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circuit of about 2 miles ; one of the principal streets—a | legend of the Virgin, from the Expulsion of Joachim from via recta, or straight street—has evidently been bordered the Temple up to the Nativity. In the subject of the Preon both sides by colonnades; and two theatres are the most sentation of the Virgin in the Temple are the two heads noticeable of the ruined edifices. The cliffs round the town traditionally accepted as portraits of Gaddo Gaddi and are full of tombs excavated in the limestone rock, and by a l'Andrea Tafi ; they cannot, at any rate, be portraits of those curious jrony of fate these chanıbers of the dead are the artists from the life. On the ceiling of the same chapel are only places where a living inhabitant of Gadara is to be the Eight Virtues. In the museum of Berlin is an altarfound According to Josephus, Gadara was a Greek city, piece by Taddeo, the Virgin and Child and some other suband it appears at least not improbable that it was a foreign jects, dated 1334; in the Naples Gallery, a triptych, dated settlement. The name does not occur in the Scriptures ; 1336, of the Virgin enthroned along with Fo Saints, the but in the New Testament, the phrase "the country of the Baptism of Jesus, and his Deposition from the Cross; in Gladarenes " is used more than once, and there is no reason the sacristy of S. Pietro a Megognano, near Poggibonsi, an to doubt that the vicinity of the town was the scene of the altarpiece dated 1355, the Virgin and Child enthroned amid healing of the demoniacs by the Saviour, recorded in Matt. | Angels. A series of paintings, partly from the life of S. riii., Mark v., and Luke viji. Josephus informs us that Francis, which Taddeo executed for the presses in S. Croce, Gadara was captured by Antiochus in 218 B.O., and, about are now divided between the Florentine Academy and the 20 years afterwards, stood a ten months' siege by Alexander Berlin Museum; the compositions are taken from or Jannæus. It was twice taken by Vespasian, though, on founded on Giotto, to whom, indeed, the Berlin authorities the first occasion, the Jewish inhabitants offered a stout have ascribed their examples. Taddeo also painted some resistance. At a later period it recovered from the injuries frescos still extant in Pisa, besides many in S. Croce and he inflicted, and was one of the most beautiful and flourish- other Florentive buildings, which have perished. He iny cities of Syria; and it was not till after the Mahometan deservedly ranks as one of the most eminent successors of conquest that it fell again into decay. Its archæon or Giotto; it may be said that he continued working up the prefecture is mentioned in the Midrash Rabba (circa 278) material furnished by that great painter, with comparatively and other Jewish writings. According to Dr O. Blau the feeble inspiration of his own. His figures are vehement in town was also known as the Arabian Antioch. To the action, long and slender in forzn ; his execution rapid and literary student it is interesting as the birthplace of somewhat conventional. To Taddeo are generally ascribed Meleager the anthologist.

the celebrated frescos--those of the ceiling and left or See Porter in Journ. of Sacred Literature, vol. vi. ; Journ. Asia- western wall—in the Cappella degli Spagnuoli

, in the tique, 1867, p. 191; Zeilsch, d. D. Morg. Ges., 1869.

church of S. Maria Novella, Florence; this is, however, GADDI. Four painters of the early Florentine school - open to considerable doubt, although it may perhaps be father, son, and two grandsons—bore this name.

conceded that the designs for the ceiling were furnished by 1. GADDO GADDI (1239 to about 1312) was, according to Taddeo. Dubious also are the three pictures ascribed to Vasari, an intimate friend of Cimabue, and afterwards of him in the London National Gallery. As a mosaist, he has Giotto. He was a painter and mosaist, is said to have left some work in the baptistery of Florence. As an archiexecated the great mosaic inside the portal of the cathedral tect, he supplied in 1336 the plans for the present Ponte of Florence, representing the coronation of the Virgin, and Vecchio, and those for the original (not the present) Ponte may with more certainty be credited with the mosaics inside S. Trinita; in 1337 he was engaged on the church of Orsanthe portico of the basilica of S. Maria Maggiore, Rome, re- Michelo; and he carried on after Giotto's death the work lating to the legend of the foundation of that church ; their of the unrivalled Campanile. date is probably 1308. In the original cathedral of St 3. AGNOLO GADDI, born in Florence, was the son of Peter in Rome, he also executed the mosaics of the choir, Taddeo; the date of his birth has been given as 1326, but and those of the front, representing on a colossal scale God possibly 1350 is nearer the mark. He was a painter and the Father, with many other figures ; likewise an altarpiece mosaist, trained by his father, and a merchant as well; in in the chūrch of S. Maria Novella, Florence; these works middle age he settled down to commercial life in Venice, no longer exist. It is ordinarily held that no picture (as and he added greatly to the family wealth. He died iu distinct from mosaics) by Gaddo Gaddi is now extant. October 1396. His paintings show much early promise, Messrs Crowe & Cavalcaselle, however, consider that the hardly sustained as he advanced in life. One of the mosaics of S. Maria Maggiore bear so strong a resemblance earliest, at S. Jacopo tra' Fossi, Florence, represents the in style to four of the frescos in the upper church of Assisi, Resurrection of Lazarus. Another probably youthful perrepresenting incidents in the life of St Francis (frescos 2, formance is the series of frescos of the Pieve di Prato 3, 4, and especially 5, which shows Francis stripping him legends of the Virgin and of her Sacred Girdle, bestowed self

, and protected by the bishop), that those frescos like- upon St Thomas, and brought to Prato in the 11th century wise may, with considerable confidence, be ascribed to Gaddi. by Michele dei Dagomari; the Marriage of Mary is one of Some other extant mosaics are attributed to him, but with the best of this series, the later compositions in which have out full authentication. This artist laid the foundation of suffered much by renewals. In S. Croce he painted, in 2. very large fortune, which continued increasing, and placed eight frescos, the legend of the Cross, beginning with the his progeny in a highly distinguished worldly position. Archangel Michael giving Seth a branch from the tree of

2. TadDEO GADDI (about 1300-1366, or later), son of knowledge, and ending with the Emperor Heraclius car. Gaddo, was born in Florence

, and became one of Giotto's rying the Cross as he enters Jerusalem ; in this picture most industrious assistants for a period (as usually stated) is a portrait of the painter bimself. Agnolo composed of 24 years. This can hardly be other than an exaggera- his subjects better than Taddeo; he had more dignity tion; it is probable that he began painting on bis own and individuality in the figures, and was a clear and bold account towards 1330, when Giotto went to Naples. colourist; the general effect is laudably decorative, but Taddeo also traded as a merchant, and had a branch esta- the drawing is poor, and the works show best from a blishment in Venice. He was a painter, mosaist, and archi- distance. Various other productions of this master exist, tect. He executed in fresco, in the Baroncelli (now Giugni) and many have perished. Cennino Cennini, the author of chapel

, in the Florentine church of S. Cruce, the Virgin the celebrated treatise on painting, was one of his pupils. and Child between Four Prophets, on the funeral monument 4. GIOVANNI GA NI, brother of Agnolo, was also a painter, at the entrance, and on the walls various incidents in the of promise. He did young.

(W. M. R.)

GADIATCH, a town of Russia, at the head of a district in West Norfolk and its immediate neighbourhood, the the government of Poltava, situated on the elevated banks Gadwall has now, for nearly thirty years, annually bred in of the Grun and the Psel, 73 miles N.N.W. of Poltava, in constantly increasing numbers, so that it may again be '50° 22' N. lat. and 34° 0' E. long. It is a plain wood-built accounted, in the fullest sense of the word, an inhabitant 'town, witli four Greek churches and two synagogues, deriv. of England ; and, as it has been always esteemed one of ing its main importance from its four annual fairs, one of the best of wild fowl for the table, the satisfactory result which, lasting for three weeks, was, up to 1857, held at the of its encouragement 'by this gentleman is not to be Hermitage of the Transfiguration (Skeet Preobrazhenski). | despised.

(A. N.) In 1860 the population was 7263, 1213 of the number GAELIC LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE. Until being Jews. According to W. Struve's Calendar for 1878, recently there was doubt as to the family of languages to it was 8425. Gadiatch was the place where the assembly which the Gaelic belonged ; indeed, with many scholars the was convoked by the hetman Vigofski in 1658, for the impression existed that it belonged to the Semitic branch, publication of the treaty contracted between the Ukrainians and that its relations must all be traced among some one or and the Poles. During the hetmanate it had fortifications other of its varieties. This view arose very much from the of which traces are still extant, ranked as a garrison town, neglect with which the language had been treated by and was the residence of the hetman. At first it was scientific men. Con parative philology is itself a modern included in the military district of Luben, but after 1650 in subject of study. Naturally, in its progress, the more the district to which it gave its name. Along with 13 large prominent languages came first, while the more obscure were villages it was bestowed by the empress Elizabeth on Count passed over as of comparatively subordinate importance. Razumofski, but it was afterwards purchased from him by The study is one so comprehensive, and requiring so large the empress Catharine II. In 1771 the town and districte an amount of acquirement of various kinds, that it is no were incorporated with the province of Kieff, and in 1802 real reproach to modern scholarship that the study of such they obtained their present position in the government of languages as the latter should liave been postponed in Pultowa.

favour of that of languages more generally known. Their GADWALL, a word of obscure origin,' the common turn, however, gradually came, and no one can complaia English name of the Duck, called by Linnæus Anas strepera, now that they have not received the attention of very combut considered by many modern ornithologists to require

petent scholars.

It is doubtful whether a higher class of removal from the genus Anas to that of Chaulelusmus or scholarship has been nurtured anywhere than in the study Ctenorhynchus, of either of which it is not only the typical of the Celtic languages, as exhibited by such men as Zeuss, but the sole species. Its geographical distribution is almost Dieffenbach, Ebel, Wbitley Stokes, the Chevalier Nigra, identical with that of the common Wild Duck or Mallard Heuri Gaidoz, and others who have devoted their strength (see Duck, vol. vii. p. 505), since it is found over the to their exposition. The result has been the complete greater part of the Northern Hemisphere ; but, save in establishment of the fact that this class of languages belongs Iudia, where it is said to be perhaps the most plentiful to the Indo-European or Aryan stock, and is closely related species of Duck during the cold weather, it is hardly any- to the classical branch of those tongues. where so numerous, and both in the eastern parts of the The first who brought real scholarship to bear upou the United States and in the British Islands it is rather rare question of the family to which the Celtic dialects belonged thau otherwise. Itu habits also, so far as they have been was Dr Cowles Pritchard. His Eastern Origin of the Celtic observed, greatly resemble those of the Wild Duck; but its Nations is a work of the highest value, distinguished by its appearance on the water is very different, its small head, erudition, and the sound judgment it displays. He was one flat back, elongated form, and elevated stern rendering it of the most remarkable men whom Britain has produced in recognizable by the fowler even at such a distance as the field of comparative philology. No doubt it is with the hinders him from seeing its very distinct plumage. In Welsh he chiefly dealt, but, in discussing such questions as coloration the two sexes agree much more than is the case he had to deal with, it mattered little which of the Celtic with

any of the European Freshwater Ducks (Anatince) tongues was made use of. Many writers followed Dr one only, the Anas marmorata, excepted ; but on closer Pritchard, and there is now, as has been said, no question inspection the drake exhibits a delicate ash-coloured breast, about the Aryan source of the Celtic languages. It is not and upper wing-coverts of a deep chestnut, which are wholly that the words are to a large extent analogous, but the wanting in his soberly clad partner. She, however, has, in grammatical structure and the idioms correspond to such common with him, some of the secondary quills of a pure an extent that the question is put beyond a doubt; while, white, presenting a patch of that colour which forms one of with the exception of a few common vocables, there is little the most readily-perceived distinctive characters of the that is analogous between the Celtic and the Semitic species. The Gadwall is a bird of some interest, since it languages. is one of the few that have been induced, by the protection The territory once occupied by the Celtic race is a quesafforded them in certain localities, to resume the indigenous tion of much interest. Now they are confined within wellposition they once filled, but had, through the draining and known limits. On the European continent they occupy that reclaiming of marshy lands, long since 'abandoned. In part of France usually called Brittany, the most westerly regard to the present species, this fact is due to the efforts portion of the country terminating in Cape Finisterre. They of the lato Mr Andrew Fountaine, on whose property, in occupied this territory so early as the days of Julius Cæsar,

although it has been said that they were emigrants from 1 Webster gives the etymology gad well = go about well. Dr R. G. Latham suggests that it is taken from the syllables quedul, of the

Britain at a later period. The topographical terms given Latin querquedula, a Teal. The spelling “ Gadwall

by Cæsar in describing the Roman invasion all indicate first found in Willughby in 1676, and has been generally adopted by that the language of the natives of Brittany used then, and later writers ; but Merrett, in 1667, has Gaddel" (Pinar Rerum

for a long time before, was as mueh Celtic as it is now. naturalium Britannicarum, p. 180), saying that it was so called by The synonym “Gray," given by Willuglby and Ray,

Opposite to Brittany lies British Cornwall, a region with a is doubtloss derived from the general colour of the species, and has its Celtic tongue until about 100 years ago. The two Corn'analogue in the Icelandic Gráind, applied almost indifferently, or with walls--one in Britain and the other in Franco-terminated, somo distinguishing cpithet, to the fumale of any of the Froshwater

one on each side, the territory ocoupied by the Celt. The Ducks, and especially to both sexes of the present, in which, as stated in the text, there is comparatively little difference of plumago in Drake dialects spoken in these stood in the closest relationship. and Duck.

To the north of this lies the greatest of all tho modem ac


seems to be



tions of the Cimbrian Celts Wales, occupied by about a Irish addition made to the verb in the process of culture. million inhabitants, is nearly Celtic, and uses the aucient At the same time it must be allowed that there is a diffitongue of Wales, Cumbria, and Strathclyde Across the culty in proving from any literary remains existing that the ses from Wales lies the Isle of Man, where the Gaelic present Scottish form of the language is of great antiquity. branch of the Celtic held sway, and does to some extent All the literary relics that have come down to us are still In Ireland the Gaelic also prevailed, and is still written in what is usually called the Irish dialect. The spoken by about a million people. And lastly, in the present tense is in universal use, as well by Scottish as by Scottish Highlands about 300,000 people still use, less or Irish writers. This arose from the identity of the Irish and more, the old Gaelic tongue of Scotland. Thus Brittany, Scottish churches. The dialect in which all theological Wales, Man, western Ireland, and the Scottish Highlands treatises were written was one, and this dialect extended are now the territory of the Celtic languages. That they from the clergy to bards, and sennachies, and medical men. once occupied a wider sphere is beyond a doubt. There There is not a page of Gaelic written in any other dialect are traces of the tongue, in one form or other, to be found before the middle of last century. But as in other counall along southern Europe. Topography is a valuable tries there was both a spoken and a written dialect in use, source of evidence, and one that will be made to serve pur- so in both Scotland and Ireland there appears to have been poses it has never served as yet; and it furnishes us—in a dialect in use among the people as their common speech, İtaly, France, Switzerland, Spain, and Portugal - with relics and another used by their scholars, the former varying which, like animal fossils dug from the depths of the earth, according to locality, and the latter being identical throughspeak unmistakably of what formerly existed there. How out. Some of the features that distinguish the Gaelic far the Gaelic form of Celtic speech prevailed it is difficult language, partly in common with the other Celtic tongues, to say, or whether it existed alongside of the Cimbric on and partly not, are the following : the continent of Europe But the name Gallia is significant 1. The aspiration of consonants. This is accomplished by tho as applied to France; and it is a suggestive fact that, to change of m into v, of b into v, of d into y, of g into a broad y, of this day, the Bretons call France Gaul, as distinguished tions this presents a peculiar dificulty to the learner of Gaelic. lle

p into s, and s and t into h. As appearing in the initial articulafrom their own country, and in like manner call the French has been accustomed, in learning other tongues, to observe the language Gallic, as distinguished from the Breton. In changes required by inflexion, and other requirements of correct Scotland the Gaelic and Cimbric races long dwelt together, grammatical structure. But he has not been familiar with changes distinct and yet nearly related. When they separated, undergo any change ; but in Gaelic he meets with such changes at

in the initial letters of words. In English these letters never either as to race or language, is not easily settled. There

He finds mac, a son, becoming in certain circumstances rac, are indications on the Continent which rather throw doubt and he is ready to doubt whether both forms belong to the same word. on the idea maintained by some writers that the divergence To make the difficulty as little formidable as possible to the reader, tho took place after the settlement of the race in Britain, and authors of the Gaelic orthography fell upon the method of using tho farther inquiry as to these indications is essential ere a

letter h, which, though hardly a letter in Gaelic, and never used to satisfactory conclusion can be reached. But within the his begin a word, is now used more than any other letter. The Irish

use a dot. The use of the h serves to preserve to the reader the toric period the two races existed side by side in Scotland, original form of the word. Hence mac becomes by aspiration, or

These the Cimbric occupying the region called Strathclyde, with adoucissement as the French call it, mhac, pronounced vac. their separate government and laws, and the Gael at least euphony, to which Gaelic makes large sacrifices, and also for the

initial changes of certain consonants aro made for the purpose of occupying the Dalriadic kingdom of Argyll, The people purpose of distinguishing gender. An aspiration converts the called by the Romans Picts occupied the north and east of feminine into the masculine, and, vice versa. An ceann is the head, Scotland. That these were the same people with the masculine, a' chos the foot, feminine. So a chos is his foot, a cos is Dalriadic Scots is somewhat questionable. That they were

her foot; 'a cheann is his head, a ceann is her head, the pronoun

undergoing no change, although its gender is indicated by the closely related to them is beyond doubt, but that they had change. There are other purposes served by aspiration of considerlinguistic and other peculiarities is manifest. Their topo- able importance. The Gaelic learner makes a large acquisition when graphy proves it, being different from that of either Ireland he masters the principles of aspiration, and inquirers into the or Argyll , and, so far as the historic relations of both are

characters of the language will cease to blame the frequency with concerned, they indicate a state of chronic war.

which h appears in Gaelio writing when they come to see how im. For

portant a purpose centaries there were mutual raids of Scots on Picts, and 2. Another peculiarity of the Gaelic language is to be found, as Picts on Scots, until finally, under Kenneth MacAlpine, already said, in the want of a present tense in the verb. The king of Dalriada, the Picts were overcome in the year 843, tive mood. There is no tense expressing simply I do, the form in

to do" is dean, the theme of the verb being in the imperaand they and the Scots became united under one monarchy. use being I am doing, tha mi a' dcanamh. The Irish say deanaim, The tradition is that the Picts were annihilated, -meaning, 1 do, but that is not the Scottish form of the expression. In this in all likelihood, their power,—and there arose one great Gaelic is not only at one with several of the Celtic branches, united kingdom. The united people are the ancestors of but with some of the Semitic tongues. And it has this further in

common with these last, that the future is used to express present the present Scottish Highlanders, and the Gaelic language time. This occurs frequently in the Gaelic

version of the Bible, has come down from them to us, influenced as to structure where we have an ti a chreideas anns a' Mhac, he that will by the dialect spoken and written by the victors.

believe in the Son, for he that believeth. And yet occasionally a The Gaelic language, as now in ase in Scotland, resembles true present tense appears in Gaelic :-an cluinn thu sin? Do closely in its structure both the Irish and the Manx. They you see that? chi, I do see it. In those cases and some others

you hear that? cluinnidh, I do hear it; am faic thu sin! Do form one family, and yet it has its own distinctive features, there is no doubt a distinct present tense. The cases are however, Irish scholars maintain that it is a modern and corrupt few, and occur in peculiar circumstances. offshoot of the Irish, and account in this way for these

3. Another feature peculiar to Gaelic is that there is no real

infinitive in the verb. The infinitive in use is a noun which may peculiarities. They say, for example, that the absence of

appear either in the form of a participle or an infinitive, according the present tense in the Gaelic verb is a mere instance of to the effect of the preceding preposition. I am going to strike, decay, and proves the modern character of the dialect. . But tha mi 'dol do bhualadh, I am going to striking; I am striking, tha the Welsh is no modern and corrupt form of Irish, but an

mi a' bualadh, I am at striking,-the preposition do, to, in the one ancient distinct tongue, so far back as history carries

caso giving the noun the force of an infinitive, and the preposition ag

or a', at, giving the same noun the force of a participle. The Gaelic 12: And yet it wants the present tense, indicating that infinitive is thus identical with the Latin gerund, and is one of the this peculiarity is distinctive of some of the Celtic tongues, points where the classical and the Celtic tongues meet and touch. and that what is cited as a proof of recency may in reality

In the article CELTIC LITERATURE reference is made be a proof of priority. The present tense may be celled an to some of those cases in which the Irish dialect of the

it serves.


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are numerous.

Celtic differs from some of the others. It is unnecessary | Irish and Scottish Celts have in understanding each others' here to go over the same ground again. What is distinctive speech. of the Irish is, for the most part, distinctive of the Scottish Advantages and Defects of Gaelic.—The Gaelic lanGaelic. The Gaelic retains the hard or k sound of c. guage, as now existing, has its advantages and its correThere is not an instance of a purely Gaelic word in which sponding defects. It is admirably adapted for the purposes the c is pronoupced soft. There are dialects of Gaelic, how- of the poet. In descriptive poetry few languages excel it. ever, in which the c becomes aspirated in the middle or at There are some pieces of ancient, authentic, Ossianic poetry the end of a word. Thus mac, a son, is pronounced machd; existing that are equal in power and beauty to the composipeacadh, sin, is pronounced peachdadh. This peculiarity | tions of any age or country. Such are the description of does not exist in the counties of Sutherland and Caithness, Cuchullin's chariot and horses, and the description of the where the hard sound of c is retained. The Scottish Gaelic, swords of the Ossianic heroes. The same is true of more in like manner, in common with Sanskrit, Latin, German, modern poetic compositions. Macintyre of Glenorchy's and Slavonian, retains the sibilant s, where other dialects Beinn Douran and Coire Cheathaich are fine specimens of have discarded it. Many words beginning in Gaelic with descriptive poetry-poetical in conception throughout o have h as the initial letter in Welsh. It is worthy of couched in the choicest language, and with rhythm of unobservation, however, that, in the aspirated form of the s failing accuracy. The same may be said of Macdonald's used in inflexion or as indicative of gender, the 8 assumes Oran an t-samhraidh, or Ode to Summer, which is 8 the sound of h in Gaelic. In like manner

, words in Gaelic, remarkable specimen of what the Gaelic is capable of when as in Irish, can end in 8, r, and n. The instances of these used for the description of nature. Other lyrical composi

So also does the Gaelic, like Irish, retain tions are also of a high order of merit Love-songs and 'a barder form of the articulation than the British, but not boat-songs abound, and are in many cases full of life and to the same extent; for huvel, low, in Irish humal, is in force; and the numerous songs expressive of clan affections Gaelic umhal, approaching in this, ss in many other cases, and animosities display the same characteristics. No latBearer to the British form. So the Gaelic preserves letters guage is more capable of expressing both love and hate, and where the British loses them, but not to the same extent as there seems to have been ample scope for both in the past the Irish. For when the Irish has tech, a house, and the history of the Highland clans Within certain límits then, British ti, the Gaelic has both teach and tigh, and for the Gaelic is the language of poetry, extending from the epic of most part uses the latter. In addition to this, the Gaelic, the Ossianic bards down to the lyric or less aspiring efforts like the Irish, has preserved the declension of its noun, of lesser bards. which cannot be said of the British. Four of the cases are The language is also admirably fitted for the communicain constant use, the nominative, the genitive, the dative, tion of religious knowledge. It is in its structure metaand the vocative in both numbers, the dative plural alone phorical and emotional, and renders with wonderful prehaving almost disappeared from common speech. In the cision and effect the statements of Scripture. The saying singular number these cases are distinctly marked—cos, a attributed to one of the dukes of Argyll is well known, foot, gen. coise, dat. cois, voc. a chos. Wherever the language that if addressing his sovereign he would choose English, is well spoken these cases are in daily use, and are lost if addressing the lady of his affections he would choose only when the language is far on in the process of decay. French, but if he was addressing his God he would choose

Difference between Gaelic and Irish. -The differences Gaelic. Few of those whose calling it is to teach relibetween the Gaelic and the Irish are considerable, and, gious truth, and who know how to handle the language though Irish writers maintain the contrary, are not to be with effect, have failed to feel and own that it is incompartaken as indications of the modern origin of the former. able for conveying the knowledge of the truth with power. Without entering on that question, we find a marked dis- Perhaps no preachers have surpassed the Welsh in real elo that is, the use of other and softer articulations to eclipse behind them. The language has served a great purpose in the harder in the beginning of a word, in some cases, as, the Highlands in connexion with the religious life of the for instance, in the genitive plural of nouns. The object people. aimed at would seem to be euphony, and in seeking this The defects of the language are to be found chiefly in the object the Irish and the Scottish ear did not altogether departments of philosophy, science, and art. There it has correspond. In Irish, the law as given by O'Donovan is either to be rejected or to be supplied from foreign sources. that m eclipses b, as ar m-bo, our cow; g eclipses c, as ar Indeed in this field it seems to have deteriorated during g-ceart, our right; n eclipses d, bh eclipses f, n eclipses 9,6, the course of several centuries. There are MSS. of the eclipses p, d eclipses t, t eclipse3 s. This system of eclips- 14th and 15th centuries in existence, in which terms are ing runs through the nouns and verbs. It is unknown in employed in connexion with discussions in philosophy, Gaelic, if we except the eclipsing of s by t, as an t-sùil, the theology, and medicine that could not now be understood. eye, an t-slat, the rod, and certain words which, in some The philosophy of Aristotle is well rendered, as are also the districts of the Highlands, suffer eclipse. In Skye the ex- theology of the fathers and the medical disquisitions of the pression for the number of men is direamh nan n-daoine, the Arabic writers on medicine. But when modern science n eclipsing the d. Other instances may be found along the and philosophy, and even theology in some of its departwest coast of Scotland. But eclipsis is, for the most part, ments, have to be dealt with, the lack of terms renders the distinctive of the Irish dialect. The Gaelic is further task a difficult one. It is here that, in the progress of marked by a greater tendency to aspiration than the Irish. education, the difficulty of preserving the language lies. The sentence cionnas ta tu ? how art thou ? in Irish, is in The effect of this want is traceable in common speech, when Gaelic cionnus tha thu ? the verb and the pronoun being both English words have of necessity to be used in connexion aspirated. Other differences might be referred to, but one with objects of everyday use. Steamer, train, boiler, is prominent, the difference of accent or emphasis. The engine, railway, quay, &c., have just to be introduced from tendency of the Irish is to emphasize the final syllable, that the Saxon, and presented with a little of the Gaelic tone in of the Gaelic to emphasize the penultimate. Thus salách, them to suit the Celtic ear. Some writers and speakers do dirty, in Irish, is in Gaelic salăch ; Oisin, Ossian, is in try to invent Gaelic terms to represent all these and similar Gaelic Oisiðn. This makes a striking difference in the objects, but popular usage rejects them and prefers the spoken tongues, and occasions ono of the main difficulties foreign words.



GAELIC LITERATURE. — The literature of the Scottish | sithean, the word used for green hillocks, which abound Highlands may be divided into several branches. The throughout the Highlands. These hills are supposed to be following outline comprehends more perhaps than is usually the abodes of fairies, who, in consequence, are called daoine included under that term; in particular, it appears necessary sithe, or the men of the hillocks. Sith, peace, has no part to give here some account of topographical and personal. in forming the designation, although often said to have. Dames.

These beings were the very opposite of peaceful in the Mythology. We have pret the mythology of the race. popular belief. It is impossible here to give an account of Little of this now exists, and it is difficult to piece the the common belief in the Highlands regarding fairies, but scattered fragments together. We find the mythology of there is a great deal of popular literature taken up with the older faith or faiths interwoven in some cases with the descriptions of it, and with stories regarding these mismythology of the Northmen. The mythology of the East chievous and meddling beings. They were fond of carrying appears at some points, and we have giants, fairies, and away young children, and substituting young fairies in their witches, some of them firmly believed in to the present day. place, to the grief and harassment of the mother. Nor did Adamnan, in bis life of Columba, refers to the magi who they confine their assaults to children, but sometimes carried were in the palace of the Pictish king whom the missionary men and women to their underground abodes, where they sought to convert. Who these were, and what was their passed through extraordinary scenes. The Rev. Robert creed, is not clearly stated, but all we read of that early Kirke of Balqulidder wrote an account of the fairies which faith, and all that tradition brings down to us, would seem awakened their anger, and they spirited him away to fairyto indicate that their worship was a form of sun worship. land. He was able to appear in the room at the baptism The words applied to the cardinal points of the compass con- of a child born after his removal, when it was arranged vey this impression, the fear shown in many ways of going that for his deliverance a knife was to be thrown over his against the course of the sun, and certain festivals in which head at a certain moment. The hour came, but through fire was and is used, would seem to confirm it. The bodies some infatuation the party entrusted with the duty failed of the dead are in some cases carried suuwise round certain in the performance. Mr Kirke was not delivered, and is objects on their way to the burial ground; in fact, words believed to be in fairyland to this day. Similar stories ar and practices crop up in scveral parts of the country serving without number, and show how widely extended the belief to show that the sun was worshipped. Rath, a circle, is in fairies was. used in Gaelic to express good fortune :-cha-n'eil rath air, Witchcraft had a large place iu the popular beliefs, and has there is no cirelo on him, he is not fortunate, -referring, not lost it altogether at the present day. It was supposed no doubt, to the course of the sun. There was a Gaelic possible for a person endowed with this to inflict inythology connected with the Fingalian heroes. Whether great damage upon an adversary. Milk could be abstracted they themselves were mythical or not is debated, but | from the cows of a neighbour and brought to swell the prothere was a mythology connected with them. Fingal had duce of the party abstracting it. This belief has been the A sword that never required to be used twice ; the Vulcan source of much animosity and strife among neighbours of the race could cross a glen with a stride; Manannan, son down to the present time. Clay bodies stuck over with of Lir, from whom the Isle of Man is named, could clothe pins could be formed representing an adversary, and could himself in a fog, and so hide himself from his enemy. The be laid in a stream, and as the clay wasted, the body of story of Diarmad and the boar and the story of Fraoch the man represented pined until he died. This afforded and the beast are mythological, the former being the Celtic ample room for the exhibition of party or personal hatred, story of Achilles, and the latter the Celtic version of the and is not altogether unknown now. The literature of Garden of the Hesperides

. Then there were giants called witchcraft is of considerable extent, and consists in tales Sa Piantaichean, mon of colossal mould. Dun Fhian, the and forms of exorcism which are very various, and some of giant's castle, is a common topographical term. Here is them very curious. The forms are all in rhyme, and do not the description (with English translation) of one of these display much of the genius of poetry; they are usually

made up of appeals to saints and apostles, with the “ Tamhull mòr, mac shéann Tamhuil,

occasional introduction of the Virgin Mary. Several of Cha ruigeadh a' mhuir mhòr a ruinnse,

these have been handed down by tradition, and are scatCha thàradh e mach, 's cha thàradh e steach, 'Us 'n uair a bhitheadh e 's a bheul fodha,

tered through various works devoted to Highland lore. Near Bhitheadh a dhruim a' sgriobadh an athar."

the valley of the Spey there recently lived a noted wizard, Great Taval, son of old Taval,'

who possessed a charmed bridle which exercised a most The great sea wouldn't reach his middle:

powerful influence over all forms of bewitchment. A He couldn't get out and he couldn't get in;

clergyman, not far from the residence of this man, was on And when he lay down on his face,

one occasion much disturbed by the state of his cows, His back would be scratching the sky.

which had suddenly ceased to give milk. The neighSome of these tales of the giants attribute to them a bours assured the ninister that it was witchcraft, and tbat great age. There is one tale in which five generations in he ought to send for the man with the charmed bridle, succession are said to exist at the same time, and the which, very much against his will, he was induced to do. youngest of them a very aged man. The traditional tales The wizard came, and was told by the clergyman that he taken down by Mr J. F. Campbell

, from oral tradition in had no faith in his witchcraft, but he should very much the Highlands are full of mythology. Animals in these like to have his counsel as a man of skill

. The so-called play an important part

, and are endowed with remarkable wizard, understanding with whom he had to deal, at once powers

. How far this mythology is original, or is borrowed laid aside all pretension to superhuman power, and asked from the East, is an interesting question,

In some of the the minister where his cows usually fed, saying that they Western Isles, the Scandinavian god Odin enters into the would go and take a look at the grass

. They did so, when popular mytholugy, a relic, no doubt, of the Norse occupa- the wizaril pointed out a plant, then in flower, which he tion of the territory. Fairies, or the daoine sithe or sitle- said was, in that condition, most injurious to cows yielding ishean, hil an important place in the mythology of the milk. He advised the minister to keep the cows away from Highlands

. The name of these imaginary beings is derived that piece of pasture for a fortnight. This was done, and from their supposed habits. Fith is a common name in the cows recovered. The wizard got his fee and a promisą Gaelic for a hill of a peculiar form. As a diminutive it is that nothing should be said to affect the public confidence

beroes :


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