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and as in the Hunter and Dog; indulged, as scarcely before and day-dreams, of prophecy and prayer. He became an seen in the same intensity in the whole range of sculpture, ardent student and disciple of Jacob Boehme, r:hose works as in the meeting of Hero and Leander, a drawing executed he published in 1682 (Amsterdam, ? vols.); but before the before he left England. Gibson's power of drawing may time of his death, which occurred January 21, 1710, he had be pronounced to have been unsurpassed by any modern. attracted to himself a small band of followers known as He had an iron hand, and used the pen in rapid action with Gichteliaus or Angelic Brethren, who propagated certain as much certainty as if it had been the graver. Nowhere views at which lie had arrived independently of Boehme. is the fire of his genius so unmistakably seen as in these Seeking ever to hear the authoritative voice of God within first-hand productions. Nor can we wonder that marble, them, and endeavouring to attain to a life altogether free however highly wrought, could never entirely compensate from carnal desires, like that of “the angels in heaven, who for what was necessarily lost in the translation. Gibson neither marry nor are given in marriage,” they claimed to was the first to introduce colour on his statues,-.first, as exercise a priesthood “after the order of Melchizedek," a mere border to the drapery of a portrait statue of the appeasing the wrath of God, and ransoming the souls of the Queen, and by degrees extended to the entire flesh, as in his lost by sufferings endured vicariously after the example of Venus, and in the Cupid tormenting the Soul, belonging to Christ. The sect, never a numerous one, is said-still to Mr Holford. In both of these it amounts to no more than subsist in some districts of Holland and North Germany. the slightest tint. Gibson's individuality was too strongly Gichtel's correspondence was published without his knowmarked to be affected by any outward circumstances. In ledge by Gottfried Aruold, a disciple, in 1701 (2 vols.), and all worldly affairs and business of daily life he was simple again in 1708 (3 vols.). It has been frequently reprinted and guileless in the extreme; but he was resolute in under the title Theosophia Practica. The seventh volume matters of priuciple, determined to walk straight at any of the Berlin edition (1768) contains a notice of Gichtel's cost of personal advantage. Unlike most artists, he was life. neither nervous nor irritable iu temperament. It was said GIDEON, liberator, reformer, and “judge" of Israel, of him that he made the heathen mythology his religion ; was the youngest son of Joash, of the “house" of Abiezer, and indeed in serenity of nature, feeling for the beautiful, and tribe of Manasseh, and had his home at Ophrah, the and a certain philosophy of mind, he may be accepted as site of which is probably to be sought westward of Jordad, a type of what a pure-minded Greek pagan, in the zenith somewhat to the south of the plain of Jezreel. Gideon lived of Greek art, may have been. Gibson was elected R.A. in at a time when Israel, grown idolatrous, had been biought 1836, and bequeathed all his property and the contents of very low by periodic incursions of the “Midianites” and his studio to the Royal Acadeiny, where his marbles and “Amalekites," nomad tribes from the east of Jordan, who casts are open to the public. He died at Rome in January in great numbers were wont to overrun the country, destroy1866.

ing all that they could not carry away. In the beginning The letters between Gibson and Mrs Henry Sandbach, grand of the narrative of his public life he is represented as an daughter of Mr Roscoe, and a sketch of his life that lady induceil

unambitious man, quietly engaged in agricultural pursuits, him to write, furnish the chief materials for his biography. A volume of engravings from his finished works renders them very

who yet had already distinguished himself as a "mighty indifferent justice. A volume of facsimiles from his drawings is man of valour,” probably in guerilla warfare against the more worthy of him.

(E. E.) common foe. According to that narrative, his first exploit GICHTEL, JOHANN Georg (1638–1710), founder of worthy of special commemoration was the destruction, by the inystic sect of Gichtelians or Angelic Brethren, was born divine command, of the altar of Baal belonging to his father, at Ratisbon, where his father was a member of senate, on and of the Ashera beside it, and the substitution of an the 14th of March 1638. Having acquired at school, besides altar to Jehovah. But immediately before this he had also an ordinary elementary education, a considerable acquaiut- been summoned by “ the angel of the Lord” to undertake, ance with Greek, Hebrew, Syriac; and even Arabic, he in dependence on supernatural direction and help, the work proceeded to Strasburg to study divinity; but finding that of liberating his country from its long oppression, and, in the theological prelections of Schmidt and Spener there were token that he accepted the mission, had already erected in not conducive to the growth of his piety, he removed to Ophrah an altar which he called “ Jahveh-Shalom" (Jehovah Spires, where he entered the faculty of law. In 1664 he is prosperity). The great gathering of the Midianites and was admitted an advocate at Ratisbon ; but having become their allies on the north side of the plain of Jezreel "stretchacquainted with the Baron von Weltz, an Hungarian noble- ing from the bill of Moreb”; the general muster first of man who cherished enthusiastic if not extravagant schemes Abiezer, then of all Manasseh, and lastly of the neighbourfor the reunion of Christendom and the conversion of the ing tribes of Asher, Zebulun, and Naphtali; the signs by world, he abandoned all interest in his profession, and which the wavering faith of Gideon was steadied; the became an energetic promoter of the “Christerbauliche methods by which an unwieldy mob was reduced to a small Jesusgesellschaft," or Christian Edification Society of Jesus, but trusty band of energetic and determined men; and the in the interests of which he visited many parts of Germany stratagem by which the vast army of Midian was surprised and Holland. The movement in its beginnings provoked routed by the handsul of Israelites descending from at least no active hostility ; but when Gichtel began to “ above Endor," are indicated with sufficient clearness in attack the teaching of the Lutheran clergy and church, the Scripture narrative, and deed not be detailed minutely especially upon the fundamental doctrine of justification here. There is some difficulty in following the account of by faith, he exposed himself to a prosecution which ulti- the subsequent flight of the Midianites, which seems to have mately resulted in sentence of banishment and confiscation taken place in two directions-Oreb and Zeeb making for (1665). After many months of wandering and occasionally the lower fords of Jordan towards the south-east, while romantic adventure, he in January 1667 reached Holland, Zebah and Zalmunna took the upper passage, a little below aud settled at Zwoll, where he co-operated with Breckling, the place where the river flows out of the Sea of Galilee. a man who shared his views and aspirations. Having Leaving the Ephraimites (who had now risen in force) to deal become involved in the troubles of this friend, Gichtel, after with the former, Gideon with his 300 appears to have kept a period of imprisonment, was banished for a term of years up the pursuit of the latter to Nobah and Jogbebah, points from Zwoll, but finally in 1668 found a home in Amster- beyond Succoth and Penuel, where a bloody contest resulted slam, where in a state of poverty (which, however, nerer in the destruction of that portion of the Midianite army, becane destitution), he lived out his strange life of visions and in the ultimate capture and exccution of Zebah and

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Zalmunna. Almost simultaneously with these occurrences enrolled as a volunteer in a regiment of chasseurs. Having eastward of Jordan, messengers from Ephraim bearing the in 1817 taken his degree in philosophy, he in the same year heads of Oreb (“ raven "}and Zeeb (“wolf”), who with became assistant head master in the Minden gymnasium, their followers had been crushed at "the raven's rock” and and in 1818 was appointed conrector of the gymnasium at "the wolf's den ” respectively, announced the completeness Cleves. Here he published his earliest work (Historischof Israel's victory. Having taken unrelenting vengeance kritischer Versuch über die Entstehung u. die frühesten on the men of Penuel and Succoth, who had shown a timid Schicksale der schriftlichen Evangelien), a treatise which neutrality when the patriotic struggle was at its crisis, has had considerable influence on all subsequent investigaGideon returned to his native Ophrah, where he further tions and discussions of the question as to the origin of the distinguished himself by his pious magnanimity in refusing gospels, in so far as it may be considered to have finally Le kingship which had been put within his reach—an act disposed of that theory of a “primitive” written gospel to of self-denial, however, which, according to the sacred his which most critics in the earlier part of the century had torian, was somewhat neutralized by his subsequent folly in inclined. In 1819 Gieseler was appointed a professor establishing a shrine which proved a snare to all Israel, not ordinarius in theology in the newly-founded university of escluding liis family or even himself. For forty years after Bonn, where, besides lecturing on church history, he made the great victory he lived at his own house in Ophrali in important coutributions to the literature of that subject in considerable wealth and magnificence, yet always in a Rosenmüller's Repertorium, Stäudlin u. Tschirnar’s Archiv, private station—there being no direct scriptural evidence at and in various university "programs.” The first part least that his judgeship lasted during all that period, or of the first volume of his well-known Church Ilistory that it ever gave him any position of legally recoguized appeared in 1824. In 1833 he accepted a call to Göttingen, Authority. The name of Gideon occurs in Heb. xi. 32, in where the remainder of his life was spent, marked by few the list there given of those who became herves by faith; noteworthy events beyond the steady publication of volume but, except in Judges vi.-viii., it is not to be met with any. after volume of his contributions to liistorical science. In where in the Old Testament. In 1 Sam. xii ?1 and 2 1837 he was appointed a consistorialrath, and shortly afterSam. xi. 21 (LXX.) he is called Jerubbaal (the reading wards was created a knight of the Guelpliic order. In the Jerubbesheth having been introduced into the latter passage winter of 1853-4 symptoms of failing health began to in accordance with the usage explained in the article BAAL). appear, and towards the end of the session he was able to The fact that in Judges ix., which appears to be the oldest lecture only occasionally. His death occurred on the 8th part of the narrative, he is invariably called Jerubbaal, has of July 1854. The fourth and fifth volumes of the Kirchensuggested to Kuenen and others thut this ought to be re- geschichte, embracing the period subsequent to 1814, were garded as his original and proper name, that of Gideon published postlumously by Redepenning (1855); and they (w?, i.e. "hener” or “warrior," cf. Isa. x. 33) having were followed in 1856 by a Dogmengeschichte, which is somebeen a later designation. In confirmation of tliis it is times reckoned as the sixth volume of the Church History. pointed out that the derivation of Syar as equivalent Among church historians Gieseler continues to hold a very to 5¥277 11 27; (“Let Baal contend against him," v. 32, or high place. Less vivid and picturesque in style than Hase, “Let Baal contend for himself,” v. 31) is much less probable conspicuously deficient in Neander's deep and sympathetic than that which interprets it as precisely analogous with such insight into the more spiritual forces by which church life is names as Merib-baal, Jehoiarib or Joarib, Seraiah, Israel, always more or less ysrvaded, he excels these and all other and perhaps also Josadec, all meaning "God fights” or “con- contemporaries in the fulness and accuracy of his informatends." The nature of the grounds on which it is conjectured tion. His Lehrbuch der Kirchengeschichte, in which indeed that Gideon's conquest of the Midianites was somewliat the text as compared with the notes ofteu occupies a very slower than the narrative on a first reading would lead one subordinate płace, is invaluable to the student who wishes to suppase, and that his religious reforms, far from being at each step to be brought into direct contact with all the confined to a solitary act of his early manlood, were rather original sources of information which it is of importance the principal employment of his later life, is indicated in that he should know. The work, which has passed through the histories of Israel by Ewald, Hitzig, and Kuenen. See several editions in Germany, has partially appeared also in also especially Wellhausen, Geschichte, i. 252 sq.

two English translations. That published in New York GIEN, a town of France, at the head of an arrondissement (Text Book of Ecclesiastical History, 4 vols.), brings the in the department of Loiret, is situated on the right bank of work down to the peace of Westphalia, while that published the Loire, 39 miles E.S.E. of Orleans. The Loire is crossed in “Clark's Theological Library” Compendium of Ecclesiat Gien by a stoue bridge of twelve arches, built ahout the astical History, Edin., 5 vols.) closes with the beginning of end of the 15th century. The town is the seat of a tribunal the Reformation. For the life of Gieseler reference may of the first instance and of justice of peace court. The be made to Redepenning's biographical sketch in the fifth principal buildings are the prison, the hospital, the old volume of the Kirchengeschichte, and to Herzog's article in castle, originally built by Charlemagne, and reconstructed the Real-Encyclopädie (of which great work, it may be in 1494 by Anne de Beaujeu, daughter of Louis XI., and mentioned, Gieseler was an energetic promoter). Both the church of Saint Pierre, a modern structure of no parti- biographers testify that with the habits of a devoted student cular merit

, but possessing an old square tower dating from he combined those of an energetic man of business. He the end of the 15th century. There are manufactures of frequently held the office of pro-rector of the university, and serge, leather, and earthenware, and some trade in corn did much useful work as a member of several of its comand wine. The population in 1876 was 6493.

mittees. He took a warm interest also in the Göttingen GIESELER, JOHANN KARL LUDWIG (1792-1854), one orphanage, where he was a daily visitor, knew all the of the most distinguished of the modern school of scientific children personally, and taught them to regard him as a writers on church history, was born at Petersbagen, near counsellor and friend. Minden, where his father, a man of considerable rigour and GIESSEN, a town of Germany, capital of the province independence of character, was minister, on the 3d of March of Upper Hesse, in the grand-duchy of Hesse-Darmstadt, 1792. In his teoth year he entered the orphanage at Halle, | is situated in a beautiful and fruitful valley at the confluwhence he duly passed to the university, his studies being ence of the Wieseck with the Lahn, 33 miles N.N.W. of interrupted, however, from October 1813 till the peace of Frankfort. It is the seat of a bailiwick, a high court, 1815 by a period of military service, during which lie was and a district peval court. The olil streets are narrow and




irregular, but in the suburbs outside the old walls there | Frauds required all such conveyances to be in writing, and are many elegant houses. Besides the university, the a later statute (8 and 9 Vict. c. 106) requires them to be principal buildings are the provincial Government offices, by deed. Personal property may be effectually transferred comprising a portion of the old castle dating from the 12th from one person to another by a simple verbal gift accomcentury, the arsenal, the town-hall, the new gymnasium, and panied by delivery. If A delivers a chattel to B, saying or the town church. The aniversity, founded in 1607 by the signifying that he does so by way of gift, the property landgrave Louis V., has a large and valuable library, a passes, and the chattel belongs to B. But unless the actual botanic garden, an observatory, an anatomical theatre, thing is bodily handed over to the donee, the mere verbal an infirmary, a maternity hospital, a museum of natural expression of the donor's desire or intention has no legal history, and a chemical laboratory which was directed by effect whatever. The persons are in the position of parties Professor Liebig. The number of professors and teachers to an agreement which is void, as being without considerar of the university in 1875 was 52, and of students 340. tion. When the nature of the thing is such that it cannot There is also a gynınasium and a real school. The in- be bodily handed over, it will be sufficient to put the dones dustries include the manufacture of woollen and cotton in such a position as to enable him to deal with it as the cloth of various kinds, leather, candles, tobacco, and beer.

For example, when goods are in a warehouse, the Giessen was formed in the 12th century out of the villages Selters, delivery of the key will make a verbal gift of them effectual, Aster, and Kroppach, for whose protection Count William of but it seems that part delivery of goods which are capable Gleibeng built the castle of Giessen. Through marriage the town of actual delivery will not validate a verbal gift of the part came into the possession of the palgrave of Tübingen, who sold it in 1265 to the landgrave Henry of Hesse. It was surrounded with

undelivered. So when goods are in the possession of a fortifications in 1530, which were demolished in 1547 by the

warehouseman, the handing over of a delivery order might, emperor Charles V., but rebuilt in 1560. From 1807 they were by special custom (but not otherwise it appears), be sufficient gradually pulled down, and their site converted into promenades. to pass the property in the goods, although delivery of a The population of Giessen in 1875 was 13,980.

bill of lading for goods at sea is equivalent to an actual GIFFORD, WILLIAM (1757-1826), publicist and man delivery of the goods themselves. A donatio mortis caust of letters, was born at Ashburton, Devon, in April 1757. is a gift made by a person in contemplation of death, to Having as a shoemaker's apprentice manifested a remark- | take elect only in the event of his death. It is revocable able aptitude for intellectual pursuits, he was by the charity so long as he lives. There must be actual or constructive of friends enabled to complete a previously imperfect school delivery of the thing itself, and therefore it has been said education, and ultimately to proceed in his twenty-third that only chattels can be the proper subject of a donatio year to Oxford, where he was appointed a Bible clerk in mortis causa, although policies of insurance, bills, notes, &c., Exeter College. Leaving the university shortly after have been allowed to pass by mere delivery as death-bad graduation in 1782, he for some years acted as tutor to gifts. A donatio mortis causa is not an out-and-out gift, Lord Belgrave, whom he accompanied on two prolonged but is conditional on death. Continental tours. After having settled in London, lie in GIJON, a town and seaport of Spain, in the province of 1794 published his first work, a satirical piece, after Persius, Oviedo or Asturias, on the coast of the Cantabrian Sea, entitled the Baviad, successfully aimed at a numerous school about 13 miles E. of the Cabo de Peñas and 2 miles E. of of second-rato writers then popularly known as the Della the Rio Aboño. The older part of the town, partly surCruscans. A second satire of a similar description, the rounded by its walls, occupies the upper slope of a penin. Mæviad, directed against the corruptions of the drama, sular headland, while the more modern portion extends to appeared in 1795. About this time Gifford became the beach. On the whole, it is a clean and flourishing place, acquainted with Canning, with whose help he in August | with wide streets and good houses; but there are few build1797 originated a weekly newspaper of Conservative politics ings of individual note except the church of San Pedro of entitled the Anti-Jacobin, which, however, in the following the 15th century, the town house, the mansion of the year ceased to be published. An English version of Marquis Revilla-Gigedo, and the Asturian Institute. The Jurenal, on which he had been for many years engaged, last, which was founded in 1797 by Jovellanos, has a fine appeared in 1802 ; to this an autobiographical notice of the library, and comprises classes for navigation, mathematics, translator was prefixed. Two years afterwards Gifford pub- Latin, French, and English. Besides the works in connexion lished an annotated edition of the plays of Massinger; and with the railways which run inland from Gijon to Mieres in 1809, when the Quarterly Review was projected, he was del Camino and Sama on the Nalon, there is a large glass entrusted with the management of that publication. It is work, an iron foundry, and a tobacco factory which alone on all hands conceded that the success which attended the gives employment to upwards of 1400 females. An extenQuarterly from the outset was due iu no small degree to the sive trade is carried on in the export of coal, iron, jet, and ability and tact with which Gifford discharged his editorial hazel-nuts, and in the import of fish and colonial produce, duties. His connexion with the Review continued until The nuts amount to upwards of 1600 tons per annum, and within about two years of his death, which took place in a large proportion finds its way to the English market. London on the 31st of December 1826. Besides numerous Though the harbour is a mere roadstead between the small contributions to the Quarterly during the last fifteen years promontories of San Lorenzo and Torres, it is of consider: of his life, he wrote a metrical translation of Persius, which able value on such a coast as that of Asturias, especially as appeared in 1821. Gifford also edited the poems of Ben it has a good bottom. A quay was constructed by means Jonson, Ford, and Shirley. His edition of the first of these of a grant from Charles V. in 1552-4, and a new one by appeared in 1816, those of the other two, posthumously, Pedro Menendez in 1766-8, and an extension was effected in 1827 and 1833. The Autobiography was republished in in 1859 at a cost of £65,000. The population of Gijon 1827.

in 1860 was 24,802. During the summer there is a con GIFT generally means an alienation of property other siderable influx of strangers. wise than for a consideration, although in law it is often Gijon is usually identified with the Gigia of the Romans, which, used to signify alienation with or without consideration. however, occupied the site not of the present town but of the ado The effect of a gratuitous gift only need be considered here. joining suburb of Cima da Villa. Captured and strengthened by Formerly in English law property in land could be couvered the Moors, who used the stones of the Roman city for their forti.

fications, it remained in their hands till after the battle of Caricas, by one person to ancther by a verbal gift of the estate

when its governor Munuza surrendered to Pelayo. In 844 it held accompanied by delivery of possession. The Statute of out against an attack by the Normans, and in the following cen

turies it gradually rose into importance. In the time of Philip II. | ally possessed of any Christian prince or people, as should it possessed good arsenals, and was able to undertake the repairs of the Invincible Armada. Jovellanos, the statesman and poet, and

seem good to him or them.” Disposing not only of his patriCean Bermudez, a writer on art, were both natives of Gijon, and mony but also of the estates in Kent which he had throngh the former is buried in the church of San Andrea.

his wife, daughter of John Aucher of Ollerden, he strenuGILBART, JOHN WILLIAM (1794-1863), the author of ously prepared to put his permission to use, and his brother a number of works on banking, was descended from a Raleigh joined him in the enterprise. By the end of the Cornish family, and was born in London, March 21, summer of 1578 a fleet of 11 sail, with 400 mariners and 1794. From 1813 to 1825 he was clerk in a London men-at-arms, was collected off the coast of Devon ; but the bank, after which he went to Birmingham. Shortly after gallant projectors were singularly unfortunate in the charhis return to London in 1827 he was appointed manager acter of some of their associates. Dissensions broke out of the Kilkenny branch of the Provincial Bank of Ireland, among the captains and disorder among the crews. Knollys, and in 1829 he was promoted to the Waterford branch. In for example, boasted that, as kinsman to royalty, he was of 1834 he became manager of the London and Westminster more value than twenty knights, and insolently rejected Bank; and to his skill in developing the system of joint- Gilbert's invitation to dinner; and his men, encouraged by stock banking it owed much of its success. On more than their captain's conduct, filled the town of Plymouth with one occasion he rendered valuable services to the joint-stock uproar and riot, which finally culminated in murder. It banks by his evidence before committees of the House of

was not till the 19th of November that Gilbert set sail, with Commons; and, on the renewal of the bank charter in 1844, his forces reduced to 7 ships and 150 men. The history of he procured the insertion of a clause granting to joint-stock the voyage is involved in obscurity; but about the beginbanks the power of suing by their public officer, and also ning of summer or a little earlier in 1579, the fleet returned the right of accepting bills at less than six months' date. to England, with little, it would appear, to report except that In testimony of their obligations to him, the directors and it had lost one of its chief ships and one of its bravest shareholders of joint-stock banks presented him in 1846 captains, Miles Morgan, in an encounter with the Spaniards. with a handsome service of plate. In the same year he was

Gilbert lent his three ships to the Government for service elected a Fellow of the Royal Society. He retired on a against the Spaniards on the Irish coast ; but in July 11, pension from the management of the London and West-1582, we still find him complaining to Walsingham that he minster Bank, 1st January 1860, and died in London had not received the moneys that were due to him, and that August 8, 1863. From an early period Gilbart took an. thus he was prevented from doing more for his queen and active part in the Athenian Debating Society of London, country; He was already planning a new expedition; and and he was also connected with the Union Society, which

at length in 1583 his fleet was got together. The queen, pambered among its other eminent members J. S. Mill and though she had at first dissuaded Gilbert from his purpose, Lord Macaulay. He also devoted much of his attention to and would not permit Raleigh to accompany him, wrote to the promotion of literary and scientific institutions among him by his brother's hand that she wished him as great the middle and working classes.

good hap and safety to his ship as if herself were there in The following are his principal works on banking, most of which person," and sent him as a token a golden figure of an anchor have passed through more than one edition :- Practical Treatise on guarded by a lady. On 11th of June he departed from Banking, 1827; The History and Principles of Banking, 1834; Plymouth with 5 sail; but on the 13th the “ Ark Raleigh," The History of Banking in America, 1837 ; Lectures on the History which had been built and manned at his brother's expense, and Principles of Ancient Commerce, 1847 ; Logic for the Million, 1851 ; and Logic of Banking, 1857.

ran from him in fair and clear weather having a large GILBERT, SIR HUMPHREY (1539–1583), a celebrated wind.” This desertion was a cause of no small displeasure English navigator, was born in 1539 in the county of to the admiral, and he wrote to Sir George Peckham to Devon, second of the three sons of Otho Gilbert of solicit his brother to make the crew an example to all Greenway. By his mother's side he was half-brother to knaves ; but it appears not improbable (according to Hayes Sir Walter Raleigh, who resembled him in many points of in Hakluyt's collection) that the reason of their conduct was character, and whose early life was largely influenced and the breaking out of a contagious sickness in the ship. On guided by his example. Educated first at Eton 'and then the 5th of August Gilbert landed in Newfoundland, and took at Oxford, he was destined by his father for the law; but formal possession of it in the queen's name; but proceeding being introduced at court by Raleigh's aunt, Catherine southwards with three vessels, he lost the largest near Cape Ashley, he obtained the special favour of the queen, and Breton, and was at last constrained to return homewards was thus enabled to follow his natural inclination for active with the “Golden Hind” and the "Squirrel” as the only eaterprise. Recommended by royal letter to Sir Philip remnant of his fleet. "On Monday the 9th September," Sidney, he received from him an appointment in the army reports Hayes, the captain of the “Hind,” “ the frigate was in Ireland ; and his services contributed so powerfully to

near cast away, yet at that time recovered ; and giving forthi put down the rebellion raging there that in 1570 he was signs of joy, the general, sitting abaft with a book in his hand, made a knight and rewarded with the government of cried out unto us in the 'Hind,'. We are as near to heaven Munster. He next served for about five years in the by sea as by land. The same Monday night the frigate's Netherlands, being the first English colonel entrusted lights were suddenly out, and it was devoured and swallowed with command of English forces in that country. On his up by the sea.” So perished Sir Humphrey Gilbert. return to his wative land he wrote a remarkable treatise on See Hakluyt's Collection, vol. iii.; Hooker's Supplement to Hollin. a subject at that time before the minds of men, the possi- | Countries, 1618 ; Bliss's edition of Wood's Athena Oxonienses, vol.

shed's Irish Chronicle ; Roger Williams, The Actions of the Low bility of a north-west passage to India ; and in 1576 it was i. p. 493; North British Review, No. 45; and the Lives of Sir W. published without his knowledge by George Gascoigne as Raleigh by Tytler, James Augustus St John, and Edward Edwards. Discourse of a Discoverie for a New Passage to Cataia GILBERT, Nicolas JOSEPH LAURENT (1751-1780), a (London, Henry Middleton for Richarde Thones)., The French poet, was born at Fontenay-le-Château in Lorraine, theory in question was supported with no small force of in 1751. Having completed his education at the college of argument, and the discourse was probably not without its Dôle, he devoted himself for a time to a half scholastic balf in uence in leading Frobisher to set out on his first voyage literary life at Nancy, but at length in 1774 he found his to the frozen north. In June 1578 Gilbert received letters way to the capital. As he had already assumed a hostile patent authorizing himself, his heirs and assigns, to discover, and satirical position towards the Encyclopedists, he naturoccupy, and possess such remoto “heathen lands_not actu. Ially received a warmer welcome from the conservative party;

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and as he did not disdain to prostitute his muse to the William, from two MSS. in the possession of Sir William Boswell ; celebration of the heroic and royal virtues of the despicable its title is De Mundo Nostro Sublurari Philosophia Nova (Am.

He is the reputed inventor besiues of two instruLouis XV., he was rewarded with pensions to a considerable sterdam, 1651);

ments to enable sailors “ to find out the latitude without seeing of amount. He died in October 1780 from the results of a fall

An account of these instruments is given in from his horse. The satiric force of one or two of his pieces, Thomas Blondeville's Thcoriques of the Planets (London, 1602). as Mon apologie (1778), and Le dix-huitième siècle (1775), The only writing of Gilbert in English is a short epistle addressed would alone be sufficient to preserve his reputation, and it Wagneticall Advertisements (London, 1616),-a letter which has

to William Barlowe, printed at the end of his little work entitled has been further increased by the eulogies of those modern hitherto escaped the notice of all the writers about Gilbert. It is writers who, like Alfred de Vigny, consider him a victim to of interest both because it shows that he carried on a scientific corthe spite of his philosophic opponents.

respondence with the Continent, and that his book had been very

well received, and because he says that he was intending to add six Anong his other works may be mentioned Lcs Familles de Darius

or eight sheets to the book,-an intention, however, which was et d'Eridane, histoire. persane (1770), Le Cirnaral des Auteurs

never carried into effect. The letter is dated 14th February, un(1773), Odes nouvelles et patriotiques (1775). Gilbert's Curres fortunately without the year, but it must have been written becomplètes were first published in 1778, and they have since been

tween 1600 and 1603. In his preface Barlowe says that he had edited by Mastrella (Paris, 1823) and by Charles Nodier (1840, numerous letters from Gilbert, but these have long since disar1859, &c.).

peared. It is a matter of great regret for the historian of chemistry GILBERT, or GILBERD, WILLIAM (c. 1540-1603), was that Gilbert left nothing on that branch of science, to which he was the most distinguished man of science in England during say's Fuller, who, in his Worthics of England (among whom he in

deeply devoted, " attaining to great exactuess tberein.” So at least the reign of Queen Elizabeth. He was born at Colchester.

cluues Gilbert), prophesied truly how he would be afterwards where his father was recorder, but was a descendant of an known : “ Maliomet's tomb at Mecha,” lie says, is said strangely ancient Suffolk family, long resident at Clare. Of his early to this dottor will never fall to the ground, which his inconi parable

to hang up, attracted by some invisible londstone; but the memory years no account is left.

He entered St Johu's College, book De Alagnete will support to eternity." Cambridge, in 1558, when eighteen years of age, and in due course took the degrees of B.A., M.A., and M.D.; he also

GILBERT DE LA PORRÉE (Gilbertus Porretanus or became Symson fellow, and in 1569 was elected a senior Pictaviensis), an eminent scholastic logician and theologian fellow of his college. After leaving the university he of the 12th century, was born at Poitiers. He was educated went to the Continent, and, on his return in 1573, settled under Bernard de Chartres and Anselm of Laon, and after in London, where for thirty years,—that is, till his death, completing his studies remained attached as teacher to the --he practised as a physician with “ great success and ap. church at Chartres. In 1135 he is recorded as discharging plause.”. He was admitted to the College of Physicians, these functions, but he seems soon after to have repaired to and filled various offices in it. He began in 1581 as censor,

Paris and opened public courses on dialectics and theology. which duty he discharged for several years; then he became

His fame caused him to be called to his pative town, where treasurer, consiliarius elect, and, at last, president in 1600. in 1141 he was elected bishop. The heterodox opinions His professional skill and general ability drew the attention he was led to express regarding the doctrine of the Trinity of Queen Elizabeth to him, and she appointed him royal drew upon his works the condemnation of the church. The physician. She also settled a pension on him to enable him synod of Rheims in 1148 procured papal sanction for four to prosecute the scientific inquiries to which he was devoted. propositions opposed to certain tenets of Gilbert's, and the After this Gilbert seems to have removed to the court, works of the latter were condemned until they should be and to have vacated his house, which was "on St Peter's corrected in accordance with the principles of the church. Hill, between Upper Thames Street and Little Knight-Gilbert seems to have submitted quietly to this judgment; Rider Street.”. At this house he seems to have had a society he yielded assent to the four propositions, and remained on or college, which was broken up and the members dispersed friendly terms with his antagonists till his death in 1154. by his promotion. In the year 1600 he published his work Gilbert is almost the solitary logician of the 12th century on the magnet. In 1603 the queen died, but .Gilbert was who is quoted by the greater scholastice of the succeeding reappointed by her successor. He did not long enjoy the age. His chief logical

work, the treatise De Sex Principis, honour, however, for he died November 30, 1603, some was regarded with a reverence almost equal to that given say at Colchester, others at London. He was buried at to Aristotle, and furnished matter for numerous commen. Colchester, in the chancel of the church of the Holy Trinity, taries. Albertus Magnus did not disdain to comment upon where a monument was erected to him. To the College of this work of an earlier logician. The treatise itself is an Physicians he bequeathed his books, instruments, and elaborate discussion of the Aristotelian categories, specially minerals, but he gave his portrait to the School Gallery at

of the six subordinate modes. Gilbert distinguishes in the Oxford. In it he is represented as tall of stature and of ten categories two classes, one essential, the other derivative. cheerful countenance,“ holding in his hand a globe inscribed Essential or inhering (formæ inhærentes) in the objects * Terella'; over his head is the inscription : 1591, ætatis themselves are only substance, quantity, quality, and relation 48;' and a little below his left shoulder, Magneticarum in the stricter sense of that term. The remaining six, when, virtutum primus indagator Gilbertus.'" The date thus where, action, passion, position, and habit, are relative and given does not tally with the conclusion of the inscription subordinate (formce assistentes). This suggestion has some on his tombstone : "Obiit anno Redemptionis Humanæ interest, but it cannot be said to have great value, either in 1603, Novembris ultimo, ætatis suæ 63."* If the latter be logic or in the theory of knowledge. More important in the correct, he was born in 1510; if the former, in 1543.

history of scholasticism are the theological consequences to Gilbert's principal work is his treatise on magnetism, entitled

which Gilbert's realism led him. In the commentary on De Magnete, Bfagneticisque Corporibus, et de Magno Magnete Tel. the treatise De Trinitate, erroneously supposed to be by lure, London, 1600 (later editions-Sedan, 1628, 1633 ; Frankfort, Boetius, he proceeds from the metaphysical notion that 2629, 1638). The merit of this work consists in its originality, pure or abstract being is prior in nature to that which is. containing, as it does, an account of the author'y experiments on magnets and magnetical bodies, and also the great discovery that This pure being is God, and must be distinguished from the whole earth is nothing but a large magnet, and that it is this the triune God as known to us, God is incomprehensible, which explains, not only the direction of the magnetic needle north and the categories cannot be applied to determine his existand south, but also the variation and dipping or inclination of the In God there is no distinction or difference, whereas needle. Gilbert's is therefore, not merely the first, but the most in all substances or things there is duality, arising from the important systematic contribution to the science of magnetism, and element of matter. Between pure being and substances its' merits were freely acknowledged by his contemporaries. A posthumous work of Gilbert's was edited by his brother, also called stand the ideas or forms, which subsist though they are not!


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