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substances. These forms, when materialized, are called | order or other. In addition, we learn that he went abroad, formæ skibstantiales or formæ nativæ ; they are the essences probably to France, in his thirty-fourth year, where, a ter of things, and in themselves have no relation to the acci- 10 years of hesitation and preparation, he composed, dents of things. Things are temporal, the ideas perpetual, about 560, the work bearing his name. His materials, he God eternal. The pure form of existence, that by which tells us, were collected from foreign rather than nntive God is God, must be distinguished from the three persons sources, the latter of which had been put beyond his reach who are Goci by participation in this form. The form or by circumstances. The Cambrian Arnals give 570 as the essence is one, the persons or substances three. It was this year of bis death. distinction between Deitas or Divinitas and Deus that led The writings of Gildas have come down to us under the to the condemnation of Gilbert's doctrine.
title of Gildæ Sapientis de Excidio Britanniæ Liber Querulus. See Ritter, Gesch. d. Phil., vii. 437–74 : Hauréan, Phil. Sco- | Though at first written consecutively, the, work is now lastique, 21 ed., i. 447-78; Stóckl, Phil. d. Mittelalters, i. 272-88. usually divided into three portions,--a preface, the history
GILBERT or SEMPRINGHAM, ST (c. 1083-1189), founder proper, and an epistle, -the last, which is largely made up of the order of Gilbertines (Ordo Gilbertinorum Canoni- of passages and texts of Scripture brought together for the corum, Ordo Sempringensis), was born about the year 1083 purpose of condemning the vices of his countrymen and their at Sempringham, Lincolnshire, where his father, Jocelyn de rulers, being the least important, though by far the longest Sempringham, a Norman noble who had taken part in the of the three. In the second he passes in brief review the Conquest, had settled. On the completion of a liberal history of Britain from its invasion isy the Romans till his education, received partly in England and partly in France, own times. Among other matters reference is made to the Gilbert was ordained a priest in 1123, having been presented introduction of Christianity in the reign of Tiberius; the by his father to the united livings of Sempringham and persecution under Diocletian; the spread of the Arian Tirington. About 1135 he established in the immediate heresy; the election of Maximus as emperor by the legions vicinity of his parish church a religious house for the recep- in Britain, and his subseqnent death at Aquileia; the incurtion of some destitute girls; the rule he prescribed was sub- sions of the Picts and Scots into the southern part of the stantially that of St Benedict, but the restrictions laid upon island; the temporary assistance rendered to thie harassed the communication of the inmates with the outer world were Britons by the Romans; the final abandonment of the island unusually severe. Subsequently the labourers who tilled the by the latter; the coming of the Saxons and their receplands with which this establishment had been ondowed were tion by Guortigern (Vortigern); and, finally, the conflicts also formed into a religious community, under a rule resem- between the Britops, led by a noble Roman, Ambrosius bling that of the Austin Friars, their house being placed Aurelianus, and the new invaders. Unfortunately, on close beside that of the nuns. Similar iustitutions clsc- almost every point on which he touches, the statements of where were encouraged by various English proprietors, and Gildas are vague and obscure. With one exception already placed under the superintendence of Gilbert, who at last alluded to, no dates are given, and events are not always made application to Pope Eugenius III. to have them all taken up in the order of their occurrence. These faults are merged in the Cistercian order (1148). This request, how- of less importance during the period when Greek and Roman ever, was refused, and Gilbert continued to act as superior writers notice the affairs of Britain ; but they become more of the monasteries he had founded for many years; although serious when, as is the case from nearly the beginning of at the time of his dcath, on the 3d of February 1189, that the 5th century to the date of his death, Gildas's brief dignity was held by Roger, one of his disciples. In 1189 narrative is our only authority for most of what passes the Gilbertines are said to have possessed thirteen monas- current as the history of our island during those years. teries, with almshouses, hospitals, and orphanages attached; Thus it is on his sole, though in this instance perhaps trustand the community numbered in all upwards of 700 male worthy, testimony that the famous letter rests, said to have aud 1100 female members. At the time of their suppres- been sent to Rome in 446 by the despairing Britons, sion the total number of Gilbertine houses in England and commencing :-“To Agitius (Aetius), consul for the third Wales lad inereased to about twenty-five. Gilbert, who had time, the groans of the Britons.” sided and suffered with the church in the quarrels between Gildas's treatise was first published in 1525 by Polydore Vergil, Henry II. and Thomas á Becket, was canonized by Innocent but with many avowed alterations and omissions. Forty-three III. in 1202; and his uaine is commemorated in the mar
yeurs later Josseline, seeretary to Archbishop Parker, issued a new
edition of it more in conformity with manuscript authority; and in tyrologies on the 4th of February. The Gilbertinorum
1691 a still more carefully revised edition appeared at Oxford by Statuta and a series of Exhortationes al Fratres are attri- Thomas Gale. It was frequently reprinted on the Continent during buted to him (see the Bollandist Acta Sanctorum, Feb. 4). the 16th century, and once or twice since. The next English edition GILBERT ISLANDS. See POLYNESIA.
was that published by the English Historical Society in 1838, and
cilited by the Rev. J. Stevenson. Lastly, the text of Gildas, with GILDAS, or Gildus (c. 516-570), the earliest of British
elaborate introductions and the various readings of existing manu. historians, surnained by some Sapiens, and by others seripts, is included in the Monumenta Historica Britannica, edited Badonicus, seems to have been born in the year 516. by Petrie and Sharpe, London, 1818. Regarding hinn little certain is known, beyond soine isolated GILDING, the art of spreading or covering gold, either particulars that may be gathered from hints dropped in the by mechanical or by chemical means, over the surface of a course of his work. Two short trcatiscs esist, purporting body for the purpose of ornament.
The art of gilding was to be lives of Gildas, and ascribed respectively to the 11th not unknown among the ancients. According to Herodotus, and 12th centuries; but the writers of both are believed to the Egyptians were accustomed to gild wood and metals; have confounded two, if not more, persons that had borne and gilding by means of gold plates is frequently mentioned the pime. It is from an incidental remark of his own, in the books of the Old Testament. Pliny informs us that namely, that the year of the siege of Mount Badon-one of the first gilding seen at Rome was after the destruction of the battles fought between the Saxons and the Britons- Carthage, under the censorship of Lucius Mummius, when was also the year of his own nativity, that the date of his the Romans began to gild the ceilings of their temples and birth has been derived; the place, however, is not mentioned. palaces, the Capitol being the first place on which this His assertion that he was moved to undertake his task enrichment was bestowed. But he adds that luxury admainly by " zeal for God's house and for His holy law," and vanced on them so rapidly that in a little time you might the very free use he has made of quotations from the Bible, see all, even private and poor persons, gild the walls, vaults, leave scarcely a doubt that he was an ecclesiastic of some and other parts of their dwellings. Owirs to the compara
tive thickness of the gold-leaf used in ancient gilding, the rest for some time, when the acid is run off and the ether separated. traces of it which yet remain are remarkably brilliant and
The ether will be found to have taken up all the gold from the acid, solid. Gilding has in all times occupied an important place metal is polished with the finest emery and spirits of wine. The
and may be used for gilding iron or steel, for which purpose the in the ornamental arts of Oriental countries; and the native ether is then applied with a small brush, and as it evaporates it deprocesses pursued in India at the present day may be taken posits the gold, which can now be heated and polished. For small as typical of the art as practised from the earliest periods. delicate figures a pen or a fine brush may be used for laying on the For the gilding of copper, employed in the decoration of
ether solution. Firc-gilding or Wash-gilding is a process by which
an amalgam of gold is applied to metallic surfaces, the mercury temple domes and other large works, the following is an being subsequently volatilized, leaving a film of gold or, according to outline of the processes employed. The metal surface is Struve, an amalgam containing from 13 to 16 per cent. of mercury. thoroughly scraped, cleaned, and polished, and next heated In the preparation of the amalgam the gold must first be reduced to
thin plates or grains, which are heated red hot, and thrown into mer. in a fire sufficiently to remove any traces of grease or other
cury previously heated, till it begins to smoke. Upon stirring the impurity which may remain from the operation of polishing. mercury with an iron rod, the gold totally disappears. The proporIt is then dipped in an acid solution prepared from dried un- tion of mercury to gold is generally as six or eight to one. When the ripe apricots
, and rubbed with pumice or brick powder. Next, amalgam is cold it is squeezed through chamois leather for the purthe surface is rubbed over with mercury which forms a super- twice its weight of mercury, remains behind, forming a yellowish
pose of separating the superfluous mercury; the gold, with about ficial amalgam with the copper, after which it is left some silvery mass of the consistence of butter. When the metal to be gilt hours in clean water, again washed with the acid solution, is wrought or chased, it ought to be covered with quicksilver before and dried. It is now ready for receiving the gold, which is
the amalgam is applied, that this may be more easily spread; but
when the surface of the metal is plain, the amalgam may be applied laid on in leaf, and, on adhering, assuines a grey appear- to it direct. When no such preparation is applied, the surface to be ance from combining with the mercury, but on the applica- gilded is simply bitten and cleaned with nitric acid. A deposit of tion of heat the latter meral volatilizes, leaving the gold a mercury is obtained on a metallic surface by means of "quicksilver dull greyish hue. The colour is brought up by means of water," a solution of nitrate of mercury,—the nitric acid attacking rubbing with agate burnishers.
The weight of mercury metallic mercury.
the metal to which it is applied, and thus leaving a film of free
The amalgam being equally spread over the preused in this process is double that of the gold laid on, and pared surface of the
metal, the mercury is then sublimed by a heat the thickness of the gilding is regulated by the circumstances, just sufficient for that purpose ; for, if it is too great, part of the gold or necessities of the case. For the gilding of iron or steel, may be driven off, or it may run together and leave some of the surthe surface is first scratched over with chequered lines, then known by the surface having entirely become of a dull yellow colour;
face of the metal bare. When the mercury has evaporated, which is washed in a hot solution of green apricots, dried, and heated the metal must undergo other operations, by which the fine.gold just short of red-heat. The gold-leaf is then laid on, and colour is given to it. First, the gilded surface is rubbed with a rubbed in with agate burnishers, when it adheres by catching scratch brush of brass wire, until its surface be smooth ; then it is into the prepared scratched surface.
covered over with a composition called “gilding wax," and again ex.
posed to the fire until the wax is burnt off. This wax is composed Modern gilding is applied to numerous and diverse sur- of beeswax mixed with some of the following substances, viz., red faces and by various distinct processes, so that the art is ochre, verdigris, copper scales, alum, vitriol, borax ; but, according prosecuted in many ways, and is part of widely different to Dr Lewis, the saline substances alone are sufficient, without any ornamental and useful arts. It forms an important and
By this operation the colour of the gilding is heightened; and
the effect seems to be produced by a perfect dissipation of some meressential part of frame-making (see CARVING AND GILDING); cury remaining after the former operation. The dissipation is well it is largely employed in connexion with cabinet-work, effected by this equable application of heat. The gilt surface is then decorative painting, and house ornamentation; and it also covered over with a saline composition, consisting of nitre, alum, or bulks largely in bookbinding and ornamental leather work.
other vítriolic salts, ground together, and mixed up into a paste with
water or weak ammonia. The piece of metal thus covered is exposed Further, gilding is much employed for coating baser metals, to a certain
degree of heat, and then quenched in water. By this as in button-making, in the gilt toy trade, in electro-gilt re- method its colour is further improved and brought nearer to that of productions, and in electro-plating; and it is also a charac-gold, probably by removing any particles of copper that may have
This process, when skilfully carried out, teristic feature in the decoration of pottery, porcelain, and been on the gilt surface, glass. As details of the processes employed in connexion produces gilding of great solidity and beauty ; but owing to the ex
posure of the worknien to mercurial fumes, it is very unhealthy, and with these various substances will be found in the parts of further there is much loss of mercury. Numerous contrivances have this work where the technical processes to which they are been introduced to obviate these serious evils; and the gilding fur. related are described, it is only necessary here to indicate
nace invented by M. D'Arcet is so arranged that the whole of the
mercurial fumes are caught and recondensed for further use. Gilt how the processes of gilding differ from each other.
brass buttons used for uniforms are gilt by this process, and there is The various processes fall under one or other of two an Act of Parliament yet unrepealed which prescribes 5 grains of heads-mechanical gilding and gilding by chemical agency. gold as the smallest quantity that may be used for the gilding of 12 MECHANICAL GILDING embraces all the operations by which
dozen of buttons 1 inch in diameter. gold-leaf is prepared (see Gold-BEATING), and the several processes
Electro-gilding, which has numerous and important applications, by which it is mechanically attached to the surfaces it is intended is described under ELECTRO-METALLURGY.
It thus embraces the burnish or water-gilding and the Gilding of Poltery and Porcelain.- The quantity of gold consumed oil-gilding of the carver and gilder, and the gilding operations of for these purposes is very large. The gold used is dissolved in aquathe house decorator, the sign-painter, the bookbinder, the paper regia, and the acid is driven off by heat, or the gold may be precistainer, and several others. Polished iron, steel, and other metals | pitated by means of sulphate of iron. In this pulverulent state the are gilt mechanically by applying gold-leaf to the metallic surface gold is mixed with th of its weight of oxide of bismuth, together at a temperature just under red-heat, pressing the leaf on with a with a small quantity of borax and gum water. The mixture is burnisher, and reheating, when additional leaf may be laid on.
applied to the articles with a camel's hair pencil, and after passing The process is completed by cold burnishing.
through the fire the gold is of a dingy colour, but the lustre is CHEMICAL Gilding embraces those processes in which the gold brought out by burnishing with agate and bloodstone, and afterused is at some stage in a state of chemical combination. Of these wards cleaning with vinegar or white-lead. the following are the principal:
Cold Gilding.-In this process the gold is obtained in a state of GILEAD (TY??, i.e., “hard” or “rugged") is sometimes extremely fine division from a chemical compound, and applied by used, both in earlier and in later writers, to denote the whole mechanical means. Cold gilding on silver is performed by a solution of the territory occupied by the Israelites eastward of Jordan, of gold in aqua-regia, applied by dipping a linen rag into the solution, burning it, and rubbing the black and heavy ashes on the extending from the Arnon to the southern base of Hermon silver with the finger or a piece of leather or cork. Wet gilding is (Deut. xxxiv. 1; Judg. xx. 1; Jos., Ant. xii. 8. 3, 4). effected by means of a solution of gold in ether, obtained by treating More precisely, however, it was the usual name of that a dilute solution of chloride of gold with twice its quantity of ether. The liquids are agitated and allowed to rest, when the ether sepa
mountainous district which is bounded on the N. by the rates and floats on the surface of the acid. The whole mixture is Hieromax (Yarmuk), on the E. by the Jordan, on the S. by shen poured into a funnel with a small aperture, and allowed to the Arnon, and on the W. by a line which may be said to
follow the meridian of Ammân (Philadelphia, or Rabbath, GILES, ST (ÆGIDIUS, EGIDIO, Gil, or Gilles), accordAmmon). It thus lay wholly within 31° 25' and 32° 42' ing to the Breviarium Romanum (1st September) was an N. lat., and 35° 34' and 36° E. long. Excluding the narrow Athenian of royal descent, and from his earliest strip of low-lying plain along the Jordan, it has an average tinguished for piety and charity. On the death of his elevation of 2500 feet above the Mediterranean; but, as parents he, while still young, distributed amongst the poor seen from the west, the relative height is very much in his entire patrimony, including his very tunic, which garcreased by the depression of the Jordan valley. The range ment effected a miraculous cure upon the poor sick man to from the same point of view presents a singularly uniform whom it had been given. Shrinking from the publicity outline, having the appearance of an unbroken wall; in involved in this and many other (apparently involuntary) reality, however, it is traversed by a number of deep ravines miracles, he betook himself to Provence, where, after a resi(wadys), of which the most important are the Yābis, the dence of two years with St Cæsarius at Arles, he withdrew Ajlan, the Râjib, the Zerka (Jabbok), the Hesban, and the into the solitude of the neighbouring desert, living upon Zerka Main. The great mass of the Gilead range is formed herbs and the milk of a hind which came to his cell at of Jura limestone, but there are also occasional veins of stated hours. Here he was discovered after some time by sandstone. The eastern slopes are comparatively bare of the king of France, who on a hunting expedition bad tracked trees; but the western are well supplied with oak, terebinth, the hind to the hermit's cave. With the reluctant consent and pine. The pastures are everywhere luxuriant, and the of Ægidius, a monastery was now built on the spot, he being wooded heights and winding glens, in which the tangled appointed its first abbot. The functions of this office he shrubbery is here and there broken up by open glades and discharged with prudence and piety until his death, which flat meadows of green turf, exhibit a beauty of vegetation occurred some years afterwards. such as is hardly to be seen in any other district of Some uncertainty attaches to the date, as well as to several Palestine.
other circumstances stated in this narrative. It is known The first mention of " Mount Gilead” in Scripture occurs that a certain Ægidius, whose name at least ('Acyídeos, from in Gen. xxxi., where it is said that the place where Jacob's aię or aiyis) is suggestive of a Greek origin, held an abbacy covenant with his father-in-law was ratified was thencefor. in Provence in the 6th century, and, at the instance of ward called "the hill of witness” (TY?). The locality con- Bishop Cæsarius, undertook, in 514, a mission to Pope templated by the sacred writer was doubtless somewhere on Symmachus on a question relating to certain rivalries the ridge of what is now known as Jebel Ajlûn, and probably between the sees of Arles and Vienne (Labbe, Conc., v. not far from Mahneh (Mahanaim), near the head of the 439–40, ed. 1728); but the modern hagiologists, following wady Yabis.Gilead next comes under notice in connexion the earliest Acta, which assign the legend to the period of with the partition of the promised land, among the twelve a Catholic Visigothic king “Flavius” (Wamba or Ervigius), tribes of Israel. At the period of the conquest the portion incline to distinguish the saint from the earlier abbot of the of Gilead north ward of the Jabbok (Zerka) belonged to the same name, and to fix the date of the former about the end dominions of Og, king Bashan, while the southern half of the 7th century. Of the existence of an abbey under was ruled by Sihon, king of the Amorites, having been at an the advocacy of St Giles towards the end of the 9th cenearlier date wrested from Moab (Numb. xxi. 24 ; Deut. iii. tury there can be no question (Ménard, Hist. de Nismes); 12–16). These two sections were allotted respectively to while Benjamin of Tudela makes special mention of the Manasseh and to Reuben and Gad, both districts being crowds of foreigners from all countries who in his time peculiarly suited to the pastoral and nomadic character of (1160) frequented that shrine, which is situated on the these tribes. A somewhat wild Bedouin disposition, fostered Petit-Rhône, about 12 miles westward of Arles. In the by their surroundings, was retained by the Israelite inhabit 11th and following centuries the cultus of the saint, who ants of Gilead to a late period of their history, and seems came to be regarded as the special patron of lepers, beggars, to be to some extent discernible in what we read alike of and cripples, spread very extensively over Europe, especially Jephthah, of David's Gadites, and of the prophet Elijah. in England, Scotland, France, Germany, and Poland. The
After the close of the Old Testament history the word church of St Giles, Cripplegate, London, was built about Gilead seldom occurs. It seems to have soon passed out of 1090, while the hospital for lepers at St Giles-in-the-Fields use as a precise geographical designation ; for though was founded by Queen Matilda in 1117. In England alone occasionally mentioned by Apocryphal writers, by Josephus, there are 146 churches dedicated to this saint; and they and by Eusebius, the allusions are all vague, and show that occur in every county except in those of Westmoreland and those who made them had no definite knowledge of Gilead Cumberland (Parker, Calendar of the Anglican Church). proper. In Josephus and the New Testament the name In Edinburgh the church of St Giles (c. 1359) could boast Peræa or répar toù 'Iopdávov is most frequently used; and the possession of an arm-bone of its patron. Representathe country is sometimes spoken of by Josephus as divided tions of St Giles are very frequently met with in early into small provinces called after the capitals in which Greek French and German art, but are much less common in Italy colonists had established themselves during the reign of the and Spain (Jameson, Sacred and Legendary Art, pp. Seleucidæ. At present Gilead south of the Jabbok alone 768–770). is known by the name of Jebel Jilad (Mount Gilead), the GILFILLAN, GEORGE (1813-1878), a clergyman of the northern portion between the Jabbok and the Yarmuk being United Presbyterian Church of Scotland, and a well-known called Jebel Ajlûn. Jebel Jilad includes Jebel Osha, and popular writer, was born 30th January 1813 at Comrie, has for its capital the town of Es-Salt. The cities of Gilead Perthshire, where his father, the Rev. Samuel Gilfillan, also a expressly mentioned in Scripture are Ramoth, Jabesh, and man of some literary activity, was for many years minister of Jazer. The first of these has been satisfactorily identified a Secession congregation. At Glasgow University and the with Es-Salt, and apparently ought not to be regarded theological hall, as at Comrie school, he took small help from as distinct from Mizpeh (Judg. xi. 11, 34), called also formal lessons, and cared little for a high place in his classes Mizpeh-Gilead (Judg. xi. 29), or Ramoth Mizpeh (Josh. or for proficiency in his prescribed studies, but applied him
self to English literature, with a passion for reading, and a " Notes on an Excursion to Harran,” &c., in vol. Ixxii.
memory which held fast and arranged the contents of all the of the Journal of the Royal Geographical Society (1862).
congenial books he met with. In March 1836 he was the river Jordan, but the ridge of Mount Gilead, which formed the ordained pastor of a Secession congregation in Dundee. His Datural boundary of the possessions of the children of Israel.” first effort beyond the pulpit was in 1839, when he issued
1 See Beke,
" It was not
Five Discourses, which, though neglected by the reading | tion (“miro cultu ") by the natives. This site, which in the public, had many high merits, and gave the promise of more Middle Ages appears to have been lost,-Gilgal being shown and of higher. Some time afterwards he rather unadvisedly further north, ---has lately been recovered by a German published a sermon on “Hades," which, distinguished by traveller (Schokke), and fixed by the English survey bold but ill-sustained speculation, and by brilliant but party. It is about 2 miles east of the site of Byzantine irregular imagination, brought him under the scrutiny of his Jericho, and 1 mile from the modern Eriha. A fine tamarisk, co-presbyters, and was ultimately withdrawn from circula- traces of a church (which is mentioned in the 8th century), tion. Gilfillan next contributed a series of sketches of and a large reservoir, now filled up with mud, remain. The celebrated literary men to the Dumfries Herald, then place is called Jiljûlieh, and its position north of the valley edited by Thomas Aird; and these, along with several new of Achor (Wâdy Kelt) and east of Jericho agrees well with ones formed his first Gallery of Literary Portraits, a volume the Biblical indications above mentioned. A tradition conwhich appeared in 1846, and had a wide circulation. It nected with the fall of Jericho is attached to the site (see was quickly followed by a Second and a Third Gallery, Tent Work in Palestine, vol. ii. p. 7). (2.) The second until almost all our great men were delineated. In 1851 Gilgal, mentioned in Joshua xii. 23 in connexion with Dor, the Bards of the Bible appeared ; and this has been his appears to have been situated in the maritime plain. Jerome most successful work. His aim was that it should be “a (Onomasticon, s.v. Gelgel) speaks of a town of the name 6 poem on the Bible”; and it was far more rhapsodical than Roman miles north of Antipatris (Râs el ’Ain). This is critical
. Still the little criticism that was scattered through apparently the modern Kalkilia (vulgarly Galgilia), but out it was more than enough to keep it from soaring into about 3 miles north of Antipatris is a large village called poetry; and the poetry, when pure, was so fragmentary, Jiljúlieh, which is more probably the Biblical town. (3.) The that instead of making one poem, it consisted of many'small third Gilgal (2 Kings iv. 38) was in the mountains (compare pieces, though in these there were grand strokes and ex- 2 Kings ii. 1-3) near Bethel. Jerome mentions this place quisite touches of description. His sketching powers were also (Onomasticon, s.v. Galgala). It appears to be the next exercised upon the "Scottish Covenanters," and some present village of Jiljilia, about 7 English miles north of of the heroes and episodes of the struggle received a glowing Beitîn (Bethel). commemoration. At a later date he published similar re- GILGIT (Ghilghit, &c.), properly a secluded valleypresentations of English Puritans and of Scotch Seceders, state on a tributary of the Upper Indus, but also applied as champions of the rights of conscience. The most exten- to the tributary river and the whole of its basin, which is sive publication with which Gilfillan was connected was one of great interest in many respects, though as yet but Nichol's edition of the British Poets; and his office was imperfectly known. Captain J. Biddulph has for some time not only to secure the utmost accuracy in the text of each past been employed in Gilgit on the part of the Government poet's works, but also to furnish both a biography and a of India, but no pårt of the information communicated by critical estimate. This engagement, taking him again and him has yet been made available. We shall describe the leisurely through the studies in which he had most delighted, whole basin so far as materials allow. and with which he had been most conversant, stimulated About 10 miles below the elbow formed by the Indus him to finish the work on which he had resolved in youth, (74° 42' long., 35° 50' lat.) in suddenly changing its course and to which he had long given the brightest moods of his from a general direction north-west to a general direction most genial hours. Night, a Poem, came out in 1867, when south-west, in the vicinity of some of the highest mountains he was fifty-four years of age ; but the work which had re- and vastest glaciers in the world, the Gilgit river enters it ceived his labour and his polishing during his best thirty on the right bank, and with a general direction from the years was far less successful than his most ephemeral produc- north-west. Thus the axis of the Gilgit valley is in fact a tions. It was, indeed, an absolute failure. The theme was prolongation of that of the Indus valley in the direction vast, vague, and unmanageable, even though the poem had maintained by the latter for some 300 miles abore the elbow extended to ninety, instead of nine books. Then, though his just mentioned. The length of the basin, so far as we know, nature was largely and essentially poetic, Gilfillan had never on a line nearly west to east, is 120 miles; and its given himself a training or even any practice in verse. greatest width from north to south is about 75. The south Besides he had already, in his many prose volumes, made limit of the basin is formed by the lofty watershed which use of all his poetic ideas and illustrations. There was not divides the west-to-east Gilgit basin from the meridional a line in Night that had not often sounded forth in his basins of the (Lower) Indus, the Swat, and the Panjkora. essays with stronger and finer melody. It was but a faint At its intersection with the Indus-Swat watershed this limit echo, and it had no music. His History of a Man, partly rises to a peak of 19,400 feet, and at its intersection with autobiographic and largely fabulous, was not written with the Panjkora-Chitral watershed to peaks of 18,490 and his usual candour and geniality. Not less abundant and 19,440 feet. The western limit of the basin is the lofty striking than his literature was bis oratory; and wherever watershed dividing it from the Mastúj valley on the upper he appeared as a preacher, or as a lecturer on some literary waters of the Chitral river. This limit runs from the interor secular theme, he drew large crowds that were invariably section last mentioned north-north-east and then north-east, thrilled by his eloquence. There was no token either of till it joins the great mountain node in wbich the ranges physical or of mental exhaustion when he died suddenly of of Hindu-Kush and the Juztagh (or Karakoram), accordheart disease, in the summer of 1878. He had just finished ing to our usual nomenclature, coalesce on the margin of & new life of Burns designed to accompany a new edition the Pamir plateau. The northern limit of the basin is of the works of that poet.
formed by the Muztagh itself, with peaks of 23,330 feet, GILGAL. Three towns of this name are mentioned in 22,7 40 feet, 22,590 feet, 25,370 feet, 25,050 feet, and the the Bible. (1.) The first and most important was situated “in basin is closed on the east by an offshoot of the Muztagh the east border of Jericho" (Joshua ir. 19), on the border which, over the Indus elbow, forms that other great congeries between Judah and Benjamin (Joshua xv. 7). Josephus -of peaks and glaciers, of which the culminating point (Rákiplaces it 50 stadia from Jordan and 10 from Jericho (Antiq., púshi) rises to 25,550 feet, whilst seven others exceed 19,000 v. 1, 4), but these measurements do not agree with the posi- feet. South of the gorge tlirough which the Gilgit waters tion of Jericho with respect to Jordan. Jerome (Onomas- force their way to the Indus this eastern barrier continues ticon, s.v. Galgal) places Gilgal 2 Roman miles from Jericho, with summits rising to 14,000 and 15,000 feet, and joins and speaks of it as a deserted place held in wonderful venera- the southern limit already described. This last-mentioned
part of the barrier is known as the Niludar Hills, and has this lofty district ; but the route surveys show about thirty. The to be passed by the traveller who enters Gilgit from height of the chief place, Yassin, is 7770 feet. The country was Kashmir, i.e., from India. The remotest source of the Gilgit | Mr George Hayward, and on the second visit in July of that year
visited twice in 1870 by 'a very gallant but not prudent traveller, waters is in a lake called Shundar, close above Mastúj, and he was murdered by the agents of the chief Mir Wali
, whilst on by which one of the chief passes leads from Gilgit and his way to the Darkot pass, in hope of penetrating to Wakhán and Yassia to Mastuj and Chitral. The Ghizar river runs out of the exploration of Paniir. It is believed that Yassin has recently
been annexed by the troops of Kashmir. this, and, after a course of 60 miles, is joined by the river of
2. Next below Yassin is the small state of Punisl or Punyi, long Yassin, coming from the north. These two may be considered held by separate rajas, and held by them now in dependence of to form the Gilgit river. The Yassin river itself is formed by Kashmir
. It occupies the narrow valley' of the river for a length two streams joining 6 or 8 miles above the village of Yassin,
of 25 iniles, and contains nine villages, varying in height from
7000 feet down to 5500 fect. The villages are all within littic by each of which leads a pass. From the north-west comes
forts, so that (as in Khorasan, and in Marco Polo's narrative) the Tui or Joshabbar streana, by which lies the Moshabbar villages and forts are synonymous. At evening, the people who pass, probably at least 16,000 feet in height, and traversing have been occupied in their fields come within the wall, and the a deep crevassed glacier ior 8 miles. From where the road gates are closed. Seutries guard the towers all night, and at dawn reaches the upper stream of Mastúj one path leads down the might harbour an enemy, before the people issue to their avoca
an armed patrol gocs forth and makes the round of all places that latter to Mastúj, and another up-stream, crossing by the tions. In this part of the valley there are frequent mauvais pas Baroghil pass (12,000 feet), over the prolongation of on the road, where passage is difficult, and where a few men might Hindu-Kush watershed, into Wakhán and the basin of stop a host. These are called by the old Persian name of darband the Upper Oxus. By the other stream, called the War (porta clausa), like the famous Iron Gate on the Caspian. The
upper village of Puniál, called Gákúj, was till recently the furthest chagam river, coming from the north, a path leads
point to which the power of Kashmir, and therefore the influence over the Darkot pass to the very source of the Mastúj of the British Government, extended. It stands 6940 feet above river, and so also to the Baroghil pass. Another im
Between Gákúj and Yassin the road passes through a
natural gate of rock. The ruler of Puniál is, or was in 1873, Raja portant stream, the Karambar, joins the Gilgit river from
*Isa Baguur, an old man who, in his little kingdom of nine the north, about 21 miles below the confluence of the Ghizar
villages, displayed some of the best characteristics of a king, feared by his enemies, liked and implicitly obeyed by his people. On meeting him they go up and kiss his hand.
Gilgit occupies the remainder of the main valley down to the Indus, but we shall first speak of Hunza and Nagar, lying in the eastmost part of the basin, on the Nagar river.
3 and 4. Nayar lies on the left bank of the river, Hunza opposite, and the two capitals," so to call them, lie just over against one another. They are distinct states under distinct princes, and their people of distir.ct Mussulman sects. Whilst Nagar sends a small complimentary tribute to the maharaja of Kashmir, Hunza (also called Kahjúd), a more warlike country, has often been at active enmity with him, coming down upon his villages in Gilgit, sweeping off the inhabitants, and selling them into slavery. Though the people of both states seem to speak the same language, Dr Leitner says the Nagar people are shorter, stouter, and fairer than the Hunza folk, whom he calls “tall skeletons" and desperate robbers. He says he met a man of Nagar whose yellow moustache and general appearance made him believe almost that he had seen a Russian. The Kanjúdis are the terror of the Kirghiz on the upper waters of the Yarkand, and of the traders from Ladák to that territory.
5. Hilgit occupies all the lower part of the main valley to the Indus. If we take the whole length of the river, from the source in the Shundar lake to the Indus, at 135 miles (which, like the
other distances bere, is taken with a 5-mile opening of the com. Chart of Gilgit.
pass, omitting minor windings), Yassin will occupy 75 miles of this,
Puniál 25, and Gilgit 35. The lower part of Gilgit is a valley and Yassin river.
This flows through the Ishkaman valley, from 1 to 3 miles wide, bounded on each side by steep rocky rising in a lake called the Karambar Sar, said to have been forms and at various levels above the river, which flows between
mountains. The valley contains stony alluvial plateaus of various formed in recent years by glaciers damming up the stream, cliffs worn in these. The greater part of this space is barren, but and by this runs the most easterly pass of those that lead as usual in those high regions there is in front of each lateral from the Gilgit basin direct to Wakhán. It is believed to
ravine a cultivated space watered by the tributary stream, and on ba very lofty and difficult, but it has not been explored. the sea, and stands on a flat plain of the river
alluvium, forming a
that a collection of houses. The village of Gilgit is 4800 seet above About 36 miles below the Ghizar-Yassin confluence, and 25 terrace 30 or 40 feet above the water. The cultivation here covers miles above the confluence with the Indus, on the right bank, a square mile or thereabouts, irrigated from the nearest lateral stand the fort and village of Gilgit. Five miles below this
stream. The houses are flat-roofed, scattered over the plain in the river is joined by the last important confluent, called the great in the wars to which Gilgit has been subject in the last half
twos and threes, among groups of fruit-trees. The destruction was Nagar river. Recent information suggests that this stream century, it long
has a very lengthened course, flowing, in fact, from the former abundance of fruit-trees. The fort of Gilgit is the chief northern side of the Muztagh in the vicinity of the Karam stronghold of the maharaja of Kashmir in Dardistán. bar lake; and, if this be so, a large addition must be made to There is very little snow-fall at Gilgit. The vegetable the Gilgit basin as a whole. But of this we have no products are wheat, barley, naked barley, rice (at Gilgit
village only), maize, millet, buckwheat, various pulses, rape, The states occupying the basin of Gilgit are, or till lately and cotton; and of fruits, mulberries
, were, the following:
grapes, apples, quinces, pears, greengages, figs (poor), wal. Pussin: -This embraces all the upper or western part of the nuts
, pomegranates, and elæagnus, besides musk and waterbasin, including the leh kaman Valley. For some generations, at melons. Silk is grown in very small quantity. There are least, the relations of this state with Gilgit were hostile , whilst it three fabrics from it,-one half-wool
, much worn by those was in with the kings of Chitral, and held by a member of the same family indeed it was registered above the common peasant, one half-cotton, and the third
ali and named as a subdivision of Upper Chitral." We have no present silk, strong though loosely woven, and prized for girdles
. information as to the population of even the number of villages in | Gold is washed from the river-gravels as in many other