« EelmineJätka »
Illusions. It represents a poet seated on the bank of a Sce Fritz Berthoud in Bibliothèque Universclle de Genève, 1874 ; river, with drooping head and wearied frame, letting his
Albert de Montet, Dict. Biographiquc dcs Genevois et des Vaudois,
1877 ; and Vie de Charles Gleyre, 1877, written by his friend, lyre slip from a careless hand, and gazing sadly at a bright Charles Clément, and illustrated by 30 plates from his works. company of maidens whose song is slowly dying from his ear as their boat is borne slowly from his sight. In spite of the
GLINKA, Fedor NIKOLAEVICH (1788–1849), a Russian success which attended these first ventures, Gleyre retired poet and author, was born at Smolensk in 1788, and was from public competition, and spent the rest of his life in specially educated for the army. In 1803 he obtained a quiet devotion to his own artistic ideals, neither seeking the the Austrian campaign. His tastes for literary pursuits,
commission as an officer, and two years later took part in easy applause of the crowd, nor turning his art into a mcans of aggrandizement and wealth. After 1815, when he exhib. however, soon induced him to leave the service, whereupon ited the Separation of the Apostles, he contributed nothing he withdrew to his estates in the government of Smolensk, to the Salon except the Danse of the Bacchantes in 1849. and subsequently devoted most of his time to study And yet he laboured steadily and was abuudantly productive. French in 1812, he re-entered the Russian army,
or travelling about Russia. Upon the invasion of the
and He had an “infinite capacity of taking pains," and when asked by what method he attained to such marvellous per: 1814. Upon the elevation of Count Milarodovich to the
remained in active service until the end of the campaign in fection of workmanship, he would reply, “ En y pensant military governorship of St Petersburg, Glinka was toujours.” A long series of years often intervened between
of his the first conception of a piece and its embodiment, and appointed colonel under his command. years not unfrequently between the first and the final stage banished to Petrozavodsk, but he nevertheless retained his
suspected revolutionary tendencies he was, in 1826, of the embodiment itself. A landscape was apparently honorary post of president of the Society of the Friends of finished; even his fellow artists would consider it done; Gleyre alone was conscious that he had not found his Russian Literature, and was after a time allowed to return sky." Happily for French art this high-toned laboriousness from public life, and died on his estates in 1849.
to St Petersburg. Soon afterwards he retired completely became influential on a large number of Gleyre's younger contein poraries; for when Delaroche gave up his studio of
Glinka's martial songs have special reference to the Russian instruction he recommended his pupils to apply to Gleyre, the descriptive poem Kareliya, &c. (Carelia, or the Captivity of
military campaigns of bis time. He is known also as the author of who at once agreed to give them lessons twice a week, and Martha Jonnorna), 1830, and of a metrical paraphrase of the book characteristically refused to take any fee or reward.' By of Job. His fame as a military author is chiefly due to his Pisma instinct and principle he was a confirmed celibate : " For Russkugo Ofitscra (Letters of a Russian Officer), 8 vols., 1815–16. tane, talent, health,-he had everything; but he was GLINKA, MICHAEL IVANOVICH (1804-1857), a celcmarried," was his lamentation over a friend. Though he brated Russian composer, was born at Novospassky, a lived in almost complete retirement from public life, he village in the Smolensk government, in 1804, and not, as took a keen interest in politics, and was a voracious reader stated generally in the dictionaries, in 1803. His early life of political journals. For a time, indeed, under Louis he spent at home, but at the age of thirtcen we find him at Philippe, his studio had been the rendezvous of a sort of the Blagorddrey Pension, St Petersburg, where he studied liberal club. To the last-amid all the disasters that befell music under Carl Maier and John Field, the celebrated Irish his country-he was hopeful of the future, “ la raison finira composer and pianist, settled in Russia. We are told that bien par avoir raison." It was while on a visit to the in his seventeenth year he had already begun to compose Retrospective Exhibition, opened on behalf of the exiles romances and other minor vocal pieces ; but of these nofrom Alsace and Lorraine, that he suddenly dropped down thing now is known. His thorough musical training did not and expired May 5, 1874. He left unfinished the Earthly begin till the year 1830, when he went abroad and stayed Paradise, à noble picture, which Taine has described as for three years in Italy, to study the works of old and "a dream of innocence, of happiness, and of beauty-Adam modern Italian masters. His thorough knowledge of the and Eve'standing in the sublime and joyous landscape of requirements of the voice may be connected with this course a paradise enclosed in mountains,”—a worthy counterpart of study. His training as a composer was finished under to the Evening. Among the other productions of his Dehn, the celebrated contrapuntist, with whom Glinka genius are the Deluge, which represents two angels speeding stayed for several months at Berlin. In 1833 he returned above the desolate earth, from which the destroying waters to Russia, and devoted himself to operatic composition. On have just begun to retire, leaving visible behind them the November 27, 1836, took place the first representation of ruin they have wrought; the Battle of the Lemanus, a his Life for the Czar. This was the turning point in Glinka's piece of elaborate design, crowded but not cumbered with life, -for the work was not only a great success, but in a figures, and giving fine expression to the movements of the manner became the origin and basis of a Russian school of various bands of combatants and fugitives; the Prodigal national music. Subject and music combined to bring about Son, in which the artist has ventured to add to the parable this issue. The story is taken from the invasion of Russia the new element of mother's love, greeting the repentant by the Poles early in the 17th century, and the hero is a youth with a welcome that shows that the mother's heart peasant who sacrifices his life for the czar. Glinka has thinks less of the repentance than of the return ; Ruth and wedded this patriotic theme to inspiring and in some places Boaz; Ulysses and Nausicaa ; Hercules at the feet of admirable music
. His melodies, moreover, show distinct Omphale; the Young Athenian, or, as it is popularly called, affinity to the popular songs of the Russians, and for that Sappho; Minerva and the Nymphs; Venus trávenpos; reason the term " national” may be justly applied to them. Daphnis and Chloe; and Love and the Parcæ. Nor His appointment as imperial chapel-master and conductor of must it be omitted that he left a considerable number of the opera of St Petersburg was the just reward of his dramdrawings and water-colours, and that we are indebted to atic successes. His second opera, Russlan and Lyudmila, him for a number of portraits, among which is the sad founded on Poushkin's poem, did not appear till 1842; but face of Heine, engraved in the Revue des Deux Mondes for in the meantime he wrote an overture and four entre-actes April 1852.
In Clément's catalogue of his works there to Kukulnik's drama Prince Kholmsky. In 1844 he went are 683 entries, including sketches and studies. Cleyre abroad for a second time, and lived chiefly in Paris and is in great favour in Switzerland ; and a special exhibition Spain. On his return to St Petersburg he wrote and of his works was held at Lausanne in the Arland Museum, arranged several pieces for the orchestra, amongst which the August and September 1874.
bo-called Kamarinskaya has achieved popularity beyond the limits of Russia. He also composed numerous sonys and The earliest terrestrial globe of any importance known to romances. In 1857 he went abroad for the third time, and geographers is the well known one of Martin Behaim of died suddenly at Berlin, ou February 14th of that year. Nuremberg, bearicg the date of 1492. It is about 21
GLINKA, Sergy NIKOLAEVICH (1774-1847), Russian inches in diameter, and is made of pasteboard covered author, the elder brother of Fedor N. Glinka (noticed with parchment, on which are designed historical pictures above), was born at Smolensk in 1774. In 1796 he entered with their legends written in Old German in various the Russian army, but after three years' service retired with colours. The first meridian passes through Madeira, and the rank of major. He afterwards employed himself in the the only other lines on it are those of the cquator, the education of youth and in literary pursuits, first in the two tropics, and the polar circles. It has also a meridian Ukraine, and subsequently at Moscow, where he died in of iron and an horizon of brass, but these were not added 1847. His poems are spirited and patriotic; be wrote also until 1500, which date they bear. As a monument of Beveral dramatic pieces, and translated Young's Night geography it is of the highest importance, being the only Thoughts.
original document that has come down to us in this form Ainong his numerous prose works the most important from an embodying the geograpbical views of its author with those historical point of view are-Russkoe Chlenie (Russian Reading; of his gifted contemporaries, Tuscapelli, Columbus, &c. Historical Memorials of Russia in the 18th and 19th Centurics), 2. vols., 1845; Istoriya Rossii, &c. (History of Russia for the resc" of This globe represents with some slight modifications most Youth), 10 vols., 1817-19 (21 ed. 1822 ; 3d ed. 1824); Istoriya of the disproportions of the Ptolemaic geography, into Armyan, &c. (History of the Migration of the Armenians of which is incorporated information evidently derived from Azerbijan from Turkcy to Russia), 1831 ; and his contributions to the travels of Marco Polo and Sir J. Maundeville. It was the Russky Vyestnik (Russian Vicssenger), & monthly periodical, executed by Behaim, assisted by Holtzschuer, while on a edited by him froin 1808 to 1820. GLOBE. With the exception of illuminated portolani,
visit to his native city (1491-3), after a sojourn of five the most interesting monuments of geography are globes.
years at the Azores. It is still preserved in the house of
his ancestors Celestial globes are much more ancient than terrestrial ones.
Nuremberg. An exact and authenticated The earliest of these with which we are acquainted is one
facsimile of it, mounted on a stand, is preserved in the
Bib. Nat. de Paris, Section Géographique, No. 393.1 made of copper engraved in the Arab-Cufic character of the 11th century. It is preserved in the Bibliothèque Nationale Leonce Leroux of the Administration Centrale de la
The Laon globe of 1493, in the possession of M. de Paris, Sect. Géog., No. 396 (see fig. 1). In Italy the
Marine à Paris, is made of red copper engraved, about the size of a 36-pounder canpon ball, and pierced by a socket which at a former period held an axis It has all the appearance of having formed part of the apparatus of an astronomical clock. On the globe are engraved many circles. The first meridian, as in the globe of Behaim, passes through Madeira. In the northern hemisphere meridian lines are drawn at every 15th degree ; these meridians are again crossed by certain parallels of latitude corresponding somewhat to the seven climates usually found on maps of the period. Neither meridians nor parallels are to be traced on the southern hemisphere. Although this globe bears a legend upon it dated 1493, it is evident that tho general geographical information recorded upon it is earlier than that on Behaim's globe by five or six years. In all probability it was that current in Lisbon between the voyage of Diego Cam to the Zaire or Congo river, 1484-5, and that of Bartholomeu Diaz to the Cape of Good Hope in 1487. The author is unknown. A heart-shaped projection of this globe was published in the Bulletin de la Soc. de Géog. de Paris, 4me série, tom. 20te, 1860.
In all probability the earliest post-Columbian globe extant is the one now preserved in the Lenox Library, New York. It was found in Paris some twenty-five years ago by Mr Richard M. Hunt, who, upon learning its value, presented it to the Lenox Library, of which he is the architect. This globe is of copper, about 41 inches in diameter and engraved. It is pierced for an axis, and probably, like the Laon sphere,
formed the principal feature of an astronomical clock or !10. 1.-Globe in Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris.
armillary sphere. The date assigned to the Lenox globe by
Mr Henry Stevens, who first recognized its importance, and emperor Frederick II. (1197–1250) possessed a celestial had an accurately drawn projection made of it in the Coast globe of gold, probably also of Arab manufacture, on which Survey Bureau at Washington in 1869, is about 1506-7, the stars were indicated by pearls ; from the scanty infor- A comparison of that projection, now published in reduced mation that has come down to us respecting it we should facsimile for the first time (see fig. 2), with several conimagine that it partook somewhat of the nature of an temporary maps and globes, serves to show the accuracy armillary sphere, as representations of the planets were to of the date assigned to it, as also to suggest its French be seen in the interior of it. To these succeed a series of origin. The author is unknown. globes ranging from the 15th to the 17th century.
One might suppose that many specimens of these globes For other reproductions of it see J. C. Doppelmayr, Hislorische would exist in public libraries, but diligent research has
Nachricht von den Nürnbergischen Mathematicis und Künstiora. shown that the majority of those not made of metal are
Nuremberg, 1730 ; Dr F. W. Ghillany, Geschichte des Seefahrers Ritter mure perishable than maps, and much more so than books. Géographie, Paris, 1854.
Martin Behuim, Nuremberg, 1853; and Jomard, Monuments de la The next globe that demands attention is the famous | northwards to Virginia and New England. Between these one made at Bamberg in 1520 by Johann Schöner, at two points there remained a region more or less known the cost and charges of his friend Johann Sayler. It was which on this globe is indicated by open water. In afterwards taken to Nuremberg by Schöner, where it is still depicting the east coast of Asia and the many islands preserved in the town library. The importance attached to there, including Japan and Java-major, the author follows this globe is that hitherto it has always been regarded as the globe of Behaim. By some it has been regarded as a the first of its kind to portray the discoveries in the New new edition of Dehaim. There are in Germany several World, in combination with the notions that had previously globes which depict the world nearly in the same manner „prevailed of the space intervening between Europe and as Schöner's. One, preserved in the city of Frankfort, Africa on one side, and the eastern ends of Asia on the bearing the same date (1520), is about 10 inches in other. Schöner in this globe breaks up America into as diameter, and has been reproduced by M. Jomard in his many islands as possible. Thus North America is shown Monuments de la Géographie, pl. 15 and 16. There is also as one large island. He also represents South America as another in the library of the grand-duke of Weimar. As a large island, to which he applies several names, among all these globes give to North and South America the conwhich we observe, for the first time on a globe, the name figuration they have in Schöner, Humboldt was of opinion "America." North America was not comprised under the that they all are, with respect to America, copies of an older name until a later date. Schöner's globe indicates two chart " hidden perhaps in the archives of Italy or Spain.” great series of North American discoveries, of which one, There is at Nancy a terrestrial globe which is also commencing with the Cabots in 1497, extended by degrees 1. a geographical curiosity. It is of chased silver gilt, about to Canada and Nova Scotia, while the other, commencing 6 inches in diameter; the land portions are represented in with Columbus in 1492, advanced from the Bahamas slowly I fine gilding, the water by azure blue enamel. One of the
FIG. 2.- Lenox Globe. hemispheres opens vutwards horizontally, the interior being origin. We have on this globe the first indications of also gilt
. It formerly served the purpose of a pyx on the a separation between East Asia and North America. The altar of the church of Notre-Dame-de-Sion, to which church date appears to be about 1540. it was offered by Charles IV., duke of Lorraine, on his re- In 1541 the illustrious Gerard Mercator constructed and turn in 1663. It is now preserved in the town library. published at Louvain a terrestrial globe, and in 1551 a It bas all the appearance of having been made at a period companion celestial globe.ze These are without doubt the immediately following the execution of the curious heart- most important monuments of the kind of the 16th century. shaped map by Oronce. Finé of 1531, found in the Paris They were to be found in nearly all the universities and edition of Grynæus, 1532. In this map and the globe at libraries of Europe, in the private libraries of the rich
, and Nancy we find the New World still regarded as an exten- the class-room of the teacher of navigation. We also know pion of eastern Asia of the
Indies, the geography of Marco from Blundeville's Exercises that up to the date of 1592 Polo being apparently mixed up with that of Cortez in they were in common use in England. Six pairs at least Hozico. A stereographic projection of this globe was pub- of these globes were sold for Mercator by Camerarius
of lished in Mem. de la Soc. Rwy. de Nancy, vol. viii., 1836, Nuremberg; others we know were sold at the book-fairs of
There is another globe somewhat larger than the preced- Frankfort-on-the-Main ; and Mercator bimself presented insmade of copper engraved, known as the De Bure one pair to the university of Louvain, of which he was Bloba. It has no date, but its geographical features in the a student and a master of arts. Yet only twu sets of the main bear a close resemblance to the globe at Nancy. It original globes are known now to exist in Europe-one the Bib. Nat. de Paris, Section Géographique
, No. 427. eepposed to be of Spanish origin. It is preserved in in the royal library at Brussels, discovered in 1868, the globe, made of brass. The word " Rhotomagi” (Rouen) the terrestriale one of wood, the celestial one of glass; these were on the same section, No. 394, is preserved the
other in the imperial court library at Vienna, discovered | rise to the curious conception oi the "Mare Verrazano," in 1875. These globes are about 2 feet high, and when the origin of which has exercised the minds of geographers first mounted on stands with all their accessories of meri. from Hakluyt down to our day. 3 dians, horizons, &c., must have presented a noble appear- In the South Kensington Museum is a celestial globe
They are only known to us by facsimiles of gores 74 inches in diameter, made of gilt metal (it is supposed reproduced from the originals in their natural size, pub- for Rudolph II.), by G. Roll and J. Reinhold at Augsburg, lished at Brussels in 1875, with an introduction to their dated 1584. history by Dr J. Van Raomdonck. A comparison of the Mollineux Globes of 1592. The truesuccessor of Mercator terrestrial globe with all those that preceded it shows it to in the art of globe-making was neither J. F. Van Langren, be a monument at once of learning and of science, worthy of Jodocus Hondius, nor W. J. Blaeu, as has been supposed, the greatest scientific geographer of his age. The authors but an Englishman named Emerie Mollineux, the friend of used by Mercator in his configurations of the continents Hakluyt, and of John Davis of Arctic fame. The earliest of the Old World were chiefly Ptolemy and Marco Polo. notice we have of the terrestrial globe made by bim is the For representing the New World he evidently acquainted prospective one of its intended publication, to be found at himself with the narratives of all the most recent voyages, the end of the preface to the 1st edition of Hakluyt's maps, and charts that were to be had in his time. These Voyages of 1589. The "comming out of the very large and were used with the greatest possible skill and discrimination; most exact terrestriall globe ” of Mollineux there referred to, and in consequence we have the best delineation of the with its companion celestial one, was accomplished in 1592.' world on a globe that it was possible to produce at the At the same time appeared a manual in English for their period. In Mercator's time the imperfect knowledge of use, by Thomas Hood of Trinity College, Cambridge ; and pilots in general, and the defects of their charts in plano, in 1594 appeared another manual, written expressly for made terrestrial globes much more useful to navigators than them in Latin by Robert Hues, entitled Tractatus de Globis we can well realize to-day. Convinced of their importance et eorum usu. Two years afterwards this latter was trans- Mercator neglected nothing in order to adapt them to the lated by J. Hondius, and published in Amsterdam, giving use of seamen; he therefore added to his globes the rise to the notion, apparently still prevalent in Holland, that rhumbs bitherto found only on plain charts. He added yet Hues wrote this book expressly for Hondius,-a biblioanother improvement, delineating about thirty leading stars graphical blunder involving injustice to the memory of of the principal constellations according to their magnitudes Mollineux. The only examples of these once famous globes and their positions in the heavens. These important improve known to exist are now preserved in the library of tho ments appear to be quite peculiar to the globes of Mercator. Middle Temple, London. They are both 2 feet in diameter,
An examination of the celestial globe of 1551 also reveals mounted on stands, with the usual accessories of horizon, many improvements introdaced by Mercator in bis deline-meridian, &c. The celestial globe still bears the date of ation of the heavens. Without counting a great number 1592, but the terrestrial appears to have received additions, of stars as yet anresolved into symbolical groups, Mercator and the date has been altered by the pen to 1603. The gives us 934 fixed stars, distributed in 51 constellations. best description of these two globes is a contemporary one Turo of the latter are entirely new, and are not met with to be found in Blundeville's Exercises, London, 1594, on later celestial globos. These are Antinous, formed of which enables us to realize the difference between these six stars on the equator below the Eagle, and Cincinnus, or globes and Mercator's :the Lock of Hair, formed of one star and two nebulæ in the "'The mappe which covereth Mr Molineax his terrestriall globe difnorth hemisphere, under the tail of the Great Beaz.? fereth greatly from Mercator his terrestriall globe, by reason that The Globe of Euphrosynus Ulpius of 1542.- This globe, Pole as in the East and West Indies, which were unknowne to Mer.
there are found out divers new places, as well towards the North apparently made in Rome, is now preserved in the museum
cator. They differ also greatly in names, longitudes, latitudes, and of the New York Hist. Soc. It is 154 ir ches in diameter, distances of such places set down not only in Mercator's gube but made of copper, and is divided into two hemispheres on also in divers maps more lately made. As touching the map
of the the live of the equator, and fastened together with iron
stars which covereth the celestiall globe of Mr Molineux, I do not pins. The normal position of the globe in its stand being Molineux hath added to his celestiall globe certain southern images,
find it greatly to differ from that of Mercator, saving that Mr vertical, the north pole with its hour-circle is surmounted as the Crosse, &c. In the great terrestriall globe the voyage, as well by an iron cross. It is encompassed by a horizon, upon
of Sir F. Drake as of Mr Th. Candish, is set down and shewed by which are engraved the signs of the zodiac. The height of help of two lines, the one red, and the other blew, whereof the red
line doth show what course Sir Francis observed in all his voyage, the whole apparatus, with its stand of oak, is 3 feet 8
as well outward as homeward ; and the blew line showeth in like inches. It was executed by Euphrosynus Ulpius, a name manner the voyage of Master Candish, and in that globe is also set unknown to geographers, and is dedicated to Cardinal | down how farre Sir Martin Furbisher discovered towards the corth Marcellus Cervinus, D.D., who, thirteen years later, was
parts. Nothing is set down in this globe but only the outermost end elerated io the Roman see, under the title of Marcellus
of his voyage, named Forbisher's Straights, having in N. lat. about
63 degrees. II., and survived his election only twenty-two days. The
From a later inscription on the terrestrial globe we learn first meridian line passes through the Canaries; the remaining ones are repeated at intervals of 30' degrees that it was still further repaired in 1818 by Messrs J. & W.. Great prominence is given to the line of demarcation | Newton, globe makers, of Chancery Lane. These globes between Spain and Portugal in the New World, laid down England and by an Englishman.
are of special interest as the first of the kind made in by Pope Alexander VI. The geographical features peculiar to this globe are two, evidently copied from the Verra- five years later (1597), put upon record their intention
In the same year J. Van Langren, and Jodocus Hondius zano map of 1529,—the legend found upon it recording the voyage made by Verrazano on behalf of Francis I. in 1524, of bringing out pairs of globes ; but no globes of their and the rude line drawn south-east from about 57° to 36° N. lat. * The latter, common to both map and globe, gave
* The history of this curious geographical puzzle will shortly be dealt with by Mr Henry Stevens, to whom we are indebted for much infor
mation respecting this globe. A projection of a portion of it is to be 1 According to Dr F. Wieser, a third example of it is preserved at seen in the Mag. of American History, vol. jii. p. 17, Jan. 1879. Weimar.
* This last remark does not appear to be quite accurate, as John * A pair of Mercator's globes reproduced in facsimile, natural size, Davis says:-" How far I proceeried doth appear upon the globe were conspicuous features in the Belgian section of the exhibition con- made by Moster Emery Dullineux” (Hydrographical Description, nected with the geographical congress held in Paris in 1875.
manufacture are known to exist of a date anterior to the presented to Peter the Great by Frederick IV. of Denmark 17th century. To Mollineux succeeds William Jansson in 1713. The Czar was so pleased with his acquisition Llaeu (1571-1638), a celebrated mathematician, map- that he had it transported by water to Revel, and thence drawer, and publisher of Amsterdam, who secured a con on rollers and sledges to his new capital. Being partly siderable reputation by publishing terrestrial and celestial burut in 1747, it was repaired again 1751, and adjusted to globes, which excelled in beauty and accuracy everything the horizon of St Petersburg, the meridian and horizon that bad preceded them. He was succeeded by his son being made by an English mechanic named Scott. John, editor of the well-known Atlas Alajor in 11 vols. folio. The two largest complete globes existing are those preThe elder Blaeu constructed globes in three sizes, the served in the “Salle des Globes” in the Bibliothèque Nationale largest measuring 27 inches, the next about 144 inches, of Paris. They are each 12 feet in diameter, and were the smallest about 74 inches in diameter. The bodies of the made under the direction of the famous Italian geographer globes were usually made of wood, covered with plastic Coronelli in 1683, by order of Cardinal d'Estrées, the composition upon which the maps were pasted in gores, Spanish ambassador, and presented by him to Louis XIV. tbus admitting of corrections being made from time to time. They are nade of wood, very solid, and are covered with In consequence of this no examples of his globes are known cloth or canvas on which the configurations have been drawn to exist without additions of the 17th century. Mr P. J. by an able artist, particularly those on the celestial globe. K. Baudet, who wrote the Life and Works of W. J. Blaer, The meridians and horizons are of bronze, the latter are Utrecht, 1871, notwithstanding bis utmost exertions, could sustained by eight columns of the same material, and the find in Holland only two pairs, one in the astronomical former by two bronze feet highly ornamented. Between observatory at Leyden, the other in the physical museum at the brackets that form the feet of the meridians is placed, Amsterdam, the latter being of the smallest size. Another under each globe, a compass in marble and bronze; the pair, however, of the smallest size, dated 1603, are in the ascent to these is by five steps which encircle each globe. possession of Mr Henry Stevens; and a pair of the medium On the celestial globe painted blue are marked all the fixed size, belonging to Mr Fred. Müller of Amsterdam, were ex- stars, and their constellations with the paths of the comets, hibited at the geograpbical congress held in Paris in 1875. also the places of all the planets at the moment of the Of the last pair, the celestial globe bears the date of 1603. birth of Louis XIV. This last event is alluded to also in The terrestrial globe, though still bearing the date of the a hyperbolical inscription to be seen on a copper plate to first edition of 1599, has received corrections of a much be found on it. The geography of the terrestrial globe is later date, embodying the geographical results of the first based upon that of Sanson; the sea being painted in deep Dutch expedition to the East Indies under Houtman in blue, and the land portions being white, the inscriptions 1598, and those of Oliver Van Noort in the same year, and upon it are very legible. There is also to be seen on it a of Le Maire in 1616. From a report presented to the French bust of the king placed above a dedication somewhat like minister of public instruction by M. E. Cortambert in 1855 that on the celestial globe. Although these globes are we learn that a pair of fine globes. by Blaeu is preserved without any great scientific value, they serve to indicate the in the Bibliothèque de Bourges. Two pairs of the 27-inch astronomical and geographical knowledge prevalent in glubes of Blacu's heirs have recently been found, the first France at the end of the 17th century. A good illustration in the library of Trinity House, Tower Hill, the second in of these globes, accompanied by a detailed account of their the British Museum, of date about 1645. In their main bistory, by M. C. Letort of the Bibliothèque Nationale, features the globes of Blaeu coincide more or less with will be found in La Nature, No. 116, August 21, 1875. several well-known maps published at this period, and with in the Bib. Mazarine is preserved a terrestrial globe 8 others to bo found in the atlases of Mercator and Hondius. feet in diameter, known as the Louis XVI. globe. It is
The only remaining globes of the 16th century known made of copper engraved, the names of places being inlaid to us are two pairs by A. F. Van Langren; the first, pre- with black, and is mounted on a temporary wooden strucserved in the Bib. Nat. de Paris, Sect. Géog., No. 405; ture, the beautiful accessories of bronze cast for it never the second in the Bibliothèque de Grenoble, found having been finished or utilized ; they are, however, to be by M. E. Cortambert in 1855. În the latter library is also seen in another part of the library. We learn from a MS. to be seen a curious terrestrial globe in MS., made by some description of this globe, also preserved here, that it was monks of the Grande Chartreuse; it is undated, but is sup- made for Louis XVI., himself no mean geographer, by posed to be of the 17th century.
the direction of Vergennes in 1784. The geography of It remains to notice briefly the few globes of a later it is based upon that of D'Anville, corrected by Robert period that are remarkable cither for their historical «le Vaugondy and Le Clerc; it also indicates the net results iuterest, peculiar forın, or great size. In the Academy of of all the voyages round the world made up to this period. Sciences at St Petersburg there are or were four that call About 1764 Dr Roger Long of Cambridge, professor of for notice. The first is a terrestrial one, 3 feet in diameter, astronomy and master of Pembroke, erected in an outbuildmado at Pleskow by a deacon named Karpow Maximow. ing of his hall a sphere 18 feet in diameter. The concave It is supposed to have been the first made in Russia. This interior was lined with tin, upon which was depicted all the is accompanied by a planetary 24 feet in diameter, presented stars and constellations visible in England on the horizon to Peter the Great by the company of English merchants of Cambridge. The lower part of the sphere was cut off at established in Russia. Here is also preserved a large ter- the diameter of 13 feet, and the truncated meridians were restrial globe of copper, made in 1664 by the heirs or W.J. screwed down on to a circle wbich ran or. rollers of lignum Blaeu ; it is 7 feet in diameter, and was brought from vitæ, the whole being movable by simple machinery proMoscow about 1747. In the same academy is preserved vided for the purpose. It was capable of holding thirty the famous Gottorp globe ; it is a hollow sphere i1 feet in persons, and had an entrance by six sters placed over the diameter, containing a table and seats for twelve persons. South Pole. In the centre was placed å planetarium. It was made by A. Bush in 1654, under the direction of Although it is said funds were left for its preservation, Olearius, from designs found among the papers of Tycho it appears to bave fallen into neglect and decay. Brahe, and was not finished until 1664. The outside re- To these succeed in order of size the globes known as presents, the terrestrial globe, the interior showing the “ Ceoramas." One exhibited in Paris in 1844 was 30 feet heavens"; the stars are distinguished according to their re- in diameter; another by Delanhard erected in 1823 was 40 spective magnitudes by gilt nails of various sizes. feet in diameter; of the last the proprietor published a