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....... hann.

.... nau ......





Six ........

parts of the Indus basin. The vine is much cultivated in Hunza, Molái—these are great wine drinkers; Nagar, some parts of the valley. In Puniál it is grown in small Shiah ; Ishkaman, Molái ; Yassin, Molai and Sunni, withvineyards, the vines being often old trees; the whole vine-out any Shiahs. Till lately they were very loose Mahomeyard is covered with a horizontal framework of sticks, 2 to | tans. Some of the Moslem officers in the Sikh and Dogra. 4 feet above the ground, and over this the vines are trained. garrisons have spread greater rigidity. The wine is put in

The people of the basin are all reckoned to be Dards, large earthenware jars, which are then buried for a time. though there is this perplexing fact, that (setting aside The people do not understand clarifying the wine. dialects) two languages are spoken among them, which are Leitner tasted some which was very palatable, but looked entirely and radically different,—the Khajuna language, more like mutton-broth than wine. A kind of beer is also which is spoken in Hunza, Nagar, and Yassin, being one made. Polo is a favourite game throughout Dardistán, as of which no relation has yet been traced to any other tongue, in Balti, which is its home, or one of its homes, and it exwhilst the Shina, spoken in the rest of the basin, is clearly tends to the Chitral country. Wherever Baltis or Dards Aryan, and kindred to the Sanskritic languages of India. | live, the polo-ground may be looked for. Target archery Now there seems to be no doubt entertained that the with firearms is also a favourite amusement; they use stones Yassin people at least have all the characters of undisputed for bullets, with a thin coating of lead.' They are excellent Dards. It is worth while to exhibit the numerals from shots. The Jew's harp is played; and the invention is these two languages.

ascribed to King David.
Shina. Khajuna.

History. - The Dards are located by Ptolemy with surprising One .. eyk


...... tato.

accuracy (Daradæ) on the west of the Upper Indus, beyond the Two ...... do......... altatz.


atsń alta mbu. head-waters of the Swat river (Soastus), and north of the Gandare, Three ..... tré ........ uskó.


untsho. 1. c., the Gandháras, who occupied Peshawar and the country north Four tshar Ten dáy

of it. The Dardas and Chinas also appear in many of the old Five рой.

tshudo. Eleven.. akáy...... turma-hann. Pauranic lists of peoples, the latter probably representing the Shin sha mishindo. Twelve .. báu ..

....... turma-altatz. branch of the Dards. This region was traversed by two of the The Dards not only occupy the Gilgit basin, but also Chinese pilgrims of the early centuries of our era, who have left extend down the Indus basin, in which they form a

records of their journeys, viz., Fahian, coming from the north,

€ 400, and Hwen-thsang, ascending from Swat, c. 631. The latter number of small republican communities (whilst the states

says: “ Perilous were the roads, and dark the gorges. Sometimes of the Gilgit basin are all, so to speak, monarchical), reach the pilgrim had to pass by loose cords, sometimes by light stretched ing to Batera, where the Pushto-speaking tribes who are of iron chaius. Here there were ledges hanging in mid-air; there Afghan blood, or at least Afghanized, commence. The

flying bridges across abysses ; elsewhere paths cut with the chisel,

or footings to climb by." Yet even in these inaccessible regions Dards are described as decidedly Aryan in features, broad

were found great convents, and miraculous images of Buddha. shouldered, well-proportioned, active, and enduring. The How old the naine of Gilgit is we do not know, but it occurs in the hair is usually black but sometimes brown, the eyes brown writings of the great Mahometan savant Al-Biruni, in his notices or hazel, the skin sometimes fair enough to show a ruddy thou hast passed the defile which forms the entrance and hast

of Indian geography. Speaking of Kashmir, he says: “When complexion; the voice and manner of speech are harsh. In penetrated into the plain, thou hast to thy left the mountains of bearing they are cheerful, bold, and independent, not dis- Balaur and Shamiláu. Two days' journey distant are the Turks obliging when rightly handled, and as a race decidedly called Bhatáwaridn, whose king takes the name of Bhatsháh, The clever. They do not care much for human life, but stiil country which these Turks occupy is called Kilkit (or Gilgit), A sora,

and Shaltás. Their tongue is Turk; the people of Kashmir have to are not blood-thirsty. They are, says Mr Drew, a people suffer much from their raids"-(Reinaud, “Extraits," in Journal who will meet one on even terms, without sycophancy or Asiatique, ser. iv. tom. iv.) There are difficult matters for discussion fear, and without impertinent self-assertion.” The women here. It is impossible to say what ground the writer had for calling

But it is curious that the Shins say they are all are not pretty in Gilgit, but those of Yassin have a better the people Turks.

of the same race as the Moghuls of India, whatever they may mean repute, and indeed Hayward says: “The women have a

by that. Gilgit, as far back as tradition goes, was ruled by rajas more English cast of countenance than any I have yet seen of a family called Trakane. When this family became extinct the in Asia, light-brown locks prevailing.” The dress is entirely valley was desolated by successive invasions of neighbouring rajas, woollen, trousers, choga (long robe like a dressing-gown),

and in the 20 or 30 years ending with 1842 there bad been five

dynastic revolutions. and girdle. The cap is most characteristic; it is a long was a certain Gaur Rahman or Gauhar Aman, chief of Yassin, a cruel

The most prominent character in the history woollen bag rolled up at the edge till it fits close to the savage and man-seller, of whom many evil deeds are told. Being head. The feet are wrapt in scraps of leather, with a long remonstrated with for selling a mullah, he said, "Why not I the strip as a binder. There is a distinct separation into castes,

Koran, the word of God, is sold; why not sell the expounder

thereof?" The Sikhs entered Gilgit about 1842, and kept a garrison of which Drew counts five, others only four. The lowest there. When Kashmir was made over to Maharaja Gúláb Šingh of caste is Dúm, the naine of a low caste found all over India to Jámú in 1846, by Lord Hardinge, the Gilgit claims were transferred the extreme Deccan,-a notable circumstance. The middle with it. And when a commission was sent to lay down boundaries castes, Shin and Yashkun, form the body of the Dard people.

of the tracts made over, Mr Vans Agnew (afterwards murdered at The pure Shin looks more like a European than any high- the first Englishmen

who di Multán) and Lieut. Ralph Young of the Engineers visited Gilgit,

The Dogras (Gúláb Singh's caste Brahman of India. A Shin man may marry a Yashkun race) had much ado to hold their ground, and in 1852 a catastrophe woman, but a Yashkun man may not marry a Shin woman. occurred, parallel on a smaller scale to that of the English troops The Yashkuns predominate in Gilgit basin ; the Shins in

at Cabul. Nearly 2000 men of theirs were exterminated by Gaur Haramosh (up the Indus valley) and Astor (east of Gilgit), wife, escaped, and the Dogras were driven away for eight years,

Rahman and a combination of the Dards; only one person, a soldier's and in the states of the Indus basin below Gilgit. It is a Gúláb Singh would not again cross the Indus, but after his death notable circumstance that the Dards abhor the cow, much (in 1857) the present Maharaja Ranbir Singh longed to recover lost as the Mussulmans abhor swine. They will not drink cow's prestige. In 1860 he sent a force into Gilgit Gaur Rahman just milk, nor make or eat butter. In this last point the Indo- since then taken Yassin, but did not hold it. Now, recently, it is



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then died, and there was little resistance. The Dogras have twice Chinese nations generally and the Chinese resemble them, believed, they have not only occupied Yassin, but have invaded but not in the dislike to the animal. The Dards will not Chitrúl also. They also, in 1866, invaded Darel, one of the most burn cow-dung nor touch the cow if they can help it.

socluded Dard states, to the south of the Gilgit basin, but with. All the Dárds of the Gilgit basin are Mahometans,

drew again.

Tho chief source of the information in this article is an excellent work by Mr and of three different sects, Sunnis, Shiahs, and Joláis Frederick Drew, who was long to the employment of the maharaja, The Jemmoo (Mullabis ?), the last being a Shiah offshoot and modifi.

and Kashmer Territories, a Geographical Account, 1873.

made of Dr Leitner's uncompleted work, Results of Tour in Dardistan, &c.; cation. The last two drink wine, the tunnis do not. of Mr Hayward's letters (Proc. Roy. Geog. Soc., vol. IV., and Journ. Roy. Gery Gilgit proper is half Sunni, half Shiah ; l'aniál, Molái ; 1 The narrative of the mallah," who performed the remarkable Journeyo noticed

Soc., vol. Xll.); and of Col. Walker's Report on the Survey Dept. for 1877-78.

tse has also been

Indian Government, but the map corrected by his surveys is of extreme interest




briefly in that report, has been for the present withheld from publication by the moderator of the Assembly (1648); but the laborious and value. By and by we may hope for the publication of Captain Biddulph's duties of that office (the court continued to sit from 12th ebservations, which will doubtless ibrow much new light on this secluded and July to the 12th of August) told fatally on a constitution interesting region.

Y. GILL, JOAN (1697-1771), a Baptist minister and learned which, at no time very vigorous, bad of late years been Rabbinical scholar, was born at Kettering, Northampton: he died at Kirkcaldy on the 17th of December 1848. In

much overtaxed , and, after many weeks of great weakness, shire, in 1697.

On account of the limited means of his acknowledgment of his great public services, a sum of £1000 parents, he owed his education chiefly to his own persever-Scots was voted, though destined nerer to be paid, to his

After receiving baptism in November 1716, he began to preach, and officiated at Higham Ferrers, as well widow and children by the committee of estates. A simple as occasionally at his native place, until the beginning of tombstone, which had been erected to his memory in Kirk1719, when he became pastor of the Baptist congregation caldy parish church, was in 1661 publicly broken at the at Horsleydown, in Southwark, where he continued fifty- in 1746. Among the other works of Gillespie may be

cross by the hand of the common hangman, but was restored one years. In 1748 he received the degree of D.D. from mentioned the Treatise of Miscellany Questions, wherein the university of Aberdeen. He died at Camberwell, October 14, 1771.

many useful Questions and cases of Conscience are discussed

and resolved, published posthumously (1649); and The Ark His principal works are Exposition of the Song of Solomon, 1728; of the Testament opened, being a treatise on the covenant The Prophecies of the Old Testament respecting the Messiah considered, 1728; Treatise on the Doctrine of the Trinity, 1731; Cause

of grace, also posthumous (2 vols., 1661-1677). pf Oot and Truth, in 4 vols., 1731; Exposition of the Bible, in 10 GILLESPIE, THOMAS (1708–1774), one of the founders vols., in preparing which he formed a large collection of Hebrew of the Scottish “Presbytery of Relief,” was born in the and Rabbinical books and MSS.;

Dissertation on the Antiquity of parish of Duddingston, Midlothian, in 1708. On the comthe Hebrew LanguageLetlers, Vowel Points, and Accents, 1767; A Body of Doctrinal Divinity, 1767; A Body of Practical Divinity; pletion of his literary course at the university of Edinburgh, 1770; and Sermons and Tracts, with a memoir of his life, 1773. he for a short time attended a small theological seminary at An edition of his Exposition of the Bible appeared in 1816 with a Perth, and afterwards studied divinity under Dr Doddridge memoir by Dr Ripon, which has also appeared separately. Various at Northampton, where he received ordination in January editions of several of his other works have also appeared.

1741. In August of the same year he was admitted GILLESPIE, GEORGE (1613-1648), a prominent member minister of the parish of Carnock, Fife, the presbytery of of the presbyterian party in the Westminster Assembly, was Dunfermline agreeing, not only to sustain as valid the ordinaborn at Kirkcaldy, where his father was parish minister, on tion he had received in England, but also to allow a qualifithe 21st of January 1613, and entered the university of St cation of his subscription to the church's doctrinal symbol, Andrews as a “presbytery bursar” in 1629. On the com- so far as it had reference to the sphere of the civil magistrate pletion of a brilliant student career, he became domestic in matters of religion. Having on conscientious grounds chaplain to Lord Kenmure, and afterwards to the earl of persistently absented himself from the meetings of presbyCassilis

, his conscience not permitting him to accept the tery held for the purpose of ordaining an unacceptable episcopal ordination which was at that time in Scotland an presentee as minister of Inverkeithing, he was, after an unindispensable condition of induction to a parish. While obtrusive but useful ministry of ten years, deposed for conwith the earl of Cassilis he wrote his first work, A Dispute tumacy by the Assembly of 1752; he continued, however, to against the English Popish Ceremonies obtruded upon the preach, first at Carnock, and afterwards in Dunfermline, Church of Scotland, which, opportunely published (but where a large congregation gathered round him; but it without the author's name) in the summer of 1637, attracted was not until 1761, and after repeated efforts to obtain considerable attention, and within a few months had been readmission to the church, that, in conjunction with found by the privy council to be so damaging that by their Boston of Jedburgh and Collier of Colinsburgh, he orders all available copies were called in and burut. In formed a distinct communion under the name of The April 1638, soon after the authority of the bishops had been Presbytery of Relief, -relief, that is to say, “from the yoke set aside by the nation, Gillespie was ordained minister of of patronage and the tyranny of the church courts." He Wemyss (Fife) by the presbytery of Kirkcaldy, and in the died on the 19th January 1774. His only literary efforts same year was a member of the famous Glasgow Assembly, were an Essay on the Continuation of Immediate Revelabefore which he preached a sermon so pronounced against tions in the Church, and a Treatise on Temptation, characroyal interference in matters ecclesiastical as to call for terized by considerable laboriousness and some ability. some remonstrance on the part of Argyll, the Lord High Both works appeared posthumously (1774). See Lives Commissioner. In 1642 Gillespie was translated to Edin- of Fathers of the United Presbyterian Church (Edin. burgh ; but the brief remainder of his life was chiefly spent 1849). in the conduct of public business in London. Already, in GILLIES, JOHN (1747-1836), the historian of ancient 1640, he had accompanied the commissioners of the peace Greece, was born in 1747 at Brechin, in Forfarshire. He to England as one of their chaplains; and in 1643 he was was educated at the university of Glasgow, where he greatly appointed by the Scottish church one of the four commis distinguished himself, and where, at the age of twenty, he sioners to the Westminster Assembly. Here he took a officiated for a short time as substitute for the professor of prominent part in almost all the protracted discussions on Greek Subsequently he received an engagement as tutor church government, discipline, and worship, supporting in the family of Lord Hopetoun, who afterwards conferred Presbyterianism by numerous controversial writings, as well on him a pension for life. In 1784 he completed his prinas by an unusual fluency and readiness in debate. On the cipal work, the History of Ancient Greece, its Colonies and Erastian question, in particular, besides a series of vigorous Conquests, which he published two years later in 2 vols. 4to. pamphlets against Coleman (4 Brotherly Examination of This work gives a clear and generally accurate account of the some Passages in Mr Coleman's late printed Sermon, &c.; various states of Greece, and the progress of each in literaNihil Respondes ; Male Audis), he published in 1646 a ture and the arts. The learning it displays is considerable, large work entitled Aaron's Rod Blossoming, or the Divine but its reflexions are generally somewhat trite, and the style Ordinance of Church-government vindicated, which is is abrupt and frequently diffuse. It enjoyed, however, for deservedly regarded as a really able statement of the case some time a great popularity, and was translated into for an exclusive spiritual jurisdiction of the Church. French and German. It was long a favourite text-book for Shortly after his return to Scotland, Gillespie was elected schools, but is now completely superseded. On the death




of Robertson, Gillies was appointed historiographer-royal of in the history of caricature by the fact that his sketches are Scotland. In his old age he retired to Clapham, where he real works of art. The ideas embodied in some of them are died 15th February 1836, in the 90th year of his age. sublime and poetically magnificent in their intensity of

of his other works, none of which are much read, the principal meaning; while the charseness by which others are disare-View of the Reign of Frederick II. of Prussia, with a Parallel figured is to be explained by the general freedom of treatbetrocen that Prince and Philip II. of Macedon, 1789; Translation of Aristotle's Rhetoric, and of his Ethics and Polities; and History of eighteenth century. The historical value of Gillray's work

ment common in all intellectual departments in the the World froin Alexander to Augustus, in 2 vols., 1807.

GILLRAY, JAMES (1757-1815), one of the most eminent has been recognized by accurate students of history. As of caricaturists, was born at Chelsea in 1757. His father, has been well remarked: "Lord Stanhope has turned a native of Lanai had served as a soldier, losing an urin

Gillray to account as a veracious reporter of speeches, as at Fontenoy, and was admitted first as an inmate, and well as a suggestive illustrator of events." His contemafterwards as an out-door pensioner, at Chelsea Hospital. porary political influence is borne witness to in a lettor Gillray commenced life by learning letter-engraving, in from Lord Bateman, dated November 3, 1798. “The which he soon became an adept. This employment, how- Opposition,” he writes to Gillray, “are as low as we can ever, proving irksome, he wandered about for a time with wish them. You have been of infinite service in lowering a company of strolling players. After a very checkered them, and making them ridiculous.” Gillray's extraordinary experience he returned to London, and was admitted a industry may be inferred from the fact that nearly 1000 student in the Royal Academy, supporting himself by en

caricatures have been attributed to him ; while some congraving, and probably issuing a considerable number of sider bim the author of 1600 or 1700. He is invaluable caricatures under fictitious names. Hogarth's works we to the student of English manners as well as to the political the delight and study of his early years., Paddy on Horse- student. He attacks the social follies of the time with back, which appeared in 1779, is the first caricature scathing satire; and nothing escapes his notice, not even which is certainly his. Two caricatures on Rodney's naval a trifling change of fashion in dress. The great tact victory, issued in 1782, were among the first of the Gillray displays in hitting on tho ludicrous side of any memorable series of his political sketches. The name of subject is only equalled by the exquisite finish of his Gillray's publisher and printseller, Miss Humphrey- sketches—the finest of which reach an epic grandeur and whose shop was first at 227 Strand, then in New Bond Miltonic sublimity of conception. Street, then in Old Bond Street, and finally in St James's

Gillray's caricatures are divided into two classes, the political Street—is inextricably associated with that of the cari- series and the social. The political caricatures form really the best caturist. Gillray lived with Miss (often called Mrs) Hum history extant of the latter part of the reign of George III. They phrey during all the period of his fame. It is believed

were circulated not only over Britain but throughout Europe,

and exerted a powerful influence. In this series, George Ill., that he several times thought of marrying her, and that the Queen, the Prince of Wales, Fox, Pitt, Burke, and Napoleon on one occasion the pair were on their way to the church, are the most prominent figures. In 1788 appeared two fino caricawhen Gillray said :-" This is a foolislı affair, methinks, tures by Gillray. Blood on Thunder fording the Red Sea represents Miss Humphrey. We live very comfortably together; | Hastings looks very comfortable, and is carrying two large bags of

Lord Thurlow carrying Warren Hastings through a sea of gore : we had better let well alone." There is no evidence, money. Market-Day pictures the ministerialists of the time as however, to support the stories which scandalmongers horned cattle for sale. Among Gillray's best satires on the king have invented about their relations. Gillrny's plates are-Farmer George and his wife, two companion plates, in one of were exposed in Humplırey's shop window, where eager

which the king is toasting muffins for breakfast, and in the other crowds examined them.

the queen is frying sprats; The Anti-Saccharites, where the royal A number of his most tren-pair propose to dispense with sugar, to the great horror of the chant satires are directed against George III., who, after family; À Connoisseur Examining a Cooper ; Temperance enjoying examining some of Gillray's sketches, said, with char- a Frugal Meal ; Royal Affability ; A Lesson in Apple Duniplings ; acteristic ignorance and blindness to merit, “I don't under

and The Pigs Possessed. Among his other political caricatures stand these caricatures.” Gillray revenged himself for this may be mentioned.-- Britannia between Scylla and Charybdis, a

picture in which Pitt, so often Gillray's butt, figures in a favour. utterance by his splendid caricature entitled A Connoisseur able light; Tho Bridal Night; The Apotheosis of `Hoche, which Examining a Cooper, which he is doing by means of a concentrates the excesses of the French Revolution in one view; candle on a "save-all”; so that the sketch satirizes at once

The Nursery with Britannia reposing in Peace; The First Kiss

these Ten Years (1803), another satire on the peace, which is said the king's pretensions to knowledge of art and his miserly

to have_grcatly amused Napoleon ; The Handwriting upon the habits.

Wall; The Confederated Coalition, a fling at the coalition which The excesses of the French Revolution made Gillray con- superseded the Addington Ministry: Uncorking Old-Sherry; The servatire; and he issued caricature after caricature ridicul Plum-Pudding in Danger; Making Decent, i.e., Broad-bottomites ing the French and Napoleon, and glorifying John Bull. getting into the Grand Costume ; Comforts of a Bed of Roses ;

View of the Hustings in Covent Garden ; Phaethon Alarmed; and He is not, however, to be thought of as a keen political Pandora opening her Box. The miscellaneous series of caricatures, adherent of either the Whig or the Tory party; he dealt although they have scarcely the historical importauce of the his blows pretty freely all round. His last work, from a

political series, are more readily intelligible, and are even more design by Bunbury, is entitled Interior of a Barber's Shop Characters (two plates); Twopenny Whist; Oh ! that this too solid

amusing. Among the finest are-Shakespeare Sacrificed ; Flemish in Assize Time, and is dated 1811. While he was engnged flesh would melt ; Sandwich Carrots ; The Gout; Comfort to the on it, he became mad, although he had occasional intervals Corns ; Begone Duil Care; The Cow-Pock, which gives humorous of sanity, which he employed on his last work. The ap- expression to the popular dread of vaccination ; Dilletanti Theatriproach of madness must have been hastened by his intem cals; and Harmony

before Matrimony and Matrimonial Harinonics

--two exceedingly good sketches in violent contrast to each other. perate habits. Gillray died on the 1st of June 1815, and A selection of Gillray's works appeared in parts in 1818; bat was buried in St James's churchyard, Piccadilly.

the first good edition was Thomas M'Lenn's, which was published The times in which Gillray lived were peculiarly favour-with a key, in 1830. A somewhat bitter attack, not only on able to the growth of a great school of caricature. Party Athenæum for October 1, 1831, which was successfully refuted by

Gillray's character, but even on his genins, appeared in the warfare was carried on with great vigour and not a little J. Landseer in the Athcnaum a fortnight later. In 1851 Henry bitterness; and personalities were freely indulged in on G. Bohn put out an edition, from the original plates, in a band. both sides. Gillray's incomparable wit and humour, know- some folio, the coarser sketches being published in a separate ledge of life, fertility of resource, keen sense of the ludi

volume. For this edition Thomas Wright and R. H. Evans wrote

a .uluable commentary, which is a good history of the times embraced cruus, and beauty of execution, at once gave him the first by the caricatures. The next edition, entitled The Works of James place among caricaturists. He is honourably distinguished | Gillray, the Caricaturist: with the Story of his life and Times

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(Chatto and Windus, 1874), was the work of 'Thomas Wright, and, conservative side, and defended the doctrines of the church by its popular exposition and narrative, introduced Gillray to a against Hooper ; but his confidence was somewhat shaken very large circle formerly ignorant of him. This edition, which is complete in one volume, contains two portraits of Gillray, and by another public disputation which he had with Peter upwards of 400 illustrations. Mr J. J. Cartwright, in a letter to Martyr. In 1552 he preached before King Edward VI. a the Academy (Feb. 28, 1874), drew attention to the existence of a sermon on sacrilege, which was duly published, and displays MS. volume, in the British Museum, containing letters to and from

the high ideal which even then he had formed of the clerical Gillray, and other illustrative documents. The extracts he gave were used in a valuable article in the Quarterly Review for April office; and about the same time he was presented to the 1874. See also the Academy for Feb. 21 and May 16, 1374. vicarage of Norton, in the diocese of Durham, and obtained For a conteraporary life of Gillray, see George Stanley's potice in his edition a licence, through William Cecil, as a general preacher of Bryan's Dictionary of Painters. There is a good account of him in Wright's History of Caricature and Grotesque in Literature and Art, 1863.

Sec also the throughout the kingdom as long as the king lived. Instead

of settling down in England, however, be resigned his GILLYFLOWER, a popular name applied to various vicarage, and went abroad to pursue his theological investiflowers, but principally to the clove, Dianthus Caryophyllus, gations, and if possible satisfy his inind on some disputed of which the carnation is a cultivated variety, and to the matters. He carried out this intention at Louvain, Antwerp, stock, Matthiola incana, a well-known garden favourite. and Paris ; and from a letter of his own, dated Louvain, The word is sometimes written gilliflower or gilloflower, and 1554, we get a glimpse of the quiet student rejoicing in an is reputedly a corruption of July-flower, "so called from "excellent library belonging to a monastery of Minorites.” the month they blow in." Phillips, in his Flora Historica, Returning to England towards the close of Queen Mary's remarks that Turner (1568) “calls it gelouer, to which reign, he was invested by his uncle, Dr Tonstall, bishop of he adds the word stock, as we would say gelouers that grow | Durham, with the archdeaconry of Durham, to which the on a stein or tock, to distinguish them from the clove- rectory of Effington was annexed. The freedom of his gelouers and the wall-gelouers. Gerard, who succeeded attacks on the vices, and especially the clerical vices, of his Tarner, and after him Parkinson, calls it gilloflower, and times excited hostility against him, and he was formally thus it travelled from its original orthography until it was brought before the bishop on a charge consisting of thircalled July-flower by those who knew not whence it was teen articles. Tonstall, however, not only dismissed the derived." Dr Prior, in his useful volume on the Popular case, but presented the offender with the rich living of Names of British Plants, very distinctly slows the origin Houghton-le-Spring; and when the accusation was again of the name. He remarks that it was “formerly spelt brought forward, he again protected him. Enraged at this

" gyllofer and gilofre with the o long, from the French defeat, Gilpin's enemies laid their complaint before Dr giroflée, Italian garofalo (M. Lat. gariofilum) corrupted from Bonner, bishop of London, and he immediately gave orders the Latin Caryophyllum, and referring to the spicy odour for his apprehension. Upon this Gilpin prepared for marof the flower, which seems to have been used in flavouring tyrdom; and, having ordered his house-steward to provide wine and other liquors to replace the more costly clove of him with a long garment, that he might "goe the more India. The name was originally given in Italy to plants comely to the stake,” he set out for London. Providentially, of the pink tribe, especially the carnation, but has in however, he broke his leg on the journey, and his arrival England been transferred of late years to several cruciferous was thus delayed till the news of Queen Mary's death freed plants." The gillyflower of Chaucer and Spenser and him from further danger. He at once returned to Houghton, Shakespeare was, as in Italy, Dianthus Caryophyllus ; that and there he continued to labour till his death in 1583. of later writers and of gardeners Mathiola. Much of the con- When the Roman Catholic bishops were deprived, he was fusion in the names of plants has doubtless arisen from the offered the see of Carlisle ; but he declined the honour. At vague use of the French terms giroflée, oeillet, and violette, Houghton his course of life was a ceaseless round of benewhich were all applied to flowers of the pink' tribe, but in volent activity. His hospitable manner of living was the England were subsequently extended and finally restricted admiration of all. In his household, he spent "every fortto very different plants. The use made of the flowers to night 40 bushels of corn, 20 bushels of malt, and an ox, impart a spicy flavour to ale and wine is alluded to by besides a proportional quantity of other kinds of provisions.” Chaucer who writes

Strangers and travellers found a ready reception; and even " And many a clove gilofre

their horses were treated with so much care that it was To put in ale";

humorously said that, if one were turned loose in any part also by Spenser, who refers to them by the name of sops of the country, it would immediately make its way to the in wine, which was applied in consequence of their being rector of Houghton. Every Sunday from Michaelmas till steeped in the liquor. In both these cases, however, it is the Easter was a public day with Gilpin. For the reception of clove-gillyflower which is intended, as it is also in the pass- his parishioners he had three tables well covered. ---one for age from Gerard, in which he states that the conserve made gentlemen, the second for husbandmen, the third for dayof the flowers with sugar" is exceeding cordiall, and wonder- labourers; and this piece of hospitality he never omitted, fully above measure doth comfort the heart, being eaten even when losses or scarcity made its continuance difficult. now and then." The principal other plants which bear the He built and endowed a grammar-school at a cost of up: name are the wallflower, Cheiranthus Cheiri, called wall wards of £500, educated and maintained a large number gillyflower in old books; the dame's violet, Hesperis mat- of poor children at his own charge, and provided the more ronalis, called variously the queen's, the rogue's, and the promising pupils with means of studying at the universities. winter gillyflower; the ragged robin, Lychnis flos cuculi

, So many young people, indeed, flocked to his school that called marsh-gillyfower; the water-violet, Hottonia palus- there was not accommodation for them in Houghton, and tris, called water-gillyflower; and the thrift, Armeria he had to fit up part of his house as a boardirig establishvulgaris, called sea-gillyflower. As a separate designation ment. Grieved at the ignorance and superstition which it has in modern times been chiefly applied to the Mathiola the remissness of the clergy permitted to flourish in the or stock, but it is now very little used.

neighbouring parishes, he used every year to visit the most GILPIN, BERNARD (1517–1583), rector of Houghton- neglected parts of Northumberland, Yorkshire, Cheshire, le-Spring, distinguished by the unusual way in wbich he Westmoreland, and Cumberland ; and that his own flock carried out his conception of the duties of a Christian pastor, might not suffer, he was at the expense of a constant was descended from a Westmoreland family, and was born assistant. Among his parishioners he was looked up to at Kentmere in 1517. At Oxford he first adhered to the as a judge, and did great service in preventing law-suits




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amongst them. If an industrious man suffered a loss, he | special features of the fermentation are the small proportion delighted to make it good; if the harvest was bad, he was of yeast employed and the imperfect attenuation of the liberal in the remission of tithes. And all this he was worts. The wash so obtained is distilled, and the resulting enabled to do because his frugality was as great as his low wine is redistilled, with the addition of juniper berries generosity; for his rectory was worth no more than £400 and a little salt, sometimes with the addition of hops. a year.

The boldness which he could display at need is Dutch gins vary much one from another, but generally they well illustrated by his action in regard to duelling. Find- are much purer and mellower liquors than the more bighly ing one day a challenge-glove stuck up on the door of a flavoured and frequently adulterated British gius. Good church where he was to preach, he took it down with his qualities of the latter bave as their basis plain grain spirit own hand, and proceeded to the pulpit to inveigh against from the ordinary whisky distilleries, the following being the unchristian custom.

an example of a mixture for distillation : A life of Bernard Gilpin, written by George Carleton, bishop of 300 gallons of low wines.

47 Ib crushed almond cake, Chichester, who had been a pupil of Gilpin's at Houghton, will be

rectified spirit

angelica root. found in Bates's Vito Seleciorum aliquot Virorum, &c., London, 95 10 juniper berries.

powdered liquorice. A translation of this sketch by William Freake, minister,

corianders. was published at London, 1629; and in 1852 it was reprinted in Glasgow, with an introductory essay by Edward Irving. It forms

There is, however, much variation in the ingredients one of the lives in Christopher Wordsworth’s Ecclesiastical Biography employed, and several other flavouring substances-notably (vol. iii., 4th edit.), having been compared with Carleton's Latin cardamoms and cassia or cinnamon-are freely employed. text. Another biography of Gilpin, which, however, adds little to Bishop Carleton's, was written by William Gilpin, M.A., pre- essential oils by agitation with plain spirits without any

A kind of gin is also prepared by mixing proportions of bendary of Ailsbury, London, 1753, and 1854. GILPIN, William (1724–1804), author of several with oil of turpentine and aromatic substances without the

redistillation, and much inferior liquor is said to be made works on the scenery of Great Britain, was born at Carlisle in 1724. He was educated at Oxford university, and, turbidity that would arise in these inferior beverages when

use of juniper berries at all. To prevent the cloudiness or after holding for some time a small curacy in the north mixed with water, they are fined with alum, potassium carof England, established a school for sons of gentlemen at Cheam in Surrey.

bonate, acetate of lead, or sulphate of zinc. To give factiAmong his pupils were Viscount Sidmouth, Lord Bexley, and Mitford, the author of the tious pungency and mellowness to such drinks, grains of History of Greece, the last of whom presented him, when paradise and Cayenne pepper are freely used, and the he had resolved to retire from teaching, with the living of is known as cordial gin is usually more highly aromatized

absence of spirit is also covered by the use of sugar. What Boldre, near the New Forest, Hampshire. Gilpin died there, than the other varieties, and sweetened so that it really April 5, 1804. He is author of a Life of Bernard Gilpin, ought to be classed as a coarse liqueur. In thirty-eight several miscellaneous religious publications, and lives of a number of the Reformers, but is chiefly known for his works specimens of gin examined by Dr Hassall

, the alcoholic on the scenery of various parts of England and Scotland, the sugar present varied between 2-43 and 9:38 per cent.,

strength of which ranged from 22:35 to 48.80 degrees, and illustrated by tasteful engravings in aquatint executed by

seven were found to contain Cayenne pepper, two bad himself.

cinnamon or cassia oil, and nearly all contained sulphates. The principal of these works are— The River W ye and Southern

From the fact that the essential oil of juniper is the most Districts of Wales, 1782; The Lake Country, 1789; Observations on Picturesque Beauty made in the year 1776 in several parts of Great powerful of all diuretics, gin is frequently prescribed in Britain, particularly the Highlands of Scotland, 1778; two curre- diseases of the urinary organs. Its beneficial effects in such sponding volumes on the Lakes of Cumberland and Westmoreland; cases is most marked ; but, on the other hand, the grossly Forest Scenery, 1791; Three Essays on Picturesque Beauty, with a Poem on Landscape Painting, 1782 ; Essays on Prints and Early sophisticated liquors which are largely consumed under the Engrarings; Western Parts of England and Isle of Wight, 1798;

name of gin are most detrimental in their effects. In the and The Coasts of Hampshire, Sussex, and Kent, published post: early part of the 18th century gin-shops multiplied with humously.

great rapidity in London, and the use of the beverage GIL VICENTE. See VICENTE, GIL.

increased to an extent so demoralizing that retailers actually GIN, the name commonly given to an aromatized spirit exhibited placards in their windows intimating that there for drinking, varieties of which are also known as Geneva, people might get drunk for 1d., and that clean straw in Hollands, and Schiedam. Gin is an abbreviation of Geneva, comfortable cellars would be provided for customers. The both being primarily derived from the French genièvre legislature was obliged to interfere in order to try to curb (juniper), from the fact that the characteristic flavouring the tide of debauchery, and what is known as the Gin Act ingredient of the spirit is juniper berries. Gin was origin- was passed in 1736, under the provisions of which, dealers ally and is still largely a Dutch compounded liquor, but it were prohibited from selling gin and other spirits in quanti. has long been a favourite stimulant beverage with the lower ties less than 2 gallons without a licence of £50, and an orders in London and other large English towns; and it is excise duty of 20s. was charged on eachi gallon. The operamanufactured on a great scale by English rectifiers. As tion of the Act, however, gave rise to much confusion, to each separate distiller varies to some extent the materials illicit trade, and to gin riots, and after a lapse of seven and proportions of ingredients used in the preparation of years the statute was repealed. gin, the varieties of the beverage are numerous ; but gene- GINCKELL, GODART VAN (1640-1703), first earl of rally a clear distinction exists between Hollands or Dutch Athlone, general, was born in Guelderland about 1630 or gin and English gin. In the manufacture of Hollands a 1640. He was the head of an ancient and noble family, mash is prepared consisting of say 112 lb of malted bere and bore the title of Baron van Reede. In his youth he or bigg and 228 hb of rye meal, with 460 gallons of water, entered the Dutch army, and in 1688 he followed William at 162° Fahr. After infusion a proportion of cold water is prince of Orange in his expedition to England. In the added; and when the heat is reduced to about 80°, the following year he distinguished himself by a memorable whole, about 500 gallons, is run into the fermenting vat, to exploit—the pursuit, defeat, and capture of the Scottish which about half a gallon of yeast is added. Fermentation regiment which had mutinied at Ipswich, and was marching speedily ensues, and in about two days the attenuation is across the fers to their native land. It was the alarm excomplete, although at this stage nearly one-third of the cited by this mutiny that facilitated the passing of the first saccharine matter in the liquor is undecomposed. The Mutiny Act. In 1690 Ginckell accompanied William III.

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