quam hic omnibus "). It is probable that were exported, besides wine, oil, skins, cotton, sheep, &c., Gallio shared the misfortunes of his brother wherethe latter, much of the trade being transit. The principal imports are having incurred the enmity of Messalina, was banished to manufactured goods, coal, sugar, coffee, rice, soap, iron. The Corsica; and that both returned together to Rome when line of railway between Adrianople and the Egean Sea bas Agrippina had selected Seneca to be tutor to Nero. To been prejudicial to the transit trade of Gallipoli, and several wards the close of the reign of Claudius, Gallio received the attempts have been made to obtain concessions for the conproconsulship of the newly constituted senatorial province struction of a railway that would connect this part with the of Achaia (Acts xviii. 12), but seems to have been com- Turkish railway system. There is little industry in Gallipoli, pelled by ill health to resign the post within a few years though previous to the war attempts had been made to (Pliny, Il. N., xxxi. 33 ; Seneca, Ep. civ.). In the fifth extend and improve the manufacture of silk thread and silk year of Nero we hear of him as having been agnin in Rome goods, and some little business was done in the construction (Dio Cassius, lxi. 20, 21), and on the same authority we of coasting vessels. Steamers to and from Constantinople learn that he finally became one of the last victims of that call regularly at Gallipoli.
call regularly at Gallipoli. Widely different estimates emperor (lxii. 25). The statement of Jerome in the have been given of the population of the town; it is chronicle of Eusebius, that Junius Gallio "frater Senecæ, | probably somewhere about 25,000 or 30,000. egregius declamator, propria se manu interfecit," appears GALLIPOLI, an important seaport town of Italy, in the to be founded on a confusion of names. Seneca's works, province of Lecce, and about 25 miles N. E. of the city of De Ira and De l'ita Beata, are dedicated to Gallio, who that name, beautifully situated on a rocky islet on the east limself appears to have written some treatises in natural shore of the Gulf of Taranto, and connected by a long stone history (Sen., N. Q., v. 11). Compare Tacitus, Ann., xv. bridge of twelve arches with the suburb of Lizza on the 73 ; xvi. 17; Dio Cassius, lx. 35.
mainland. The town is well built and fortified, and bas a GALLIPOLI, the ancient Kallitodes, a seaport town castle erected by Charles I. of Anjou, a large cathedral, a of Turkey in Europe, in the province of Rumili and vilayet gymnasium, and an episcopal seminary. It is chiefly noted of Edirneh, at the north-east extremity of the Straits of for its extensive cisterns cut in the solid rock for containing On the therapeutics of gallic acid sue further R. Neale, "Clinical sides a productive tunny fishery, and manufactures muslins,
the olive oil collected from all parts of Puglia; but it has be notes upon the use of gallic aciil in various diseases,” Jedical Times, 1855, i, 158 sq.; and W. Bayes, “Ou Gallic Acid," assuciation
cotton stockings, and woollen goods. The harbour has been Medical Journal, 1954, p. 506.
improved sinco 1855 by a new mole but the entrance is still
somewhat dangerous. In 1873 there entered 350 vessels 1 GALLOWAY, THOMAS (1796-1851), a Scottish mathewith a total tonnage of 66,652 tons, 281 being Italian and matician, was born at Symington, in the upper ward of 29 British. The principal exports are oil (of which 9628 tons Lanarkshire, 26th February 1796. After receiving such were shipped in 1875), wine, oats, and cotton seed; and the education as the schools of his own and adjoining parishes imports, fish from Norway, manufactured goods from France, could give, he entered in 1812 the university of Edinburgh, petroleum from the United States, staves from Austria, where he distinguished himself specially in mathematics. and wheat and barley from Greece and Turkey. The popu- In 1823 he was appointed one of the teachers of mathelation of the town in 1871 was 7578, and of the commune matics at the military college of Sandhurst, and on the 9951. Gallipoli preserves the name and almost certainly death of Sir John Leslie in 1832 he was an unsuccessful occupies the site of the ancient Callipolis, the “ Beautiful candidate for the vacant chair of natural philosophy in City," founded, according to Dionysius, by a Spartan named Edinburgh. In the following year he was appointed Leucippus and a number of the citizens of Tarentum. actuary to the Amicable Life Assurance Office, the oldest
GALLIUM, so called in honour of France (Gallia), institution of that kind in London, and in this situation he symbol Ga, atomic weight 69.9, a metal discovered, August remained till his death, November 1, 1851. Galloway was 27, 1875, by M. Lecoq de Boisbaudran, in the spectroscopic a voluminous thongh, for the most part, an anonymous examination of zinc-blende from Pierrefitte in the valley of writer, and took a leading part in the proceedings of the Argeles, Hautes Pyrénées, and since found to exist in blende principal scientific societies of London. He contributed from several other localities, notably in that of the mines largely to the seventh edition of the Encyclopædia Britanof Lüdrich and Apfel at Bensberg, on the Rhine, which nica, and also wrote several scientific papers for the contains nearly 16 milligrammes per kilogramme. Its Edinburgh and Foreign Quarterly Reviews. His Encyclo density and approximate atomic weight, and other of its predia article “ Probability" was published separately. characters, were predicted by Mendeljeff, in accordance with GALLS. In animals galls occur mostly on or under the his law that the properties of the elementary bodies, as also skin of living mammals and birds, and are produced by the constitution and properties of their combinations, are Acaridea, and by dipterous insects of the genus (Estrus. periodic functions of their atomic weights (see article Signor Moriggial has described and figured a horny excresCHEMISTRY, vol. v. p. 543, col. 2). Gallium may be pre- cence, nearly 8 inches in length, from the back of the human pared by a process the chief features of which are the treat- hand, which was caused by Acarus domesticus. What are ment of the ore, which contains the metal in only very commonly known as galls are vegetable deformities or minute quantity, with zinc; the removal, from a hydro-excrescences, due to parenchymatous hypertrophy, and, chloric acid solution of the gelatinous precipitate thereby according to the definition of Lacaze-Duthiers, comprise pruduced, of various foreign metals by means of hydrogen "all abnormal vegetable productions developed on plants by sulphide; the fractionation of the residual liquid with the action of animals, more particularly by insects, whatsodium carbonate, gallium being thrown down before zinc ever may be their form, bulk, or situation.” For the larvæ by that reagent; the formation of a sulphate from the re- of their makers the galls provide shelter and sustenance. sultant precipitate ; and, lastly, the electrolysis of a potash The exciting cause of the hypertrophy, in the case of the solution of the purified oxide obtained therefrom, the metal typical galls, appears to be a minute quantity of some appearing on the negative platinum electrode. Solid irritating Auid, or virus, secreted by the female insect, and gallium is greyish-white, of octahedral crystallization, and deposited with her egg in the puncture made by her oviremarkably hard and resistant even at a temperature little positor in the cortical or foliaceous parts of plants. This below its melting point, and is but slightly malleable and virus causes the rapid enlargement and subdivision of the flexible, though thin plates of it will bear bending several cells affected by it, so as to form the tissues of the gall. times without breaking. . It melts when held in the fingers, Oval or larval irritation also, without doubt, plays an imits point of fusion being 30:15 C. (86°:27 Fahr.). The portant part in the formation of many galls. Though, as liquid metal is of a silvery white colour, and adheres to Lacaze-Duthiers remarks, a certain relation is necessary glass, forming a mirror resembling that of mercury. It between the "stimulus” and the "supporter of the stimexhibits in a remarkable degree the phenomenon of super- ulus," as evidenced by the limitation in the majority of fusion, but when some degrees below its melting point cases of each species of gall-insect to some one vegetable crystallizes immediately if a small fragment of the solid structure, still it must be the quality of the irritant of the metal attached to a platinum wire be inserted into it. At tissues, rather than the specific peculiarities or the part of 210.5 C. (76°.1 Fuhr.) the specific gravity of the solid the plant affected, that principally determines the nature of metal is 5.956, and of the liquid 6.069; the specific heat the gall. Thus the characteristics of the currant-gall of of the former between 124 and 23° C. is 0·079, giving Spathegaster baccarum, L., which occurs alike on the leaves atomic heat 5:52, and that of the latter between 119° and and on the flower-stalks of the oak, are obviously due to the 106° C. is 0.0802 (Berthelot, Compt. "Rend., lxxxvi. | act of oviposition, and not to the functions of the parts 786-7). At a red heat in air gallium is not perceptibly producing it; the bright red galls of the saw-fly Nematus volatilized. It is little affected by cold nitric acid, but gallicola are found on four different species of willow, Salix dissolves readily in hydrochloric acid; with potash solution fragilis, S. alba, S. caprea, and S. cinerea ;' and the galls of it liberates hydrogen. It furnishes a deliquescent and very a Cynipid, Biorhiza aptera, usually developed on the rootlets soluble chloride, GaCl, or Ga,Cla, a corresponding bromide of the oak, have been procured also from the deodar. 3 and iodide, and an ammonio-gallic alum. İts oxide is more Often the gall bears no visible resemblance to the strucsolable in ammonia than is alumina. In basicity it holds tures out of which it is developed, commonly, however, a place intermediate between aluminium and indium. It outside the larval chamber, or gall proper, and giving to the is precipitated by alkaline carbonates and barium carbonate, gall its distinctive form, are to be detected certain more or but not by bydrogen sulphide and ammonium sulphide in less modified special organs of the plant. The gall of the absence of zinc. Gallium affords two brilliant lines Cecidomyia strobilina, formed from willow-buds, is ainly the violet part of the spectrum.
.a rosette of leaves the stalks of which have had their growth See L. de Boisbaudran, in Chemical News, 1877, i. pp. 148, 157, i arrested. The small, smooth, seed-shaped gall of the 107 ; also L. de Boisbaudran and E. Jungfleisch, Compl. Rend., luxxvi., pp. 475-478 and 577-579, and Journ. Pharm. Chim., scr.
i Quoted in Zoological Record, iv., 1867, p. 192. 4, Exvii. Pp. 338-340-quoted in Phil. Mag., 1878, p. 319, ahl
· P. Cameron, Scottish Naturalist: ii. pr. 11-15. journ. Chem. Soc., "Abstracts," 1878, pp. 556 and 837.
3 Buc.nelogist, vii. I. 47.
American Cynips seminator, Harris, according to Mr W. F. tions from the larval state are completed within the gall, Bassett,1 is the petiole, and its terminal tuft of woolly hairs out of which the imago, or perfect insect, timnels its way, — the enormously developed pubescence of the young oak-leaf. usually in autumn, though sometimes, as has been observed The moss-like covering of the "bedeguars” of the wild rose, of some individuals of Cynips Kollari, after hiberuation. the galls of a Cynipid, Rhodites rosa, represents leaves which The phenomena of development in Cynips and associated genera have been developed with scarcely any parenchyma between present many features of interest:
Not fewer than 12,000 living their fibro-vascular bundles; and the “artichoke-yalls” or
Specimens of C. Kollari, Gir. (C. ligniccla, Hart.), from Devonshire "oak-strobile,” produced by A philothrix gemme, L., which Museum, and proved to be all females, as also were the flies obtained
galls, were examined by the late Mr Frederick Smith, of the British insect arrests the development of the acorn, consists of a in two successive years from some of these by breeding on isolated cupule to which more or less modified leaf-scales are attached, oak trees in the neighbourhood of London. The same observer with a peduncular, oviform, inner gall.Mr E. Newman detected among about 1200 flies of the gregarious species Aphilothriz held the view that many oak-galls are pseudobalani, or fulse representing 28 species, Hartig failed to discover any male. Von
(Cynips) raicis not a single male. In many thousands of Cynipids, to produce an acorn has been the intention of the schlectendal, on the other hand, between 24th April and 1st May oak, but the gall-fly has frustrated the attempt." Their 1871, from three galls of Rhodlites rose, L., obtained in the preformation from buds which normally would have yielded vious year, bred only 2 females and 32 males. These males were of leaves and shoots is explained by Parfitt as the outcome of l latter part of May, when the females were in larger numerical pro
the normal coloration and shape; but some which appeared in the an effort at fructification induced by oviposition, such as portion, were varieties of three kiuds, partly resembling the fomales has been found to result in several plants from injury by in coloration.8 Walsho ascertained with respect to the galls of the insect-agency or otherwise. Galls vary remarkably in size American Black Oak, that their growth conimences in May, and is and shape according to the species of their makers. The completed in a few weeks, and that near the middle of June about
a fourth of them yield both male and female fully developed gall. polythalamous gall of Aphilothrix radicis, found on the
flies of the species Cynips spongifica, Osten-Sacken. In the reroots of old oak-trees, may attain the size of a man's fist; / mainder of the galls the larvæ do not attain their pupal condition the galls of another Cynipid, Andricus occultus, Tschek, till more than two months later, and the flies tbey produce, which which occurs on the male flowers of Quercus sessiliflora, is
appear about October, are all females. This autumnal brood Las
been experimentally ascertained to cause the generation of oak2 millimetres, or barely a line, in length. Many galls are apples in the following spring on trees not previously infected. Mr brightly coloured, as, for instance, the onk-leaf hairy galls W. F. Basseit10 considers tiiat most, if not all, species of Cynips of Spathegaster tricolor, which are of a crimson hue, more
are double-brooded, and that one of the two broods consists of or less diffused according to exposure to light. The variety species, that we may reasonably suppose each to be the progenitor
females only. “There are,” he remarks, so many one-gendered of forms of galls is very great. Some are like urns or cups, of the equally numerous double-gendered species, whose relation. others lenticular. The "knoppern” galls of Cynips polycera, shijs have not yet been observed.” Gir., are cones having the broad, slightly convex, upper Among the commoner of the galls of the Cynipidæ are surface surrounded with a toothed ridge. Of the Ceylonese the “ oak-apple” or “oak-sponge” of Andricus terminalis, galls “some are as symmetrical as a composite flower when | Fab.; the “currant” or “berry galls ” of Spathegaster in bud, others smooth and spherical like a berry; some baccarum, L., above mentioned; and the “oak-spangles” protected by long spines, others clothed with yellow wool of Neuroterus lenticularis, 11 Olivi, generally reputed to be formed of long cellular hairs, others with regularly tufted fungoid growths, until the discovery of their true nature by
The characters of galls are constant, and as a rule Mr Frederick Smith ;12 and the succulent "cherry-galls” of excee lingly diagnostic, even when, as in the case of ten Dryophanta scutellaris, Oliv. The "marble” or “Devon
"] different gall-gnats of an American willow, Salix humilis, shire woody galls” of oak-buds, which often destroy the it is difficult or impossible to tell the full-grown insects that leading shoots of young trees, are produced by Cynips produce them from one another. In degree of complexity Kollari, 13 already alluded to. They were first introduced of internal structure galls differ considerably. Some arə
into Devonshire about the year 1847, had become common monothalamous, and contain but one larva of the gall-maker,
near Birmingham by 1866, and two or three years later whilst others are many-celled, and numerously inhabited.
were observed in several parts of Scotland. 14 They contain The largest class are the unilocular, or simple, external about 17 per cent. of tannin. 15 On account of their regular galls, divided by Lacaze-Duthiers into those with and those form they have been used, threaded on wire, for making without a superficial protective layer or rind, and composed ornamental baskets. The large purplish Mecca or Bussorah of hard, or spongy, or cellular tissue. In a common gall-nut galls, 10 prorluced on a species of oak by Cynips insana, that authority distinguished seven constituent portions :- Westw., have been regarded by many writers as the Dead an epiderniis ; a subdermic cellular tissue; a spongy and a Sea fruit, macl-apples (mala insana), or apples of Sodom hard layer, composing the parenchyma proper; vessels (poma sodomiticu), alluded to by Josephus and others, which, without forming a complete investment, underlie the which, however, are stated by E. Robinson (Bibl. Researches parenchyma; a hard protective layer; and lastly, within in Palestine, vol. i. pp. 522-4, 3d ed., 1867) to be the that, an alimentary central mass inhabited by the growing singular fruit called by the Arabs 'Ösher, produced by the larva.
Asclepias gigantea or procera of botanists. What in CaliGalls are formed by insects of several orders. Among fornia are known as "fea seeds are oak-galls made by a the Hymenoptera are the gall-wasps (Cynips and its allies), which infect the various species of oak. They are small ? Zvologist, xix., 1861, pr. 7330-3. insects, having straigbt antennæ, and a compressed, usually
8 Jahresber. des Vereins f. Naturk. zu Zwickau, 1871, p. 34. very short abdomen, with the second, or second and third
American Entomologist, i., 1868, p. 103,
10 Proc. Entom. Soc. of London for the year 1873, p. xv. segments greatly developed, and the rest imbricated, and 1 According to. Dr Adler, alternation of generations takes place beconcealing the partially coiled ovipositor. The transforma- tween N. lenticularis and Southegaster baccarum (see E. A. Ormero),
Entomologist, xi. p. 34). See in Proc. Entom. Soc. of London for the year 1873, p. xvi. 12 See Westwood, Introd. to the Mod. Classif. of Insects, ii., 1840, ? See A. Müller, Gardener's Chronicle, 1871, pp. 1162 and 1518 ; and E. A. Fitch, Entomologist, xi. p. 129.
For figures and descriptions of insect and gali, see Entomologist. 3 Entomologist, vi. pp. 275-8, 339-40.
iv. p. 17 ; vii. p. 241 ; ix. p. 53 ; xi. p. 131. Perlanıll. d. zoolog..bot. Ges. in Wien, xxi. p. 799.
11 Scottish Naturalist, i, 1871, p. 116, &c. 5 Darwin, Variations of Animals and Plants under Domestication, 15 Vinen, Journ. de Pharm. et de Chim., XXX., 1856. R. 290; vi, p. 282.
English Ink-Galls," Pharm. Journ., 2d ser., iv. 520. Recherches pour servir à l'Histoire des Gallcs," Ann. des Sci. 16 See Pereira, Materia Medicct, vol. ii. pt. i. p. 347; Pharm. Viet.. xix. I'r. 293 891.
Journ., 1st ser., vol vili. PP 422-4