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to Ireland, and commanded a body of Dutch cavalry at the early times; it was supposed by the Greeks and Romans to

; battle of the Boyne. On the king's return to England be a product of southern Arabia, and was received by them General Ginckell was entrusted with the conduct of the by way of the Red Sea; in India it has also been known war. He took the field in the spring of 1691, and estab- from a very remote period, the Greek and Latin names lished his headquarters at Mullingar. Among those who being derived from the Sanskrit. Flückiger and Hanbury, held a command under him was the marquis of Ruvigny, in their Pharmacographia, give the following notes on the the recognized chief of the Huguenot refugees. Early in history of ginger. On the authority of Vincent's Commerce June Ginckell took the fortress of Ballymore, capturing the and Navigation of the Ancients, it is stated that in the list whole garrison of 1000 men. The English lost only 8 men. of imports from the Red Sea into Alexandria, which in the After reconstructing the fortification of Ballymore, the second century of our era were there liable to the Roman army marched to Athlone, then one of the most important fiscal duty, ginger occurs among other Indian spices. So of the fortified towns of Ireland. The Irish defenders of frequent is the mention of ginger in similar lists during the the place were commanded by a distinguished French Middle Ages, that it evidently constituted an important general, Saint-Ruth. The firing began on June 19th, and item in the commerce between Europe and the East. It on the 30th the town was stormed, the Irish army retreat- thus appears in the tariff of duties levied at Acre in Palesing towards Galway, and taking up their position at Agbrim. tine about 1173, in that of Barcelona in 1221, Marseilles in Having strengthened the fortifications of Athlone and left 1228, and Paris in 1296. Ginger seems to have been well a garrison there, Ginckell led the English, on July 12th, known in England even before the Norman Conquest, being to Aghrim. An immediate attack was resolved on, and, often referred to in the Anglo-Saxon leech-books of the after a severe and at one time doubtful contest, the crisis 11th century. It was very common in the 13th and 14th was precipitated by the fall of Saint-Ruth, and the dis- centuries, ranking next in value to pepper, which was then organized Irish were defeated and fled. A horrible the commonest of all spices, and costing on an average slaughter of the Irish followed the struggle, and 4000 about ls. 7d. per ib. Three kinds of ginger were known corpses were left unburied on the field, besides a multitude among the merchants of Italy about the middle of the 14th of others that lay along the line of the 'retreat. Galway century :-(1) Belledi or Baladi, an Arabic name, which, next capitulated, its garrison being permitted to retire tn as applied to ginger, would signify country or wild, and Limerick. There the viceroy, Tyrconnel, was in command denotes common ginger; (2) Colombino, which refers to of a large force, but his sudden death early in August left Columbum, Kolam, or Quilon, a port in Travancore, frethe command in the hands of General Sarsfield and the quently mentioned in the Middle Ages; and (3) Micchino, Frenchman D'Usson. The English army came in sight of a name which denoted that the spice had been brought from the town on the day of Tyrconnel's death, and the bombard- or by way of Mecca. Marco Polo seems to have seen the ment was immediately begun. Ginckell, by a bold device, ginger plant both in India and China between 1280 and crossed the Shannon and captured the camp of the Irish 1290. John of Montecorvino, a missionary friar who cavalry

. A few days later he stormed the fort on Thomond visited India about 1292, gives a description of the plant, Bridge

, and after difficult negotiations a capitulation was and refers to the fact of the root being dug up and transsigned, the terms of which were divided into a civil and a ported. Nicolo di Conto, a Venetian merchant in the early military treaty. Thus was completed the conquest or part of the 15th century, also describes the plant and the pacification of Ireland, and the services of the Dutch collection of the root, as seen by him in India. Though the general were amply recognized and rewarded. He received Venetians received ginger by way of Egypt, some of the the formal thanks of the House of Commons, and was superior kinds were taken from India overland by the Black created by the king first earl of Athlone and baron of Sea. The spice is said to have been introduced into Aghrim. "The immense forfeited estates of the earl of America by Francisco de Mendoça, who took it from the Limerick were given to him, but the grant was a few years East Indies to New Spain. It seems to have been shipped later revoked by the English parliament. The earl con- for commercial purposes from San Domingo as early as 1585, tinued to serve in the English army, and accompanied the and from Barbadus in 1654; so early as 1547

considerable king to the Continent in 1693. He fought at Landen, and quantities were sent from the West Indies to Spain. assisted in destroying the French magazine at Givet. In Ginger is known in commerce in two distinct forms, 1702 he took command of the Dutch serving under the termed respectively coated and uncoated ginger, as having duke of Marlborough. He died at Utrecht, February 10, or wanting the epidermis. For the first, the pieces, which 1705. On the death of the ninth earl without issue in 1844, are called “races” or “hands," from their irregular the title became extinct.

pulmate form, are washed and simply dried in the sun. In GINGER (French, Gingembre; German, Ingwer), the this form ginger preserfts a brown, more or less irregularly rhizome or underground stem of Zingiber officinale, Roscoe, wrinkled or striated surface

, and when broken shows a dark & perennial reed-like plant growing from 3 to 4 feet high brownish fracture, hard, and sometimes horny and resinous. The flowers and leaves are borne on separate stems, those To produce uncoated ginger the rhizomes are washed, of the former being shorter than those of the latter

, and scraped, and sun-dried, and are often subjected to a system averaging from 6 to 12 inches. The flowers themselves are of bleaching, either from the fumes of burning sulphur or borne at the apex of the

stems in dense ovate oblong cone by immersion for a short time in a solution of chlorinated like spikes from 2 to 3 inches long, composed of obtuse lime. The whitewashed appearance that much of the ginger strongly-imbricated bracts with membranous margins, each has, as seen in the shops, is due to the fact of its being bract enclosing a single small sessile flower. The leaves are washed in whiting and water, or even coated with sulphate alternate, bright green, smooth, tapering at both ends, with of lime. This artificial coating is supposed by some to give Pery short petioles. The plant, though unknown in a wild the ginger a better appearance ; it often, however, covers state, is considered with very good reason to be a native an inferior quality, and can readily be detected by the ease of the warmer parts of Asia, over which it has been culti- with which it rubs off

, or by its leaving a white powdery rated from an early period, and the rhizome imported into | substance at the bottom

of the jar in which it is contained. Engeland. From Asia the plant has spread into the West Uncoated ginger, as seen in trade

, varies from single joints Indies, South America, e presternas tropical Africa

, and an inch or less in length to fatish irregularly branched

pieces of several joints, the "races” or “hands,” and from as a spiće has been known from very | 3 tu 4 inches long each branch has a depression at its


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The use of ginger

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summit showing the former attachment of a leafy stem. the “commission exécutivo de I'm truc 2012 publique," is The colour, wben not wbitewashed, is a pale bufi; it is reorganizing the system of public instruction. When the somewhat rough or fibrous, breaking with a short mealy Institute was established in 1796, he was elected a mens her fraciure, and presenting on the surfaces of the broken parts of the division called the acadeiny of moral and political numerous short bristly fibres.

sciences. In 1798 the directory appointed him minister The British market derives its supply of ginger from plenipotentiary to the king of Sardinia, whose ruin, begun various parts of the world. The principal sorts, however, by force of arms, they had determined to complete by or those most commonly found in commerce, are Jamaica, treachery. A less promising tool could not have been Cochin, Bengal, and African, though each of these in its found for carrying out their design. After fulfilling his turn has its several varieties and qualities. The best or duties for seven months, very little to the satisfaction of most valued kind of all is the Jamaica, and next to it the his employers, Ginguené retired to his country house of Cochip. For ordinary purposes uncoated ginger is con- St Prix, in the valley of Montmorency, and there he prosesidered the best; the largest and finest pieces, of a pale buff cuted his literary labours till the Revolution of the 18th colour both outside and inside, and cutting softly and evenly, Brumaire called him once more before the world. are considered the most valuable. The chief sources of appointed a member of the tribunate, which made a show supply are the East and West Indies, Sierra Leone, and of maintaining democratic opposition to the first consul; Egypt.

but Napoleon, finding that he was not sufficiently tractThe principal constituents of ginger are starch, volatile oil (to able, had hiin expelled at the first “purge," and Ginguené which the characteristic odour of the spice is due), and resin (to once more joyfully returned to his favourite pursuits. which is attributed its pungency). Its chief use is as a condiment These were now more than ever a necessity of life to him, or spice, but as an aromatic and stomachic medicine it is also used internally. "The stimulant, aromatic, and carminative properties

as his only other source of income was the small endowrender it of much value in atonic dyspepsia, especially if accom

ment attached to his seat in the Institute. Fortunately panied with much flatulence, and as an adjunct to purgative medi. he was nominated one of the commission charged to con. cines to correct griping." Externally applied as a rubefacient, it tinue the literary bistory of France, which bad been brought has been found to relieve headache and toothache. The rhizomes, down by the Ber.edictines to about the close of the 12th collected in a young green state, washed, scrape.l, and preserved in syrup, form a delicious preserve, which is largely exported both century; and the three volumes of this series which ap. from the West Indies and froin China. Cut up into pieces like peared in 1814, 1817, and 1820 are for the most part the lozenges, and preserved in sugar, ginger also forme a very agreeable result of his labours. But the work by which Ginguené

(J. R. J.)

will be longest remembered is his llistoire littéraire l'Italie GINGHANI a wovon cotton fabric, of a close stoutish (9 vols. 8vo, 1811-1819), to which he was putting the texture, the distinguishing characteristics of which are that finishing touches when he was cut off by a painful it is a plain (ie, antwilled) cloth, woven into yarn-dyed disease, November 16, 1815. The first six volumes ar stripes or checks of two or more colours. In some cases as peared before their author's death; the seventh is entirely many as seven or eight colours are introduced in the warp bis except a few pages; and of the eighth and ninth be and weft of a gingham; but no patterns are made that wrote about a half, the other half being composed by Salb, cannot be woven in a common plain loom. Gingham was and revised by Daunou. The success of the history in originally an Indian product, but its manufacture was early Italy was astonishing: editions were published in various introduced into the Lancashire and Glasgow districts; and parts of the peninsula, with notes and comments by the during the first half of the present century the trade formed | best scholars, and three translations appeared respectively an important feature in the textile industries of the latter at Milan, Naples, and Venice. locality--the demand for the fabric coming chiefly from the Ginguené was originally led to make Italian literature United States and the West Indies. The trade distinction bis special study by finding how ill that subject was under of gingham is now to a large extent superseded by other stood, and how little it was appreciated, by his country men. terms.

In the composition of his bistory he was guided for the most GINGUENÉ, Pierre Louis (1748-1815), the author part by the great work of the Jesuit Tiraboschi, but he of the Histoire littéraire d'Italie, was born on 25th April avoids the prejudices and party views of his mudel. His 1748 at Rennes in Brittany. He was educated at a Jesuit own style, though occasionally forcible and eloquent, is not college in his native town, but he owed most of his literary unfrequently too tame for the subject, and he often tres tastes and accomplishments to his father, who early imbued passes on his reader's patience by over-nıinuteness of detail; him with a love of music and the languages of England and but these faults are moro than atoned for by fine critical Italy. His first literary effort, a poetical piece entitled discernment, impartiality, and freedom. On the score of Confession de Zulmé, brought him into notice among the accuracy, indeed, Ginguené sometimes offends, but seldoin literary coteries of Paris, from the circumstance that, when in matters of great moment; and his slips are such as are published at first anonymously, it was claimed by six or seven almost inevitable to a foreigner, who could bardly be said different authors. Though the value of the piece is not to have even seen the country wliose literary history lip very great, it is Ginguene's poetical chef d'oeuvre

. The part relates. The Italians felt grateful to him for baving placed he took as a defender of Piccini against the partisans of their literature in its proper light, and readily forgave the Gluck made him still more widely known; and the reputa- excessive eulogies which he passed on many of their writerz, tion he acquired as a promisios political writer secured em- whose very napics had been forgotten in their own country. ployment for him in the public service in 1780. He bailed,

During the latter years of his life Cinguend wrote extensively for however, the first symptoms of the Revolution, joined Rabaut, the press, and he edited the Décade philosophique, politique, et lil; St Etienne, and Cerutti in producing the Feuille Villageoise

, téraire

, till it was suppressed by Napoleon in 1807. He contributed and celebrated in an indifferent odg the opening of the largely to tho Biographic unircrselle, tho Mercure de France, and states-general. A more creditable effort was his Lettres sur

tho Encyclopédie methodique; and he edited tho works of Chamfort les Confessions de J. J. Rousseau, 1791, in which he ponin ow le Tulexr mysiifié, 1777; La Satire des Satires, 1778; De

and of Lebrun. Among his minor productions are an opera, Postdefended to the uttermost the life and principles of his l'autorité de Rabelais dans la révolution presonte, 1791; De , author. Refusing to countenance the excesses of the Neckar, 1795; Fables inédites, 1814. Seo * Éloge de Ginguené, Revolution, he was thrown into prison, wheree he only M. Daunou, prefixed to the 2d edit

. of tho His lill

. d Italie;

by Dacier, in the Mémoires de l'Institut, tom. vii.; "Discours" by oscaped with life by the downfall of Robespierre. Some

D. J. Garat, Notice sur la ric et les ouvrages de P. L. Guingené, time after his liberation be assisted. as director-general of Paris 1817

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GINSENG, the 100t of a species of Panax (P. Ginseng, ) article of tradle with China. Ginseng is also cultivated in Japan, Slayer), belonging to the natural order Araliaceæ, is a very luxuriantly there than in its native country, the root is considered to

having been introduced from ('orea ; but, although it grows moro alabratal Chinese medicine. The demand is so great be much less active. This may be due to the fact that, while in the that many other roots are substituted for it, notably mountains of Corea the root is perennial, in Japan the plant runs that of Punax quinquefolium, Linn., distinguished as to seed the first year, and becomes annnal. Europeans have hitherto American ginseng, and imported from the United States.

failed to discover any remarkable properties in the drug. Dr Porter

Smith, however, mentions having seen some cases in which life At one time the ginseng obtained from Manchuria was

appeared to be prolonged for a time by its use; and M. Maack state3 considered to be the finest quality, and in consequence that one of the Cossacks of his party, having chopped off a finger became so scarce that an imperial edict was issued prohibit accideutally with an axe, applied ointment made from ginseng, and ing its collection. That prepared iu Corea is now the most

the wound lıcaled rapidly. Its properties, which may be likened to

those of the inandrake of Scripture, are perhaps dependent in great esteemed variety. The root of the wild plant is preferred

measure upon the faith of the patient. to that of cultivated ginseng, and the older the plant the See Porter Smith, Chinese Materia Medica, p. 103; Reports on better is the quality of the root considered to be. Lockhart Trade at the Treaty Ports of China, 1868, p. 63; Lockhart, Med. states that all the ginseng collected in the Chinese empire Missionary in China, 2d ed., p. 107; Bull. de la Société Imperiale

de Nat. de Moscow, 1865, No. 1, pp. 70-76; Pharmaccutical Jour. is imperial property, anl is sold to those who have the

nal, (2), vol. iii. pp. 197, 333, (2), vol. ix. p. 77; Lewis, Materia privilege of dealing in it at its weight in gold. Great care Medica, p. 324; Journal of Botany, 1864, p. 320; Geoffroy, Tract. is taken in the preparation of the drug. The account given de Materie Medicale, t. ii. p. 112; Loureiro, Flora Cochinchinensis, by Konipfer of the preparation of ninilsin, the root of Sium p. 656; Kämpfer, Amenitates Exoticæ, p. 824. niasi, Thunb., in the Corea, will give a good idea of the GIOBERTI, Vincenzo (1801-1852) the ablest philo. preparation of ginseng, ninsi being a similar drug of sup- sophical writer of modern Italy, and one of the most inte posed weakcr virtue, obtained from a different plant, and resting actors in the recent history of the country, was often confounded with ginseng. “In the beginning of born in Turin on the 5th April 1801, the only child of winter nearly all the population of Sjansai turn out to parents in moderate circumstances there, and was educated collect the root, and make preparations for sleeping in the by the fathers of the Oratory with a view to the priesthields. The root, when collected, is macerated for three hood, to which he was ordained in 1825. His study of the days in fresh water, or water in which rice has been boiled ancient philosophers, and the fathers and doctors of the twice ; it is then suspended in a closed vessel over the fire, church, occupied him for years, during which he led a very and afterwards dried, until from the base to the middle it retired life ; gradually, however, he took more and more assumes a hard, resinous, and translucent appearance, which interest in the affairs his country, as well as in the literaia considered a proof of its good quality.”

ture of the day, entering warmly into the new ideas then Ginseng of good quality generally occurs in hard, rather beginning to be discussed in connexion with politics. The örittle

, translucent pieces, about the size of the little finger, freedom of Italy from foreign masters became his ruling and varying in length from 2 to 4 inches. The taste is motive in life, and this freedom in his conception of it was mucilaginous, sweetish, and slightly bitter and aromatic. an emancipation, not only from armed masters, but from The root is frequently forker, and it is probably owing to modes of thought alien to its genius, and detrimental to its tris circumstance that medicinal properties were in the first European authority. This authority was in his mind conplace attributed to it, its resemblance to the body of a nected with papal supremacy, though in a way quite novel man being supposed to indicate that it could restore virile intellectual-rather than political. One must remember this gwer to the aged and impotent. In price it varies from in considering nearly all his writings, and also in estimating 6 or 12 dollars to the enormous sum of 300 or 400 dollars his position, both in relation to the ruling clerical partyan ounce. : Root of this quality can of course only be pur- the Jesuits-and also in relation to the politics of the chased by the most wealthy, and the greatest care is taken court of Piedmont after the accession of Charles Albert in of such pieces by the vendors.

1831. He was now noticed by the king and made one Lockhart gives a graphic description of a visit to a ginseng mer

of his chaplains. His popularity and private influence, chant. Opening the outer box, the merchant renoved several paper however, were reasons enough for the court party to mark parcels which appeared to fill the box, bnt under the was a second him for exile; he was not one of them, and could not be bank, or perhaps two small boxrs, which, when taken out, showed depended on. the bottoni of the large box and all the intervening space tillel with

Knowing this, he in 1833 asked permission more paper parcels. These parcels, he said, "contained quickline,

to resign his chaplaincy, but was suddenly arrested while for the purpose of absorbing any moisture and keeping the boxes walking with a friend in the public gardens, and, after an quite dry, the line being fucked in paper for the sake

of cleanli- imprisonment of four months, sent out of the country in less. Tho smaller box, which held the ginseng, was lined with sheet-leaul; the ginseng further enclosed in silk wrappers was kept This was done without trial or process—simply, it would

the escort of a carabineer, under decree of banishment. in -. up piece, he request bis visitor not to breathe upon it, nor handle in would into appear, by private influence of the clerical party, his name

pon the many merits of the drug anl tho cures it had cffected. being at the same time struck off the list of theological einbroiderul or plain, cotton cloth, or paper.” In China the

gin ruined plans Gioberti arrived in Paris in the beginning of

quality, was silk, either doctors of the college of Turin. With broken fortunes and kelig is often as a ; in such , Sie panying the nedicine is usually given a smiali, beautifalls

: October 1833. A year later he went to Brussels, where he The inner kettle is inade of silver, and between flis and the outside teaching philosophy, and assisting in the work of a college Thelined double kettle, in which the giuseng is prepared as follow's spent the best period of his life from that time to 1845, rossel, copper

, jacket, is a small space for holding . Tobe ilver kettle, which fick on a ring near the top the water superintended by his friend Gaggia

, yet finding time, by evering has a cup-like cover in which rice list place with a little rising early and sitting late, to write many works of great monitor ; tlic ginseng is put in the inner vessel with water, a cover is importance in philosophical inquiry, but benring a special the tice in the cover is sufficiently

cooked, the medicine is ready, returned to him, however, as his whole being was bound placed over the whole, and the apparatus is put on the fire. When relation to his country and its position. His spirits never Boh is then caten by the patient, who drinks the

ginseng ten at the be use of the drug tea-drinking i forbidden for at Teast a month, having been passed by Charles Albert in 1846, Gioberti

The dose of the root is from 60 to 98 grains. During up with the welfare of his nitive country. An amnesty beste no other change is made in the diet, it is taken in the morning had liberty to return to Italy, just as Pius IX. in the

, and sometimes beginning of his pontificate manifested strongly. liberal

to establish gin sympathies. Gioberti took no step, however, mil the end teng plantations, with the view of growing the root as eata important l of 1847, and did not return to his native land till after

The cover of the root, according to

sume time."

it is taken in the evening before going to bed.


certain negotiations, and the public expression of popular heightened by other occasional political articles which fill tiro enthusiasm in his favour. On his entrance into Turin, 29th

volumes, and by his Rinnoramcnto civile d'Italia, that caused

Gioberti to be welcomed with such enthusiasm on his return to April 1848, there was a general ouburst of this enthusiasm,

his native country. All these works were perfectly ortholox, and mainly caused, it appears, by his unjust banishment and

aided in drawing the liberal clergy into the moveinent which has by the large circulation of his books, especially the resulted since his time in the unification of Italy. The Jesuits, liciGesuita Moderno. The city was illuminated ; deputa-cver, closed round the pope more firmly after his return to Rome, tions waited upon him; the king made him senator, but,

and in the end Gioberti's writings were placed on the Indca,

although with no unfavourable result as far as their influence is having been returned both by Turin and by Genoa as concerned. The remainder of his works need not be particularized, deputy to the assembly of representatives, now first meeting although they give his mature views on many points, especially under the new constitution, he elected to sit in the lower La Filosofia della Rivelazione and the Protologia. The entire chamber, for his native town. Previous to the opening he

writings of Gioberti, including those left in manuscript, have been

carefully edited by Giuseppe Massari in thirty-six volumes.. made a tour in various provinces, beginning at Milan and See Massari, Ricordi Biografici e Carteggio (Naples, 1863); including Rome, where he had three interviews with the Lettere di Vincenzo Gioberti e Giorgio Pallavicino (Alilan, 1875); liberal pope, who at that moment seemed to be the repre- Rev. C. B. Smyth, Christian Metaphysics (London, 1851). centative of his ideal imagined in the work Del Primato GIOJA, MELCHIOR (1767-1828), a distinguished Italian morale e civile, which Pius had read and admired. While writer on philosophy and political economy, was born at he was engaged in this tour, constantly addressing the Piacenza in 1767. He was educated at the celebrated people publicly, the chamber met and elected him president. college of St Lazare in his native town, and showed special In the same parliament sat Azeglio, Cavour, and other fondness for the philosophical sciences. Apparently he liberals, and Balbo was prime minister. At the close of the had been destined for the church, but be seems to have same eventful year, a new ministry was formed, headed by given up at an early period the study of theology, and after Gioberti ; but with the accession of Victor Emmanuel in completing his course at the college spent some years in March 1849 his active life came to an end. For a short retirement. His first work was the philosophical treatise time indeed he held a seat in the cabinet, though without Il nuovo Galuteo (1802), which was followed by the Logice a portfolio; but an irreconcilable disagreement soon fol- Statistica. The arrival of Napoleon in Italy drew Gioja lowed, and his removal from Turiu was accomplished by into public life. He advocated warmly the establishment his appointment on a mission to Paris, whence he never of a republican government, and under the Cisalpine returned. There, refusing the pension which had been Republic he was named bistoriographer and director of offered him and all ecclesiastical preferment, he lived statistics. After the fall of Napoleon he retired into private frugally, and spent his days and nights as at Brussels in life, and does not appear again to have held office. He literary labour. Many other exiles gathered about him, died in 1828. Gioja's fundamental idea is the value of and the Marquis Pallavicino became his bosom friend. He statistics or the collection of facts. Philosophy itself is with died suddenly, of apoplexy, on the 26th October 1852. him classification and consideration of ideas. Logic he re

Gioberti's writings are more important than his political career. garded as a practical art, and his Esercizioni Logici has the In the general history of European philosophy they stand apart. As

further title, Art of deriving benefit from ill-constructed books, the speculations of Rosmini, against which he irrote, have been called In ethics Gioja follows Bentham, and his large treatise Del the last link adiled to medieval thought, so the system of Gioberti, more especially in his greater and earlier works, is unrelated to other Merito e delle Recompense, 1818, is a clear and systematic modern schools of thought. It shows a harmony with the Roman view of social ethics from the utilitarian principle. In poliCatholic faith which caused Cousin to make the superficial criticism that “Italian philosophy was still in the bonds of theology.” The Nuovo Prospetto delle Scienze Economiche, 6 vols.,

tical economy this avidity for facts produced better fruits. Method is with him a synthetic, subjective, and psychological instru.

He reconstructs, as he declares, ontology, and begins with 1815-17, although long to excess, and overburdened with the “ideal formula,” “ the Ens creates ex nihilo the existent.” He classifications and tables, contains much valuable material. is in soine respects a Platonist, and transplants certain dogmata

In particular, Gioja must be credited with the finest and froin the ancient idealist. He identifies religion with civilization, and arrives in his treatise Del Primalo morale e civile degli Italiani

inost original treatment of division of labour since the at the conclusion that the church is the axis on which the well

Wealth of Nations. Much of what Babbage taught later being of human life revolves. His later works, the Rinnovamento on the subject of combined work is anticipated by Gioja. and the Protologia, are sometimes thought to be less affirmative in His theory of production is also deserving of attention from this matter, and there is a division in opinion among his critics the fact that it takes into account and gives due prominence how far he shifted his ground under the influence of events before he died. His first work, written when he was thirty-seven, had a

to immaterial goods. Throughout the work there is conpersonal reason for its existence. A young fellow-exile and friend, tinuous opposition to Smith. Gioja's latest work Filosofia Paolo Pallia, having many doubts and misgivings as to the reality della Statistica, 1828, contains in brief compass the essence of revelation and a future life, Gioberti at once set to work with La Teorica del Sovritannturale, which was his first publication (2 vols.,

of his ideas on human life, and affords the clearest insight 1838). After this the enormous labours of his pen made up for the

into his aim and method in philosophy both theoretical lateness of his commencement as an author. Philosophical treatises and practical. in two or three volumes, which would occupy, generally speaking, half a lifetime, followed in rapid succession, each one being a corol.

A notice of Gioja's life is given in the 21 edition of the Filosofia

della Statistica, 1829. lary to the last. The T'eorica was followed by Introducione allo

See Ferri, Essai sur l'histoire de la Phil. en Studio della Filosofia in three volumes, passing through the press

Italie au 19me Siècle, 1869. in 1839-40. In this work he states his reasons for requiring a new GIORDANO, LUCA (1632-1705), a painter of great method and new terminology. Here he brings out the doctrine immediate celebrity, was born in Naples, son of a very that religion is the direct expression of the idea in this life, and is indifferent painter, Antonio, who imparted to him the first one with trije civilization in history. Civilization is a conditioned mediate tendency to perfection, to which religion is the final com

rudiments of drawing. Nature predestined him for the art, pletion if carried out; it is the end of the second cycle expressed by and at the age of eight he painted a cherub into one of his the second formula, the Ens redeems existences. Essays on the father's pictures, a feat which was at once noised abroad, lighter and more popular subjects, Del Bello and Del Buono, followed the Introduction, but were not published as a volume till

and which induced the viceroy of Naples to recommend the 1846, having first appeared in connexion with the writings of other

child to Spagnoletto. His father afterwards took him to authors. Del Primalo morale e civile degli Italiani and the Pro- Rome, to study under Pietro da Cortona. He acquired the legomeni to the same, and soon afterwards his triumphant exposure nickname of Luca Fa-presto (Luke Work-fast). One might of the Jesuits, Il Gesuita Moderno, in five successive volumes (eight suppose this nickname to be derived merely from the almost volumes altogether), began to be issued in 1843, and no doubt hastened the transfer of rule from clerical to civil hands.

It miraculous celerity with which from an early age and WL, 9 las been scen, the popularity of these semi-political works, throughout his life he handled the brush; but it is said to


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have had a more express origin. The father, we are told, \ Itaan palaces, and was, in this form of art, the master of

1 poverty-stricken and greedy of gain, was perpetually urging Pietro Garofolo. His best pupil, in painting of the ordinary his boy to exertion with the phrase, “ Luca, fà presto. kind, was Paolo de Matteis. The youth obeyed his parent to the letter, and would actu- GIORGIOSE (1477-1511), the name adopted both by ally not so much as pause to snatch a hasty meal, but his contemporaries and by posterity for one of the most received into his mouth, while he still worked on, the food renowned of Italian painters, signifies George the Big, or which his father's hand supplied. He copied nearly twenty Great, and was given liim, according to Vasari, “because times the Battle of Constantine by Julio Romano, and with of the gifts of his person and the greatness of his mind." proportionate frequency several of the great works of Like Lionardo da Vinci, Giurgione appears to have been of Raphael and Jichelangelo. His rapidity, which belonged illegitimate birth. His father belonged certainly to the as much to invention as to inere handiwork, and his versa- gentle family of the Barbarella, of Castelfranco in the tility, which enabled him to imitate other painters decep- Trevisan ; his mother, it seems probable, was a peasant girl tively, earned for him two other epithets, "The Thunderbolt” of the neighbouring village of Vedelago; and he was born (Fulmine), and “The Proteus," of Painting. He shortly in or shortly before the year 1477. In histories and catavisited all the main seats of the Italian school of art, and logues he is now commonly styled Giorgio Barbarella of formed for himself a style combining in a certain measure Castelfranco; but it seems clear that he was humbly reared, the ornamental pomp of Paul Veronese and the contrasting and only acknowledged by his father's family when his compositions and large schemes of chiaroscuro of Pietro da geuitas had made him famous. Twenty-seven years after Cortona. He was noted also for lively and showy colour. his death, the brothers Matteo and Ercole Barbarella were Returning to Naples, and accepting every sort of commis- glad to inscribe the name of Giorgione among the members sion by which money was to be made, le practised his art of their family in whose honour they built and dedicated a with so much applause that Charles II. of Spain towards monument in the church of San Liberale in their native 1687 invited him over to Madrid, where he remained torn. Presently this church was demolished and replaced thirteen

years. Giordano was very popular at the Spanish | by a new one. In the course of this operation the inscripcourt, being a sprightly talker along with his other marvel- tion in question perished. Not so a more important lously facile gifts, and the king created him a cavaliere. memorial of Giorgione's greatness, in the shape of an altarOne anecdote of his rapidity of work is that the queen of piece which he painted for the same church on the commisSpain having one day made some inquiry about his wife, sion of Tuzio Costanzo. Tuzio Costanzo was a famous he at once showed Her Blajesty what the lady was like by captain of free lances, who had followed his mistress, the painting her portrait into the picture on which he was en- Queen Cornaro from Cyprus to her retirement in the gaged. After the death of Charles in 1700 Giordano, Trevisan, and at the beginning of the 16th century wog gorged with wealth, returned to Naples. He spent large settled at Castelfranco. The aitar-piece with which suíns in acts of munificence, and was particularly liberal to Giorgione adorned the chapel of this patron in the old. his poorer brethren of the art. He again visited various church of San Liberale, was afterwards transferred to the parts of Italy, and died in Naples on 12th January 1705, new church, where it remains to this day, so that there is his last words being “O Napoli

, sospiro mio” (O Naples, something more than the mere memory of the great painter my heart's love !). One of his maxims was that the good to attract the lover of art on a pilgrimage to his native painter is the one whom the public like, and that the public town, Castelfranco is a hill fort standing in the midst of are attracted more by colour than by design.

a rich and broken plain at some distance from the last At the present day, when the question is not huw quickly slopes of the Venetian Alps. Giurgione's ideal of luxuGiordano could do his work, but what the work itself | riant pastoral scenery, the country of pleasant copses, amounts to, his reputation has run down like the drops of glades, and brooks, amid which his personages love to heavy rain off a window, or like one of the figures in his wander or recline with lute and pipe, was derived, no doubt, own paintings, in which he was wont to use an excessive from these natural surroundings of his childhood. We can. quantity of oil. His astonishing readiness and facility not tell how long le remained in their midst, nor what were must, however, be recognized, spite of the general common- the circumstances which led him, while still, it seems, a boy, ness and superficiality of his performances. He left many to Venice. Once there, we do not hear of him until his works in Rome, and far more in Naples. Of the latter one genius is, so to speak, full-fledged. He appears all at once of the most renowned is Christ expelling the Traders from as a splendid presence, the observed of all observers; an the Temple, in the church of the Padri Girolamini, a colossal impassioned musician, singer, lover; and, above all, as a work, full of expressive lazzaroni ; also the frescos of S. painter winning new conquests for his art. Martino, and those in the Tesoro della Certosa, including from obscurity to fame, probably under the teaching of the subject of Moses and the Brazen Serpent; and the Giovanni Bellini, must have been extraordinarily rapid, as cupola-paintings in the Church of S. Brigida, which con- he was still very young when he was employed to paint the tains the artist's own tomb. In Spain he executed a sur- portraits of two successive doges, and of great captains and prising number of works,-continuing in the Escorial the princesses such as Gonzalvo of Cordova and Catharina series commenced by Cambiasi, and painting frescos of the Cornaro. Giorgione effected, in the Venetian school, a Triumphs of the Church, the Genealogy and Life of the change analogous to that effected by Lionardo in the school Madonna, the stories of Moses, Gideon, David, and Solomon, of Florence, –a change, that is, which was less a revolution and the Celebrated Women of Scripture, all works of large than a crowning of the edifice. He added the last accondimensions. His pupils, Aniello Rossi and Matteo Pacelli, plishments of freedom and science to an art that at his assisted him in Spain. In Madrid he worked more in oil- advent only just fell short of both. Venetian painting colour, a Nativity there being one of his best productions. towards 1495 had reached the height of religious dignity in Another superior example is the Judgment of Paris in the the great altar-pieces of Bellini, the height of romantic Berlin Museum. In Florence, in his closing days, he sentiment and picturesque animation in Carpaccio's series painted the Cappella Corsini

, the Galleria Riccardi, and from the legend of St Ursula. The efforts of the school for In youth he etched with considerable skill nearly half a century had been concentrated on the developsome of his own paintings, such as the Slaughter of the ment, with the help of the new medium of vil, of colour Priests of Baal. He also painted much on the crystal as the great element of emotional expression in painting. borderings of looking-glasses, cabinets, &c., seen in many | Giorgione came to enrich the art with a more faultless

His progress

other works.

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