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which should be as hard as possible. Watch-spring steel is sometimes used, and file steel is recommended by some authorities. The hardness is important for two reasons,in the first place, to ensure that the permanent magnetism of the needle shall not alter. This is of small importance where permanent deflections are to be observed, provided we can be sure that the direction of the magnetic axis does not alter. In the second place the induced magnetism is less in hard than in soft steel, though not so much less as 'some writers would lead us to suppose. The best way of avoiding induced magnetism would be to make the needle spherical in form; the advantage thus gained, however, would in most cases be counterbalanced by other defects. The form of the needle has been much varied by different constructors. In the earlier instruments they were made very long, and were suspended like compass needles by means of a jewelled cup playing on a steel point. We have heard on good authority that for some purposes, such as mounting tangent galvanometer needles, this method of suspension, if carefully carried out, really answers very well. By far the most usual mode of suspension, however, is by means of a raw silk fibre, or by a bundle of such fibres. Weber introduced the use of heavy magnets whose moment of inertia and time of oscillation were great. For many purposes such needles have great advantages-where, for instance, the time of oscillation, the logarithmic decrement, or the extent of swing of the needle has to be observed. Where, on the contrary, the galvanometer is to be used merely as an indicator, particularly in detecting transient currents, a light needle of small moment of inertia should be used. Continental constructors, no doubt unduly influenced by a reverence for Weber's methods, have failed to realize this; and we have seen few, if indeed any, instruments by them really well suited for measuring resistances with the Wheatstone's bridge. This principle has been carried farthest in the galvanometers of Sir William Thomson, in some of which the needle with all its appurtenances weighs little over a grain.

In some galvanometers (e.g., certain telegraphic reading instruments) the needle is movable about a horizontal axis, and is weighted so as to be vertical in its undisturbed position. Owing to the friction at the points where the axis is supported, this method of suspension is useless for sensitive instruments.

3. When, as is usual, the galvanometer magnet is movable in a horizontal plane, the force which balances the electromagnetic force of the current in the multiplier is the horizontal component of the earth's magnetic force. Each of these forces is proportional to the magnetic moment of the galvanometer needle, and consequently the ratio of the forces, on which depends the magnitude of the deflexion of the needle, is independent of the magnetic moment of the needle. We cannot therefore increase the sensitiveness of the galvanometer by simply increasing the magnetic moment of the needle. The action of the earth can, however, be counteracted, and the needle rendered more or less astatic in one or other of two ways.

One way is to fix on the same axis of suspension two parallel magnets, whose magnetic moments are as nearly as possible equal, and which are turned opposite ways. The whole system is suspended so that one of the magnets swings inside the multiplier and the other over it, as in fig. 2. In more modern instruments, such as those constructed by Messrs Elliot Brothers, the multiplier consists of two equal coils placed one vertically over the other, each enclosing one of the magnets of the astatic system, as in fig. 3. Another method is to place a magnet, or a system of magnets, in the neighbourhood of the galvanometer, so as to counteract the earth's force. In general, one magnet will suffice, placed vertically under or over the galvanometer, in the magnetic

meridian, its north pole of course pointing north. For convenience this magnet should be mounted on a vertical graduated rod, with a rough and a fine adjustment. In adjusting the sensitiveness of the galvanometer, it will be useful to recollect that the couple tending to bring the needle back to its position of equilibrium varies directly as the square of the number of oscillations which the needle executes in a given time when no current is passing through the multiplier. As the astatizing magnet is brought nearer and nearer to the galvanometer, the oscillations of the needle will be seen to become slower and slower, till at last the equilibrium becomes unstable, and the needle turns round through 180°; after which, on causing the magnet to approach still farther, the rapidity of oscillation increases. If the damping be very strong, and the mirror very light, an intermediate stage called the aperiodic state is passed through.

Fig. 2.

4. The normal position of the magnetic axis of the needle, when no current is passing, is parallel to the windings of the multiplier. It is particularly necessary that it should be in this position when the galvanometer is being used as a measuring instrument, and it is advisable in any case, since this is the position in which for a given current the Fig. 3. electromagnetic action on the needle is greatest. The final adjustment might of course be made by moving the multiplier, but it is far more convenient to move the needle, a magnet being used for the purpose. Sometimes the astatizing magnet is used, but it is better to have a much weaker magnet for the fine adjustment, suspended like the astatizer on a vertical axis, having a vertical motion and a motion of rotation. It is better still to use a magnet placed with its axis in the axis of the multiplier, so that it can be slid backwards and forwards at pleasure. We have seen two such magnets placed side by side, with their north and south and their south and north poles together; this gives a differential adjustment which is very convenient. The main advantage of placing magnets in this way is that we can alter the direction of the lines of force with a minimum effect on the strength of the magnetic field.

5. The graduation or reading apparatus in the older instruments consisted of a pointer or index fixed to the magnet (very often it was the magnet itself), playing over a circular graduation centred as nearly as possible in the axis of rotation of the needle. The mirror method of reading which prevails in most modern instruments was originally suggested by Poggendorff, and carried out in practice by Gauss and Weber. A mirror is rigidly attached to the magnet, so that the reflecting face passes as nearly as possible through the vertical axis of rotation of the needle. The glass of the mirror should be very thin, otherwise s greater or less correction for its thickness will be necessary. In the subjective method of reading, a scale is fixed before the mirror, which is usually plane (it must be well made to

1 This is not exactly true where there is damping: but the rule is sufficient for ordinary purposes.

be of any use), and the image of the scale is observed by | coil is of flat, rectangular shape, with a narrow central meins of a telescope fixed over or under the centre of the opening just large enough to allow one of the magnets of scale. The scale divisions are scen to pass the wires of the the astatic system telescope, and if a circular scale be used, whose centre is in to swing freely. the axis of suspension of the mirror, the difference between The other magnet the numbers on the cross wires in any two positions of the swings over a gramagnet is a measure of twice the deflection of the magnet. duated circle placed A correction is necessary when a straight scale is used. The on the top of the reader who has occasion to use the method will find prac- coil, and serves also tical instructions, with tables of corrections, iu Wiedemann's as an index. SomeGalvanismus, Bd. ii. sec. 181 897.; Maxwell's Electricity times a mirror aud and Magnetism, vol. ii. sec. 450 sqq. In the objective scale are substituted method, which is more usually practised in this country, the for the index and mirror is concave, and reflects the image of a fixed illumin- graduated circle. nted slit (often furnished with a vertical wire where greater The sole on which accuracy is desired) upon a graduated scale. The readings the coil stands is are proportional to double the deflexion of the needle, or movable on a fixed to the tangent of the double deflexion, according as the piece which can be scale is circular or straight. levelled by means of three screws. ́A graduation is often furnished to measure the angle of rotation of the coil about vertical

There is


Fra. 4.-Astatic multiplier.

6. By damping is meant the decrease of the extent of the oscillations of the galvanometer needle arising from the dissipation of energy through the resistance of the air, the action of currents induced in neighbouring metallic circuits, the viscosity of the suspension fibre, and so on. always more or less damping owing to the first two causes, and possibly the third; but in many cases, where it is de-axis; this is useful when the galvanometer has to be sirable that the oscillations should subside very quickly, the graduated or corrected for the torsion of the fibre. damping is purposely increased. In the older instruments the damping arrangement consisted of masses of copper surrounding the magnet. This is carried to the extreme in Wiedemann's tangent galvanometer, where the needle is ring-shaped, and swings in a ring-shaped cavity not much larger than itself, in the heart of a mass of copper. In the dead-beat galvanometers of Sir William Thomson the magnet with its attached mirror is enclosed in a fat cell, in which it can just movo freely to the required extent. The damping, due to the pumping of the air backwards and forwards round the edges of the mirror, is so great that the needle swings off to its position of equilibrium, and remains there without oscillating at all. The same result is attained in Varley's construction by immersing the needle in a cell filled with liquid.

7. The box of shunts is simply a set of resistances; generally there are three,-th,th, hudth of the resistance of the multiplier. When it is required to reduce the sensibility of the galvanometer, the terminals of one of these, say the th, are connected with the terminals of the multiplier; we thus have a multiple arc in place of the galvanometer, and the current is divided between its branches in the ratio of their conductivities, so that onehundredth1 of the whole current flows through the galvanometer. By means of such a box as we have described, we can therefore send through the galvanometer the whole of any current, or the tenth, hundredth, or thousandth part. It must not be forgotten that the introduction of the shunt diminishes the whole resistance of the galvanometer circuit. In most cases, however, this is of little moment; where necessary, the alteration may be either compensated or allowed for.

Sensitive Galvanometers.-In galvanometers of this class everything is disposed so as to bring the greatest possible number of turns of wire into the neighbourhood of the needle. The needle is therefore made as small and compact as possible, and the windings embrace it as closely as posBible, the opening in the centre of the coil being reduced to a minimum. The astatic multiplier (fig. 4) is an instrument of this kind which was formerly much used. The

1 See art. ELECTRICITY, P. 43.

Egin above case by introducing into the galvanometer circuit ths, ths, ths, respectively of the resistance of the multiplie

In the galvanometers of Sir William Thomson, which are the most sensitive hitherto constructed, the central opening of the coil is circular, being just large enough to allow free play to a small concave mirror a centimetre or so in diameter. Usually the coil is wound in two halves, which can be screwed together with a septum between them, in which is placed the arrangement for suspending the mirror and magnets. In dead-beat instruments the coil is often wound in a single piece, and tho mirror is arranged in a cell, glazed back and frout, and fitted into a tube which

slides into the core of the coil.

Fig. 5 represents a very convenient form of Thomson's

Fra. b.-Form of Thomson's Galvanometer.

galvanometer, the only specimen of its kind we have seen. The peculiarity of its construction consists in the connexion between the scale and the galvanometer, which saves much trouble in adjusting the instrument. It was constructed by Elliot Brothers for the British Association Committee vided with a high and low resistance coil, would meet all on Electrical Standards. Such a galvanometer as this, prothe wants of most laboratories.

In another form called the marine galvanometer, the mirror is strung on a fibre stretched between two fixed

points. In order to keep the needle from being influenced

3 This arrangement is that adopted by White of Glasgow in the galvanometers made by him after Sir Wm. Thonison's pattern,


by the rolling of the ship, its centre of gravity is carefully adjusted so as to be in the axis of suspension. The mirror is enclosed in a narrow cell which just allows it room to deflect to the required extent, and damps the oscillation so effectually that the instrument is "dead beat." In order to destroy the directive action of the earth, the inconvenience of which in a galvanometer for use on board ship is obvious, the case of this galvanometer is made of thick soft iron, which completely encloses the whole, leaving only a small window for the ingress and egress of the ray of light by means of which the motions of the mirror are read; a flat horse-shoe magnet placed on the top of the case still farther overpowers the earth's force and directs the mirror.

All these galvanometers may, of course, be wound double and used differentially. When this is the case, a small auxiliary compensating coil is often used to correct the inequality of the magnetic fields due to the two sets of windings. This auxiliary coil is usually mounted on a spindle in the axis of the main coil, and can be moved backwards and forwards till a current passing through it and one set of windings in one direction, and through the other set of windings in the other direction, does not sensibly deflect the mirror.

The astatic arrangement described above (p. 51, fig. 4) is ofter adopted. A galvanometer of this construction by Elliot Brothers is shown in fig. 6. It may be questioned, however, whether for ordinary purposes the additional sensibility thus gained compensates for the increased complexity and cost of the instrument.


Standard Galvanometers.— When galvanometers are intended for measuring currents, there must be some law connecting the indications of the needle with the strength of the current in the multiplier. is therefore of great importance that slight variations in the position of the magnet should not introduce large or irregular (incalculable) variations into the indications of the instrument. Accordingly in standard instruments the windings are much farther removed from the magnet than in sensitive galvanometers, and in the best forms the multiplier is so disposed that it produces a uniform field of magnetic force around the needle.

Fig. 6.-Elliot's Astatic Galvanometer.

The earliest forms of standard galvanometer were the tangent and sine compasses invented by Pouillet. The first of these consists simply of a single vertical coil of wire, with a magnet suspended at its centre, whose deflexion may be read in any of the various ways already described. If the length of the magnet be very small, the magnetic field in its neighbourhood may be regarded as uniform, and the electromagnetic couple will be proportional to cos 0, 0 being the deflexion from the plane of the windings. If the windings be arranged so as to be in the magnetic meridian, the couple due to the earth's action tending to bring the magnet back to its position of equilibrium will be proportional to sin 0, hence the current strength will be proportional to tan 0.

1 This can be done most easily by means of a mirror attached to the multiplier and adjusted so as to be parallel to the windings.

If the multiplier be movable about a vertical axis through angles which can be measured in any way, the instrument may be used as a sine compass. The current is applied and the multiplier turned round after the magnet until the axis of the latter is again parallel to the windings. The current strength is now clearly proportional to sin, where 0 is the deflexion of the multiplier from the magnetic meridian. When the instrument is used in this way, the needle being always brought into the same position relative to the windings, the uniformity of the magnetic field is a matter of indifference, and there is no necessity for the needle to be short.


Gaugain attempted to improve the tangent galvanometer by suspending the magnet excentrically at a point in the axis of the coil distant from the centre by half the radius of the coil. This, however, is in reality the reverse of an improvement.2

A real advance, however, was made by Helmholtz, who placed two equal parallel and vertical coils, one on each side of the magnet, each at a distance from it equal to half the common radius. In fig. 19, at the end of his second volume, Maxwell gives a diagram of the lines of force due to two equal parallel circular circuits, from which it will be seen that the magnetic field at the centre of such an arrangement of currents is very approximately uniform. This approximation may be carried


channels cut in a cylindrical block

The wire is wound in two parallel of hard wood, each an inch broad and an inch deep. The radius of inch, and the distance between drical perforation in the core of the multiplier is 1 inch in diameter-large enough to allow the needle to swing freely without causing irregular air currents, &c. screwed two caps containing a plano-convex lens respectively, the former for subjective, the latter for objective reading. By means

the bottom of each channel is one them is half an inch. The cylin

still farther by adding a third FIG. 7.-Galvanometer designed coil parallel to the two others, by Professor Maxwell. and equidistant from them. In some examples of Helmholtz's galvanometer the windings are arranged on a conical surface, so that the ratio of the radius of each to the distance of its plane from the centre of the magnet shall be 2:1. In reality this is unnecessary, provided the ratio of the depth and breadth of the usual rectangular channel be properly adjusted (see Maxwell, vol. ii. sec. 713). Fig. 7 represents a galvanometer of the kind, described.

Into the ends of the core are

piece of plane parallel glass and a

of a slit and screw in the stem which supports the instrument, a horizontal bar can be fixed parallel

to the axis of the multiplier. On mounted, so that the galvanometer

this a deflecting magnet can be can be used as a magnetometer.

Reduction of Galvanometer Indications.-When the position of every layer of wire in the multiplier is known with sufficient accuracy, and the multiplier arranged so as to produce a sensibly uniform field, the electromagnetic action per unit of current can be calculated for every position of the magnet. In this case the galvanometer is an absolute instrument. When we possess one absolute instrument it is easy to evaluate the indications of any other in absolute measure by means of it; we have only to pass the same current through both galvanometers in series and compare the readings. The best way, however, to construct a standard galvanometer is to provide for uniformity of field in the core of the multiplier, and find the resultant electromagnetic force for unit current, or, as it is called, the constant of the instrument, by comparison with a pair of equal standard coils of large diameter (18 in. to 24 in.). These are arranged vertically on the same axis, the distance between them being equal to the mean radius, just as in Helmholtz's galvanometer. The galvanometer to be tested is placed symmetrically between the

See Maxwell, Electricity and Magnetism, vol. ii. secs. 712. 718.

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H being the horizontal component of the earth's magnetic force. In many cases it is necessary to correct for the torsion of the suspending fibre. The value of this correction is easily found by turning the multiplier through 90° either way, and observing how far the needle follows it. The reader will find all necessary details in Maxwell, vol. ii., secs. 452, 742.

In all cases where great accuracy is required it is advisable to graduate, or, as it is sometimes said, to calibrate the galvanometer, that is, to compare the electromagnetic couple exerted by the multiplier when the needle is deflected through an angle with that when the needle is parallel to the windings. It is easy to see that this may be done by means of the arrangement described above for finding the constant of a galvanometer. If the object simply is to calibrate the galvanometer without reducing its indications to absolute measure, the standard coils may be replaced by a single coil of sufficient magnetic moment placed in the axis of the multiplier. Another method of calibration, which is simpler, and in some respects more satisfactory, although possibly more laborions, will be understood from fig. 9. The resistance a is equal to the

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resistance of the galvanometer, and they can be rapidly interchanged. By adjusting f the ratio of the currents in the branches. of the multiple are may be varied as we please, and by varying e the current in one of the branches can always be brought to a standard strength, say that which produces unit deflexion of the galvanometer needle. We can thus, by repeatedly interchanging a and b, compare the deflexions produced by a series of currents whose strengths are given multiples of the standard strength. If the experimenter has two galvanometers at his disposal the interchanges inay of course be avoided.

On the Use of the Galvanometer.-We may add a few remarks on the different uses to which a galvanometer may be put.

Detection of Currents.-One of the commonest of all the uses of a galvanometer is to indicate the currents sent through telegraph wires or cables. In the case of submarine cables, where the currents are often very feeble, dead-beat galvanometers of Thomson's or Varley's construction are used.

When a current is to be detected which produces a very small or quite insensible permanent deflexion, the following process, called the method of multiplication, is sometimes used. The period of oscillation of the needle is first found; then, the needle being at rest or only swinging through a very small arc, the current is applied 1 See for such calculations Maxwell, vol. ii., chaps. xiv. and xv. Or the piece to which the fibre is attached, if it is not rigidly attached to the multiplier.

through half the period of oscillation so as to urge the needle in the direction in which it is going, then intermitted for half a period, then applied again, and so on. If a current in the supposed direction really exist, the oscillations of the magnet will gradually increase, until the energy supplied by the intermittent action of the current is equal to that wasted by the damping of the needle.

It is obvious that this process is more effective the smaller the damping of the needle; it leads to no advantage whatever with a dead-beat instrument.

Resistance Measuring. In comparing resistances, sensitive galvanometers of Sir William Thomson's construction are by far the most convenient; the dead-beat arrangement is essential for rapid work.

If a differential galvanometer of given dimensions be used (see art. ELECTRICITY, p. 44), and if the resistance of the battery is negligible compared with the other resistances used, the wire with which it is wound should be chosen so that its resistance is onethird of the resistance to be measured.

It is shown in the art. ELECTRICITY (p. 44) that, in arranging a Wheatstone's bridge to measure a given resistance, all the arms of the bridge and the battery and galvanometer should have equal resistances. As a rule, all these are not at our disposal. If the resistances of the arms and of the battery are given, and the resistance of the galvanometer (of given dimensions) is at our disposal, then the resistance of the galvanometer ought to be equal to that of the multiple arc which remains between the terminals of the galvanometer when the battery is disconnected from the bridge. This may be deduced at once from the expression given in vol. viii. P. 44.

Again, the resistance to be measured and the battery and galvanometer resistance being given, we may inquire what is the best arrangement of the arms of the bridge.

Differentiating the expression given in vol. viii. p. 44 with respect to y and z, we get

BG—y2z2R2=z { y2(R+G)R−G(R+B)},
BG=y2z2R2=y { c2(R+B)R−B(R+G)};

the solution of which is obviously

y=/G(R+B) R(R+G)


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R+G R+B'

whence we havo sRG T=/RB and U=√BG,— determining the resistances of the disposable arms.

It appears that, when B and G are given, the resistance of the arm opposite to the resistance to be measured ought always to be the geometric mean between B and G.6

In a certain class of observations a needle with large moment of inertia is used. The methods in use are mostly due to Gauss and Weber. For an account of these methods the reader is referred to Maxwell, chap. xvi. He should also consult a paper by Du Bois Reymond in Monatsber. d. Berl. Acad., 1869-70. (G. CH.)


(ALVESTON, the largest and most extensively commercial city of the state of Texas, United States of America, is situated 340 miles west of the mouth of the South Pass of the Mississippi River, on Galveston Island, at the opening of the Bay of Galveston into the Gulf of Mexico. It is situated in latitude 29° 18′ north, and 94° 47′ west longitude. It is about two miles from the north-east corner of the island, which projection is known as Fort Point. It is a port

of entry, and the principal seaport city of the state. Galveston is the county seat of Galveston County, of which the largest portion is on the main land, separated from the city and island by East and West Bays. The land is low and sandy and lies quite level. The island is long and narrow, extending parallel with the shore, in a north-easterly and south-westerly direction, for the distance of 28 miles, having an average width of about two miles.

Excellent opportunities are found for surf bathing on the beach, and for most beautiful drives during the periods of low tide. Bolivar Peninsula runs out from the main land to within two miles of Fort Point, and at the head of the peninsula is Bolivar Point lighthouse. The Galveston harbor is the best on the coast line of Texas. It has more than twelve and threefourths feet of water over the bar at low tide. This bar stretches across the entrance to the bay and has been formed and maintained by the sand moved by the constant undertow of waves and currents.

Trinity River flows into the northern end of the bay, and San Jacinto River and Buffalo Bayou empty into it a little further south. The mean rise and fall of the tide is a little over one foot, but spring tides rise as high as three feet above and fall two feet below the mean low-water mark. Under the influence of heavy winds and storms, the rise has been as high as nine feet.

The harbor at Galveston, having a depth at its entrance at the present time of nearly fourteen feet, is the best harbor on the entire gulf coast from the mouth of the Mississippi to the Rio Grande. It is also believed to be the one most susceptible of such improvements as would constitute a harbor of the first class. Its superiority to the other ports of Texas is clearly indicated by the coast survey charts and by the fact that the principal railroads of this State extend to Galveston or connect with railroads terminating at that point. The value of railroad properties in the State of Texas is about one hundred and sixty millions of dollars. This large expenditure of private capital in supplying means of internal transportation in Texas, expresses faith in the resources of this State, and emphasizes the importance of securing for it a firstclass seaport. Such expenditure stands also as the strongest endorsement of any practical plan for the accomplishment of that object. The proposed improvement of the entrance to the port of Galveston would constitute a connecting link between this great system of internal transportation and the ocean. nature's great free highway of commerce. If the proposed depth of thirty feet at the entrance to the port of Galveston can be secured, that port would become the nearest and most accessible first class seaport for the States of Texas. Kansas and Colorado, the Indian Territory and the Territories of New Mexico and Arizona, and parts of the States and Territories adjoining those just mentioned. The central portions of the State of Kansas are about equidistant from Chicago and Galveston. If the harbor of Galveston shall be so improved as to admit the entrance of vessels of the largest size, th various railroads connecting this city with Arkansas, Western Mis ouri, Western Iowa, Kansas, Nebraska, Colorado, and New Mexico, will become active competitors with the railroads extending east, not only with respect to trade with Europe, but also with respect to the trade between the area referred to and the chief Atlantic seaports.

The coast line of Texas from Sabine Pass to the Rio Grande, measures about 375 statute miles. In this distance there are four points which are now receiving the attention of the government with a view to harbor improvement, viz: Sabine Pass at the eastern extremity of the line; Brazos Santiago at the western extremity; Galveston, 65 miles from the eastern extremity, and Aransas Pass, 138 miles from the western extremity. The area of water in the Galveston harbor, 24 feet deep, is 1,304 acres, thirty feet deep, 463 acres, and a considerable acreage of 40 and 50 feet depth.

It is thus seen that the natural advantages which created Galveston and made her the principal port of the State still exist to maintain her pre-eminence.

The old south jetty has been built up to a height of five feet above mean low tide to a distance of 4,550 feet seaward, and connected with the shore by a wall of ordinary riprap 1,100 feet long, sloping gradually downward to the level of the ground, which is about six inches above mean low tide. The work of extending the jetty seaward was continued until July 17, 1888, when it was suspended for lack of funds. Additional funds having been provided in the River and Harbor act of August 11, 1888, work was resumed October 15, 1888, under a new contract, dated October 15, 1888. During the year a shore branch 8,464 feet long was constructed to connect the former work with the relatively high ground upon which Galveston is built. The object of this work is twofold, viz: to furnish a secure anchorage point for the south jetty, and a'so to improve the Galveston channel. The total length of the railway upon the crest of the jetty, including that built upon the trestle in advance of the stonework, is 17,375 feet. The level of mean low tide was five inches higher for the year 1888 than the level fixed for that plane in 1872.

The number of steam vessels entered at the port of Galveston for the year ending June 30th, 1887, was 250; number of sail vessels entered was 295. Total number of vessels 546. The tonnage

of all vessels was 446,711 tons. The total value of their cargo was $27,903,000, and they carried 3,000 passengers. The number of steam vessels cleared was 256. The number of sail vessels cleared was 238. Total number of vessels 494.

The tonnage of vessels cleared was 444.801 tons, valued at $73,874,701. The majority of vessels draw fifteen to twenty feet of water when fully loaded.

In addition to these there is a large number of small schooners, drawing five feet or less, engaged in the coasting trade.

The first settlement of Galveston was made in 1837. From 1817 to 1821 it had been the haunt of the famous pirate Lafitte, who was finally dislodged from the island in the latter year. The city is handsomely laid out upon ground which lies very even, elevated six or eight feet above the sea level. Its streets are straight, broad, and elegant; those running parallel with the bay are desig nated as avenues, and those at right angles simply as streets. The avenues are called by the letters of the alphabet, beginning on the bay front, and thestreets are numbered first, second, etc. The public building, containing the post office and United States court house. stands at the crossing of 20th street and avenue "F." The avenues between this building and the bay are devoted to shipping and wholesale business, retail stores, shops, restaurants, hotels, banks and offices. Broadway, or avenue "J," is the most beautiful residence avenue of Galveston, and is considered the St. Charles of the city. Like some other southern cities. Galveston has been laid out upon a generous plan. Avenue "J" is 150 feet wide. An es planade 36 feet in width runs through the middle, and its sidewalks are 16 feet wide on either side. The next street in point of width is Bath street, which is 120 feet wide. All the other streets are 80 feet wide and the avenues are 70 feet wide; all have side

walks 16 feet in width. A shell road runs from the bay to the beach, which is called Fremont street. If is a favorite resort, as well as the beach, for driving. The streets are not paved, though the sidewalks in the center of the city are paved either with concrete or asphalt; or laid with brick or tile.

Galveston has a number of churches and schools of various kinds, an opera house and seven public halls. There are two libraries, two theaters, three market places and fourteen hotels of various grades. In the line of public buildings Galveston has a postoffice, custom house, United States Court house, a County Court house, a county and city prison and a city hall. The churches number 15, and the schools, of all kinds, 30. It is also the see of the Bishops of the Roman Catholic Church for that diocese. Galveston has several foundries, flour and planing mills and machine shops. The wharves are good, and there are several ship-building yards, and cotton-presses. Papers, daily and weekly. as well as bi-weekly and tri-weekly, are published. There are two railroad bridges across West Bay-one two miles long-connecting the island with the main land, but no highway bridges have as yet been built. Cotton and cotton-seed oil form the great bulk of the foreign exports, which exceeded $17,000,000 in 1887. The foreign imports for the same year reached $1,765,612.

The following is a statement for 1878, 1879 and 1880 of the receipts from duties on imports and other sources, such as "tonnage tax," "hospital tax," etc.

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The value of imports from foreign countries for the years 1877 and 1878 was $1,357,4-8 and $1,357,488 respectively. These imports consist mainly of coffee, woolen and cotton goods, and iron goods.

Galveston has railway communications with all parts of the country, and by lines of steamships with Liverpool, New York. New Orleans, and the ports of Texas as far as the Mexican b: undary. These vessels engage to a large extent in direct trade with Great Britain and the continent of Europe, in the coffee trade with Rio Janeiro, and in the West Indies and Mexican trade. There are six cotton presses, with warehouses and yards occupying more than 40 acres of ground and storing more than 100,000 bales of cotton. There are ten miles of street railroads in the city; one savings bank and national banks with a capital of more than $800,000, and a paid up capital of $300,000. Galveston's taxable values were $21,000,000 in 1889. Galveston has not been visited by any epidemic disease since the yellow fever scourge of 1867. In other respects it is considered a most healthful city. possessing a delightful climate, and in every way is an inviting city to live in, affording abundant opportunities for business and pleasure.

The following table shows the rainfall, temperature and barometric pressure.

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The population for 1850 was 4,177. In the next ten years it nearly doubled, so that the census for 1860 shows a population of 7,307; for 1870, 13,818; for 1880, 24,121.

Galveston is, without a doubt, destined to become one of the most important shipping ports of the United States. It is connected with the great railroad lines running into the interior and Northwest, and under proper management will afford a cheaper outlet for that great country than the overland railroad route. The great demand now is for improved harbor facilities. The people of Texas and Galveston recognize this demand, and at their earnest instigation the government is taking hold of the matter with vigor. An improved harbor is all that is required. Nature has done all that is possible to be done in furnishing shelter and protection and abundance of space. The competition that an excellent harbor would encourage, would build up still more rapidly this already fast growing city of our Southwest.

This competition would assert itself not only in the transportation of the products of the interior by way of Galveston, but also, and perhaps to a greater extent and more beneficially, in the regulating influence which it would exert over the rates charged by all the east and west railroads extending from Chicago to the Atlantic seaboard. The magnitude of the advantages which would be thus afforded to the commercial and industrial interests of the country, it is impossible accurately to compute or even approximately estimate, but the great importance of such advantages is clearly apparent. In view of the vast area of country, the commercial and industrial interests of which would be directly subserved by the proposed improvement in the harbor of Galveston. and by the fact that such improvement would also, through competition, directly benefit a very large proportion of the whole country, it appears proper to characterize that project as a work of great national importance.

About $1,500,000 were wasted by the government prior to the

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