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GIRGEH, GIROA, or JIRJEH, a town of Upper Egypt, stores, and the spot is defended by a small fort. Almonds situated on the left bank of the Nile, about 9 miles north- and grain are the only important articles of export besides west of the ancient eity of Abydus. It owes its name to sulphur; but, though the grain-pits hewn out of the rock are the Coptic monastery of St George or Girgis, and is the of large extent, the actual shipments of grain are not very seat of a Coptic bishop, possesses eight mosques and a great. The average value of the annual export of sulphur Roman Catholic monastery which ranks as the oldest in amounted, between 1868 and 1870, to £411,700, while that Egypt, and numbers from 8000 to 10,000 inhabitants, of of the other articles was less than £15,000 each. The popuwhom about 500 are Christians. For a long time it was lation of Girgenti was 18,802 in 1871, and that of Porto the capital of the Sa'id, but this rank is now held by Soohag. Empedocle 6691. In the history of Girgenti there is little The worst enemy of Girgeh is the river, which was a quarter of note; the historical interest of the district gathers round of a mile to the east at the time of Pococke's visit about the splendid ruins of the older Agrigentum, which lie 1740, but has gradually crept nearer, and is now slowly between Girgenti and the sea. undermining the very site of the town.

See Piccone, Memorie storiche Agrigentine ; De la Salle's Voyage GIRGENTI, a city in the south of Sicily, at the head of pittoresque en Sicile ; Häckel's Reiseskizzen aus Sicilien," in a province of its own name, occupies a fine positivn about Zeitschrift für Erdk. zu Berlin, 1860; Renan, “Voyage en Sicile," 3 miles from the coast on a platform of Mount Camicus,

in Revue des Deux Alondes, Nov. 1875. more than 1100 feet above the level of the sea. It lies GIRODET DE ROUSSY, ANNE LOUIS (1767-1824), about 60 miles S.S.E. of Palermo, with which it is connected better known as Girodet-Trioson, was born at Montargis, by a railway 90 miles long. As seen from the lower ground January 5, 1767. He lost his parents in early youth, and Girgenti presents a grandiose but sombre appearance, with the care of his fortune and education fell to the lot of his its buildings rising in close array from ancient substructions guardian, M. Trioson, “médecin de mesdames,” by whom and the steep rocks of the mountain ; but within it is for he was in later life adopted. After some preliminary the most part mean, monotonous, and melancholy, the

studies under a painter named Luquin, Girodet entered the streets with few exceptions being confined, irregular, steep school of David, and at the age of twenty-two he successfully and ill-paved, and the houses all presenting the same grey- competed for the Prix de Rome. At Rome he executed brown walls, the same reddish roofs, and the same narrow his Hippocrate refusant les présents d'Artaxerxes, and doors and narrow windows. The cathedral, begun in the Endymion dormant (Louvre), a work which was hailed with 14th century, has still an impressive effect, in spite of the acclamation at the Salon of 1792. The peculiarities which incongruous mixture of styles ; but the interior is a typical mark Girodet's position as the herald of the romantic movespecimen of modern rococo. The acoustic conditions ment are already evident in his Endymion. The firm-set are sufficiently peculiar: a word spoken in the softest forms, the grey cold colour, the hardness of the execution, whisper at the entrance can be distinctly heard behind the are proper to one trained in the school of David, but these choir, 100 paces off. One of the chupels contains the shrine characteristics harmonize ill with the literary, sentimental, and bears the name of St Gerlando, the first bishop of and picturesque suggestions which the painter has sought Girgenti; the altar-piece is a Virgin and Child by Guido to render. The same incongruity marks Girodet's Danae, Reni ; and in the north aisle there stands a marble sarco

and his Quatre Saisons, executed for the king of Spain, phagus now used as a font, with fine rilievos, probably of (repeated for Compiègne), and shows itself to a ludicrous exRoman workmanship after a Greek original, representing tent in his Fingal (St Petersburg, Leuchtenberg collection), the story of Hippolytus and Phædra. Not only are the executed for Napoleon I. in 1802. This work unites the archives of the cathedral rich in historic documents of the defects of the classic and romantic schools, for Girodet's Norman period, but they profess to contain an autograph imagination ardently and exclusively pursued the ideas letter of the devil himself

. Among the other churches, excited by varied reading both of classic and modern literaupwards of forty in number, S. Maria dei Greci is worthy ture, and the impressions which he received from the exterof note as preserving two Doric pillars which had belonged nal world afforded him little stimulus or check; he conseto the teinple of leus Polieus, founded in 570 B.c. by quently retained the mannerisms of his master's practice Phalaris, and are thus the oldest architectural remains in whilst rejecting all restraint on choice of subject. The Girgenti

. As the chief town of a province, Girgenti is the credit lost by Fingal Girodet regained in 1806, when he residence of a prefect and the military headquarters of the exhibited Scène de Deluge (Louvre), to which (in competidistrict. It is also the seat of the wealthiest bishopric tion with the Sabines of David) was awarded the decennial in Sicily, dating from the pontificate of Urban II. ; and prize. This success was followed up in 1808 by the proit possesses a chamber of commerce and art, an industrial duction of the Reddition de Vienne, and Atala au Tombeau institute, a lyceum, a gymnasium, a technical school, and

a work which went far to deserve its immense popularity, an episcopal seminary. Its principal library, Bibliotheca by a happy choice of subject, and remarkable freedom from Lucchesiana, was presented to the town by Don Andrea the theatricality of Girodet's usual manner, which, however, Lucchese of the family of Campo Franco; the Casino soon came to the front again in his Révolte de Caire (1810). Empedocleo, with well-appointed librar and reading. His powers now began to fail, and his habit of workrooms, was founded by a number of the wealthier citizens. ing at night and other excesses told upon his constitution; In the early part of the century Girgenti was a poverty in the Salon of 1812

he exhibited only a Tête de Vierge; in stricken town, but it has attained a considerable degree of 1819 Pygmalion et Galatée showed a still further decline prosperity since 1850. It lies in the centre of the sulphur of strength; and in 1824—the year in which he produced district of Sicily, and its port, formerly Molo di Girgenti, his portraits of Cathelineau and Bonchamps-Girodet died now Porto Empedocle, is the principal place of shipment. on 9th December, aged fifty-eight. The harbour has been largely improved since 1870: the The number of his paintings is inconsiderable ; but he executed pier, originally constructed in the 17th century, in part at

a vast quantity of illustrations, amongst which may be cited those least from the ruins of the temple of the Olympian Jupiter, Fifty-four of his designs for Anacreon were engraved by M.

to the Didot Virgil (1798) and to the Louvre Racine (1801-1805). has been extended to a length of 4800 feet, so as to include Chatillon. Girodet wasted much time on literary composition, an area of 330,000 square yards, and the depth, which was his poem Le Peintre (a string of commonplaces), together with only 10 feet on the bar and 16 within, has been greatly poor imitations of classical poets, and essays on Le Génie and La increased by dredging. Around the port, which is 3 miles

Grace, were published after his death (1829), with a biographical

notice by his friend M. Coupin de la Couperie ; and M. Delécluze, from the city proper, has gathered a cluster of houses and in his Louis David et son temps, has also a brief life of Girodet.

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GIRONDE, a maritime department in the S.W. of to 300. Of late years the herring-fishing has been greatly France, formed from four divisions of the old province of developed; in the spring of 1879 304 boats were engaged Guyennė, viz., Bordelais, Bazadais, and parts of Périgord in it, the "take" exceeding 20,000 crans. The harbour and Agénois. It is bounded on the N. by the department is a tidal one, with a depth at high water of only 9 feet. of Charente-Inférieure, E. by those of Dordogne and Lot-et- The public buildings are very superior; and of late many Garonne, S. by that of Landes, and W. by the Bay of handsome villas have been erected. The situation of the Biscay. It lies between 44° 12' and 45° 35' N. lat. and town is one of the finest in the west of Scotland, and the between 0° 18' E. and 1° 16' W. long., being 106 miles in shore affords excellent facilities for sea-bathing. The length from N. W. to S. E., and 80 in breadth from N.E. to population, which was 7319 in 1851, had fallen to 4776 S.W. It takes its name from the river or estuary of the in 1871, but it is now increasing. Gironde formed by the union of the Garonne and Dordogne. GISORS, a town of France, department of Eure, is The department divides itself naturally into a western situated in a pleasant valley on the Epte, 45 miles E.N.E. and an eastern portion. The former, which is termed Les of Paris. Of its aucient castle, which dates from the 12th Landes, occupies more than a third of the department, and century, and was at one time one of the principal strongconsists chiefly of morasses, or of sandy and unfruitful holds in the kingdom, the octagonal keep, built by Henry downs. The downs stretching along the sea-coast have, II. of England, remains entire, and the rest of the ruins however, been now planted with pines, which, binding still present an imposing appearance. Its ancient ramparts the sand together by means of their roots, afford an effica- have been converted into promenades. There is a fine old cious protection against the encroachments of the sea. Near church, the choir of which was built in 1240, and contains the coast are two extensive lakes, Carcans and Lacanau, windows with portraits of Blanche of Castile and Louis communicating with each other, and with the bay of VIII. The north portal is a good specimen of the florid Arcachon, near the southern extremity of the departinent. style of the Renaissance. The church contains some fine The Bay of Arcachon contains numerous islands, and on the sculptures and paintings. The principal other buildings land side forms a vast shallow lagoon, a considerable are the communal college, the convent, and the hospital. portion of which, however, has been drained and converted The industries include tanning, brewing, cotton-spinning, into arable land. The eastern portion of the department and bleaching. The population in 1876 was 3590. consists chiefly of a succession of hill and dale, and, especially GITSCHIN, the chief town of a circle in Bohemia, is in the valley of the Gironde, is very fertile. The estuary situated on the Cydlina and on the North-West Austrian of the Gironde is about 45 miles in length, and varies in railway, 50 miles N. E. of Prague. The principal buildings breadth from 2 to 6 miles. The principal aftluent of the are the parish church, erected after the model of the pilgrim's Dordogne in this department is the Isle. The feeders of church of Santiago de Compostella in Spain; the prison, the Garonne are, with the exception of the Dropt, all small. ' formerly a Jesuit college; the castle, built by Wallensteiu West of the Garonne the only river of importance is the , in 1630; the gymnasium, the normal school, and the real Leyre, which flows into the bay of Arcachon. The climate school. There is a considerable trade in corn. Gitschin is humid and temperate. Wheat, rye, maize, millet, and was made the capital of the duchy of Friedland by Wallenhemp are grown to a considerable extent. The corn pro- stein in 1627, at which time it contained only 200 houses. duced, however, does not more than half meet the wants of Wallenstein was interred at the neighbouring Carthusian the inhabitants. The culture of the vine is by far the most monastery, but in 1639 the head and right hand were taken important branch of industry carried on, the vineyards by General Banér to Sweden, and in 1702 the other remains occupying about one-seventh of the surface of the depart- were removed by Count Vincent of Waldstein to bis heredi. ment. The wine-growing districts are the Médoc, Graves, tary burying ground at Müncheugrätz. At Gitschin the Côtes, Palus, and Entre-deux-Mers. • The Médoc country Prussians gained a great victory over the Austrians, June grows the three grands crus. The Graves country forms a 29, 1866. The population in 1869 was 6750. zone 30 miles in extent, and is situated in the vicinity of GIULIO ROMANO. See PIPPI. the Garonne and Dordogno, cxtending from Châtillon-sur- GIUNTA PISANO, the earliest Italian painter whose Gironde to Langon.

This is the Sauterne country. The name is found inscribed on an extant work, exercised his wines of the Côtes district are St Émilion, Pommerol, St art from 1202 to 1236; he may perhaps have been born Laurent, St Hippolyte, St Christophe, and St George. towards 1180 in Pisa, and died in or soon after 1236. The Palus and Entre-deux-Mers produce is inferior. Fruits There is some ground for thinking that his family-name was and vegetables are increasingly cultivated, strawberries, Capiteno. In recent times some efforts have been made to cherries, apricots, prunes, artichokes, and peas being largely uphold his deservings as an artist, thereby detracting so fer exported. Tobacco is also cultivated to a considerable ex- from the credit due to the initiative of Cimabue ; but tent. Large supplies of resin, pitch, and turpentine are it cannot be said that these efforts rest on a very solid basiz. obtained from the pine wood. There are stone quarries and To most eyes the performances of Giunta merely represeut smelting works, but few mines. The manufactures are a continuing stage of the long period of pictorial inaptitudc. various, and, with the general trade, are chiefly carried on The inscribed work above referred to, one of his earliest, at Bordeaux. Gironde is divided into the arrondissements is a Crucifix now or lately in the kitchen of the conof Bordeaux, Blaye, Lesparre, Libourne, Bazas, and La vent of St Anne in Pisa. Other Pisan works of like Réole, with 48 cantons, and 547 communes. The chief date are very barbarous, and some of them may be also town is Bordeaux. The total area is 3761 square miles; and from the hand of Giunta. It is said that he painted the population in 1866 was 701,855, and in 1876 735,242. in the upper church of Assisi,—in especial a Cruci. For a graphic description of the scenery of Les Landes in fixion dated 1236, with a figure of Father Elias, the Gironde see the novel Maître Pierre of Edmund About. general of the Franciscans, embracing the foot of the cross. GIRONDISTS. See FRANCE.

In the sacristy is a portrait of St Francis, also ascribed to GIRVAN, a burgh of barony and market-town, in the Giunta ; but it more probably belongs to the close of the county of Ayr, Scotland, is situated at the mouth of the 13th century. This artist was in the practice of painting river Girvan, 21 miles S. W. of Ayr, and nearly opposite upon cloth stretched on wood, and prepared with plaster. Ailsa Craig, a rocky island 10 miles distant. The prin- GIURGEVO, in Roumanian Giurgiu or Shursha, 8 town cipal industry was formerly hand-loom weaving, but the of Roumania (formerly of Lower Wallachia), at the head of number of persons so employed las decreased from 3000 ' the district of Vlashka, lies on the left or northern bank of

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tho Danube, over against Rustchuk'in Bulgaria, and is | all the character of a classic satire. When first issued distant about 40 miles from Bucharest, with which it has in Tuscany, it struck all as too impassioned and perbeen connected by railway since 1869. It presents on the sonal Giusti entered heart and soul into the political whole rather a mean appearance, rising out of the mud movements of 1847 and 1848, served in the national embankments of the river, but its population is increasing, guard, sat in the parliament for Tuscany; but finding that its commerical advantages as the port of Bucharest are there was more talk than action, that to the tyranny of becoming more generally recognized, and improvements are princes had succeeded the tyranny of demagogues, he consequently being effected in the town itself. It is the began to fear, and to express the fear, that for Italy evil seat of a court of primary instance, and has a normal school rather than good had resulted. He fell, in consequence, and a gymnasium. The fortifications to which it was from the high position he bad held in public estimation, formerly indebted for no small part of its importance were and in 1848 was regarded as a reactionary. His frienddestroyed in 1829, and its only defence is a castle on the ship for the marquis Gino Capponi, who had taken him island of Slobosia, with which it communicates by a bridge. into his house during the last years of his life, and who Giurgevo, or, as it was called by its founders, San Zorzo, published after Giusti’s death a volume of illustrated prothat is, San Giorgio, or St George's, owes its origin to the verbs, was enough to compromise him in the eyes of such Genoese of the 14th century. It has frequently figured in men as Guerrazzi, Montanelli, and Niccolini. On May 31, the wars whereby the lower Danube has so often been laid 1850, he died at Florence in the palace of his friend. waste. The population in 1875 was about 15,000.

The poetry of Giusti, under a light trivial aspect, has a GIUSTI, GIUSEPPE (1809-1850), Tuscan satirical poet, | lofty civilizing significance. The type of his satire is was born at Monsummano, a small village of the Valdinie- entirely original, and it had also the great merit of appearvole, on May 12, 1809. His father, a cultivated and rich ing at the right moment, of wounding judiciously, of man, accustomed his son from childhood to study, and sustaining the part of the comedy that castigat ridendo himself taught him, among other sul-jects, the first mores.” Hence his verse, apparently jovial, was received rudiments of music. Afterwards, in order to curb his by the scholars and politicians of Italy in all seriousness. too rivacious disposition, he placed the boy under the Alexander Manzoni in come of his letters showed a 'hearty charge of a priest near the village, whose severity did admiration of the genius of Giusti; and the weak Austrian perhaps more evil than good. At twelve Giusti was sent and Bourbon Governments regarded them as of the gravest to school at Florence, and afterwards to Pistoia and to importance. Lacca; and during those years lie wrote his first verses. His poems have been often reprinted, the best editions being In 1826 lie went to study law at Pisa; but, disliking the those of Le Monnier of Florence, and also that published in Verona, study, he spent eight years in the course, instead of the with valuable annotations, by Professor Giovanni Fioretti in 1876.

Besides the poems, and the proverbs already mentioned, we liave a customary four. He lived gaily, however, though his father

volume of select letters, full of vigour and written in the best kept him short of money, and learned to know the world, Tuscan language, and a fine critical discourse on Ginseppe Parini, seeing the vices of society, and the folly of certain laws the satirical poet of the last century, whose poetical works are and customs from which his country was suffering. The published in a volume by Le Monnier. In some of his coni posiexperience thus gained he turned to good account in the luis verses have been excellently translated into German by Paul

tions the elegiac rather than the satirical poet is seen. Many of use he made of it in his satire.

Heyse. Good English translations were published in the Athiræum His father had in the neantime changed his place of by the late Mrs T. A. Trollope. abode to Pescia; but Giuseppe did worse there, and in

which originally belonged to Venice, but established itself turned to study at Pisa, seriously enamoured of a woman subsequently in Genoa also, and at various times had reprewhom he could not marry, but now commencing to write sentatives in Naples, Corsica and several of the islands of in real earnest in behalf of his country. With the poem the Archipelago. called La Ghigliottina (the guillotine), Giusti began to In the Venetian line the following are most worthy strike out a path for himself, and thus revealed his great of mention. I. LORENZO (1380–1465), the Laurentius genius. From this time he showed himself the Italian Justinianus of the Roman calendar, at an early ago Béranger, and even surpassed the Frenchman in richness of entered the congregation of the canons of Saint George language, refinemeot of humour, and depth of satirical | in Alga, and in 1433 became general of that order. About conception. In Béranger there is more feeling for what is the same time he was made by Eugenius IV. bishop of needed for popular poetry. His poetry is less studied, its Venice; and his episcopate was marked by considerable vivacity perbaps more boisterous, more spontaneous; but activity in church extension and reform. On the removai Giusti, in both manner and conception, is perhaps more of the patriarchate from Grado to Venice by Nicholas V. in elegant, more refined, more penetrating. In 1834 Giusti, 1451, Giustiniani was promoted to that dignity, which he having at last entered the legal profession, left Pisa to go held for fourteen years. He died on January 8, 1465, was to Florence, nominally to practice with the advocate Capo- canonized by Pope Alexander VIII., his festival (semi-duplex) quadri, but really to enjoy life in the capital of Tuscany. being fixed by Innocent XII. for September 5th, the anniHe fell seriously in love a second time, and as before was versary of his elevatiou to the bishopric. His works, corabandoned by his love. It was then he wrote his finest sisting of sermons, letters, and ascetic treatises, have been verbes, by means of which, although his poetry was not frequently reprinted,—the best adition being that of the yet collected in a volume, but for some years passed Benedictine P. N. A. Giustiniani, published at Venice in from hand to hand, his name gradually became famous. 2 vols. folio, 1751. They are wholly devoid of literary The greater part of his poems were published clandes- merit. His life has been written by Bernard Giustiniani, tirely at Lugano, at no little risk, as the work was destined by Maffei, and also by the Bollandists. (2.) LEONARDO to undermine the Austrian rule in Italy. After the publi- |(1388-1446), brother of the preceding, was for some years cation of a volume of verses at Bastia, Giusti thoroughly a senator of Venice, and in 1443 was chosen procurator of establisbed his fame by his Gingillino, the best in moral St Mark. He translated into Italian Plutarch's Lives of tone as well as the most vigorous and effective of his Cinna and Lucullus, and was the author of some poetical poems. The poet sets himself to represent the vileness pieces, amatory and religious, as well as of rhetorical prose of the treasury officials, and the base means they used to compositions. (3.) BERNARDO (1408–1489), son of Leonardo, conceal the necessities of the state. The Gingillino has was a pupil of Guarino and of George of Trebizond, and

, of a prominent Italian family


entered the Venetian señate at an early age. He served on at Friuli. He left in Italian a personal narrative of the war several important diplomatic missions both to France and in Flanders, which has been repeatedly published in a Latin Rome, and about 1485 became one of the council of ten. translation (Bellum Belgicum, Antwerp, 1609). (2.) GiovHis orations and letters were published in 1492; but his ANNI (1513-1556), born in Candia, translator of Terence's title to any measure of fame he possesses rests upon his Andria and Eunuchus, of Cicero's In Verrem, and of history of Venice, De Origine Urbis Venetiarum re?usque Virgil's Æneid, 1. viii. (3.) ORSATTO (1538–1603), Veneab ipsa gestis historia (1492), which was translated into tian senator, translator of the Edipus Tyrannus of SophoItalian by Domenichi in 1545, and which at the time of its cles, and author of a collection of Rime, in imitation of appearance was undoubtedly the best work upon the subject Petrarch. He is regarded as one of the latest representaof which it treated. It is to be found in vol. i. of the tives of the classic Italian school. (4.) GERONIMO, a Thesaurus of Grævius. (4.) PIETRO, also a senator, lived Genoese, flourished during the latter half of the 16th cenin the 16th century, and wrote an Historia rerum Venetarum tury. He translated the Alcestis of Euripides and three of in continuation of that of Bernardo. He was also the the plays of Sophocles ; and wrote two original tragedies, author of chronicles De Gestis Petri Mocenigi and De Bello Jephte and Christo in Passione. (5.) VINCENZO, who in the Venetorum cum Carolo VIII. The latter has been re- beginning of the 17th century built the Roman palace and printed in the Script. Rer. Ital., vol. xxi.

made the art-collection which are still associated with his Of the Genoese branch of the family the most prominent name (see Galleria Giustiniana, Rome, 1631). The collecincmbers were the following. (1.) PAOLO, DI MONIGLIA tion was removed in 1807 to Paris, where it was to some ex(1444-1502), a member of the order of Dominicans, was, tent broken up. In 1815 all that remained of it, about 170 from a comparatively early age, prior of their convent at pictures, was purchased by the king of Prussia and removed Genoa. As a preacher he was very successful, and his talents to Berlin, where it forms a portion of the royal museum. were fully recognized by successive popes, by whom he was GIVET, one of the strongest fortified towns of France, made master of the sacred palace, inquisitor-general for all on the Belgian frontier, situated in the department the Genoese dominions, and ultimately bishop of Scio and of Ardennes, on the river Meuse, 40 miles N.N.E. of Hungarian legate. He was the author of a number of | Mezières. The Eastern French railway connects it with Biblical commentaries (no longer extant), which are said to Rheims, and the Belgian railways connect it with Namur have been characterized by great erudition. (2.) AGOSTINO and Charleroi. It is divided into three portions—the (1470-1536), was born at Genoa, and spent some wild citadel called Charlemont, and Grand Givet on the left years in Valencia, Spain. Having in 1487 joined the bank of the river, and on the opposite bank Petit Givet, Dominican order, he gave himself with great energy to the connected with Grand Givet by a stone bridge of fire study of Greek, Hebrew, Chaldee, and Arabic, and in 1514 arches. The citadel of Charlemont, built by the emperor commenced the preparation of a polyglot edition of the Charles V. in 1555, is situated at the top of a precipitous Bible. As bishop of Nebbio in Corsica, he took part in rock 705 feet high, and on the east side, by which alone it some of the earlier sittings of the Lateran council (1516- is accessible, is fortified by six bastions and several other 17), but, in consequence of party complications, withdrew to works. Grand Givet has four bastions and three ravelibs, and his diocese, and ultimately to France, where he became a Petit Givet 3 bastions. The fortress has accommodation for pensioner of Francis I., and was the first to occupy a chair 25,000 men, but can be held by 3000 or 4000. The town of Hebrew and Arabic in the university of Paris. After an is famed for its clay tobacco-pipes. There are also manuabsence from Corsica for a period of five years, during which factures of nails, lead pencils, sealing was, white lead, glue, he visited England and the Low Countries, and became earthenwarė, and leather, and the town has some trade. acquainted with Erasmus and More, he returned to Nebbio The population in 1876 was 5275. about 1522, and there remained, with comparatively little GIVORS, a town of France, department of Rhône, is intermission, till in 1536, when, while returning from a visit situated on the Rhone and the canal of Rive-de-Gier, near to Genoa, he perished in a storm at sea. He was the possessor the railway between Lyons and St Etienne, 14 miles south of a very fine library, which he bequeathed the republic of Lyons. It has glass and tile works, potteries, tanneries, of Genoa. Of his projected polyglot only the Psalter was foundries, silk factories, and dyeworks, and is the prinpublished (Psalterium Hebræum, Græcum, Arabicum, et cipal entrepôt for the coal and coke of the Gier valley. Chaldaicum, Genoa, 1616). Besides the Hebrew text, the Near it are the ruins of the château of St Gerald and of the LXX. translation, the Chaldee paraphrase, and an Arabic convent of St Ferréol. Population (1876), 10,856. version, it contains the Vulgate translation, a new Latin GLACIER,' a name given to a mass of ice, having its translation by the editor, a Latin translation of the Chaldee, origin in the hollows of mountains where perpetual snow and a collection of scholia. Giustiniani printed 2000 copies accumulates, but which makes its way down towards the at his own expense, including fifty in vellum for presentation lower valleys, where it gradually melts, until it terminates to the sovereigns of Europe and Asia ; but the sale of the exactly where the melting, due to the contact of the warmer work did not encourage him to proceed with the New Testa- air, earth, and rain of the valley, compensates for the ment, which he had also prepared for the press. Besides bodily descent of the ice from the snow reservoirs of the an edition of the book of Job, containing the original text, higher mountains. the Vulgate, and a new translation, he published a Latin The diminution of temperature as we ascend the slopes version of the Moreh Nevochim of Maimonides (Director of mountains, is indicated by successive zones of vegetation, Dubitantium aut Perplexorum, 1520), and also edited in and finally by the occurrence of perpetual snow (see Latin the Aureus Libellus of Æneas Platonicus, and the GEOLOGY, p. 280). It was first shown by Baron Humboldt Timous of Chalcidius. His annals of Genoa (Castigatissimi and Von Buch that the limit of perpetual snow depends annali di Genova) were published posthumously in 1537. principally on the temperature of the summer, and not

The name Giustiniani has also been borne by the follow upon that of the whole year. ing :-(1.) POMPEIO (1569–1616), a native of Corsica, who served under Alessandro Farnese and the marquis of Spinola The following are synonyms in different languages and dialects :in the Low Countries, where he lost an arm, and, from the French, glacier ; German, gletscher ; Italian, ghiacciaja ; Tyrolese, artificial substitute which he wore, came to be known by the fern; in Carinthia, käss; in tho Valais, biegno ; in part of Italy, soubriquet Bras de Fer. He also defended Crete against eisbree or iisbrede ; in Lapland, geikna or jegna; in Iceland, jökull or

vedretio ; in Piedmont, ruive; in the Pyrenees, serneille ; in Norway, the Turks; and subsequently was killed in a reconnaissance | fall-jökull.


A glacier ugnally protrudes into a valley far below the rather the general surface is depressed to their level. If limit of perpetual snow, and terminates amidst a wilderness the earthy mass be considerable, the ice beneath is protected of stones borne down upon its surface and deposited by its from the radiation of the sun and from the violent washing fusion. This earthy and rocky rubbish is termed moraine of the rain ; it at length protrudes above the general level matter, and has already been described (GEOLOGY, p. of the glacier, and finally forms a cone which appears to be 281). Lying in front of the lower end of a glacier, it entirely composed of gravel, but is in fact ice at the heart, marks in a characteristic and certain manner the greatest with merely a protectirg cover of earthy matter. These limit of extension which the glacier has at any one time singular cones are very well seen on the glacier of the Aar, attained. Sometimes a glacier is seen to have withdrawn bat on most others they are comparatively rare. The very far within its old limits, leaving a prodigious barren similar protective action of large stones detached from the waste of stones in advance of it, which, being devoid of moraines and lying on the surface of the ice often produces soil, nourishes not one blade of grass. At other times the the striking phenomenon of "glacier tables." Stones of glacier pushes forward its margin beyond the limit which any considerable size almost invariably stand upon a slightly it has ever reached (at least within the memory of man), elevated pillar of ice ; but when they are broad and flat teurs up the ground with its icy ploughsbare, and shoves for- they occasionally attain a height of 6 and even of 12 feet ward the yielding turf in wrinkled folds, uprooting trees, above the general level. moving vast rocks, and scattering the walls of dwelling The superficial waste of a glacier is thus a very important houses in fragments before its irresistible unward march.1 phenomenon. Owing to it the body of the ice has its

The lower end rí a glacier is usually steep, --sometimes vertical thickness rapidly diminished during the heats of with a dome-shaped unbroken outline, more frequently summer, and, as we have already intimated, the lower end brokea up by intersecting cracks into prismatic masses of a glacier has its position determined by the amount of which the continued action of the sun and rain sharpen into this waste. Suppose a glacier to move along its bed at the pyramids, often assuming (as in the glacier of Bossons at rate of 300 feet per annum, and imagine (merely for the Chamouni) grotesque or beautiful forms. From a vault in sake of illustration) its yearly superficial waste to be 20 the green-blue ice, more or less perfectly formed each sum- feet; then the thickness of the glacier will diminish by 20 mer, the torrent issue: wbich represents the natural drain feet for every 300 feet of its length, or at the rate of 360 age of the valley, derived partly from land springs, partly feet per mile, so that the longitudinal section of a glacier from the fusion of the ice. The united or crevassed condi- has the form of a wedge; and however enormous its original tion of the glacier venerally depends almost entirely on the thickness, after a certain course we must at length come to slope of its bed. If it incline rapidly, numerous transverse tho thin end of the wedge, and that the more rapidly as the fissures are formed from the imperfect yielding of the ice causes of melting increase towards the lower extremity. during its forced descent along its uneven channel. These These causes are indeed so various that it is difficult to cracks often extend for hundreds of yards, and may be estimate them with accuracy. We have (1) the direct hundreds of feet in depth ; but their greatest depth is pot solar heat, (2) the contact of warm air, and (3) the accurately known, since they are rarely quite vertical. In washing of rain. All these causes act on the surface and many cases, however, the crevasses are comparatively few produce the "ablation" of the surface. Besides these, the in number, and the glacier may be readily traversed in all | ice of the glacier wastes somewhat beneath by the contact diructions. This is especially the case if a glacier of con- of the soil and the washing of the inferior streams. This siderable dimensions meets with any contraction in its may be called its “subsidance." Further, the natural course. The ice is embayed and compressed, and its slope slope of the rocky bed of the glacier causes any point of lessens, just as in the case of a river when it nears a similar the surface to stand absolutely lower each day in concontraction preceding a fall

. Such level and generally sequence of the progressive motion. These three causes traversable spaces may be found about the middle regions united produce the "geometrical depression" of the surof the Mer de Glace, the lower glacier of Grindelwald, the face. Principal J. D. Forbes showed how the several lower glacier of the Aar, and in many other cases. The eifects may usually be distinguished by observation. last-named glacier is perhaps the most remarkably even and During the height of summer, near the Montanvert, he accessible of any in Switzerland. The slope of its surface found the daily average ablation to be 3.62 inches, the daily is in many places only 3. The Pasterzen glacier in subsidence to be 1.63 inches. Seven-tenths of the geoCarinthia is even less inclined. It is in such portions of a metrical depression are due therefore to the former cause, glacier that we commonly find internal cascad 3, or and three-tenths to the lettor. This is a very large amount, "moulins.” These arise from the surface water being and it is certain that during the colder period of the year, collected into a considerable mass by a long course over its and whilst the glacier is covered with snow, the subsidence unbroken surface, and then precipitated with violence into is not only suspended, but the glacier recruits in thickness the first fissure it meets with. The descending cascade keeps a portion of its waste during the seasons of summer and open its channel, which finally loses the form of a fissure, autumn. To this subject we shall again return. presenting that ci an open shaft, often of immense depth. The middle region of the great glaciers of the Alps extends

Nearly connected in their origin with the internal cas- from the level of about 6000 to 8000 feet above the sea. cades are the “gravel cones," occasionally seen on the sur. The inclination is usually there most moderate-say from face of glaciers, which appear to be formed in this way. 23° to 6o. But this is not invariably the case. Beyond A considerablc amount of earthy matter derived by the 8000 feet we reach the snow-line. The snow-line is a fact Superficial water-runs from the moraine accumulates in as definite on the surface of a glacier as on that of a mounbeaps in the inequalities of the ice, or at the bottom of the tain, only in the former case it occurs at a somewhat lower "moulins.” As the glacier surface wastes by the action of level. It cannot be too distinctly understood that the the sun and rain, these heaps are brought to the surface, or fresh snow annually disappears from the glacier proper.

Where it ceases entirely lo melt, it of course becomes inSuch a sudden and disastrous increase took place in many of the corporated with the glacier. We have therefore arrived at glaciers of Switzerland and Savoy in 1818 (occasioning the catastrophe the region where the glacier forms; everywhere below

it only of the Val de Bagnes), and in those of the Bergenstift in Norway about 1740.

wastes. This snowy region of the glacier is called in French The retreat of a glacier far within its old mornines is well exemplified in most of the glaciers of the latter country, and névé, in German flrn. As we ascend the glacier it passes especially in that of Nygaard.

gradually from the state of ice to the state of snow.


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