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The Guinea Goat is a dwarf species originally from the l The goat has 32 teeth, and by these the age up to five coast whence its name is derived. There are three varieties. years may be pretty accurately ascertained. The lower Besides the commonest (Capra recurvu, Linn.), there is jaw possesses 12 molars and 8 incisors, and the upper 12

rarer breed (Capra depressa, Linn.), inhabiting the molars alone. The kid at its birth has 6 molars but no Mauritius and the islands of Buurbon and Madagascar. incisors; the latter, however, are generally all cut in about The other variety is met with along the White Nile, in three weeks, the first cut molar being visible at three Lower Egypt, and at various points on the African coast monthis. At a year or fifteen months old the two front of the Mediterranean. Some of these dwarf goats may be “milk teeth," as the first set of incisors are called, fall, seen at the Jardin d'Acclimatation in Paris.

and are replaced by permanent ones; the next two at from Habits and Management.-—The milch goat has been aptly two years to thirty months, the third pair from two and a described as the “poor man's cow”-a designation it well half to three and a half years, and the fourth and last at merits, for with a couple of these animals the cottager may from three and a half to four and a half years. When all at an almost nominal expense enjoy the same advantages in are changed the mouth is said to be “full.” & domestic point of view as the rich man with his Between two and five years old the slie-goat gives tho “ Alderney." Comparatively few are kept in England, best return in milk, continuing productive often for eight because the advantages of goat-keeping are but very im- or nine years ; its length of life is on an average from ten perfectly known, and also on account of the larve proporto fifteen. These animals vary very greatly in the quantion of land under cultivation. The goat in i state of tity of milk they yield. An ordinary specimen gives from nature frequents hills and mountainous places, and in a 2 to 3 pints, a superior one 2 quarts, and occasionally domesticated condition it generally gives preference to first-rate individuals are found supplying 3 quarts a day. elevated situations; but it is a mistake to suppose that it The Nubian breed surpasses the common goat in this will not thrive on low ground. Being naturally adapted respect, as the following table from the French work of to rocks and dry soils, however, it should not be exposed M. du Plessis will show, in which the yield of a Nubian in marshy places, as this brings on disease of the feet and is compared with that of a lialf-bred, itself a superior general ill bealth ; otherwise there is no animal more uni- milker. formly hardy. The common varieties will stand heat and

llalf-bred Nubian and Nalire cold equally well, but have a decided objection to storms

1st day of wind and rain ; when they are left to roam loose, therefore, a rough shed should be erected to shelter them froin the weather. Under this arrangement a goat may be left out day and night the whole year round; but, if it is kept for the sake of its milk, the yield is greater and it thrives better if housed during winter. Owing to the The litre being as near as possible 14 pints, the return troublesome propensity of these animals to bark trees and in English measure is accordingly-from the half-bred destroy shrubs by nipping off all young and tender shoots, 31 pints, or an average per day of 3 quarts, and from the they should not be allowed to roam loose-except on a pure Nubian 40 pints, or nearly 4 quarts daily, the rich. common-unless proper protection is afforded by wire ness of the quality being proportionately greater. netting or some such arrangement.

Milking should be perforined at regular hours, morning The goat breeds, generally speaking, but once a year. If and night; but with heavy milkers three times daily, is well housed and under liberal treatment, it will bring forth better for the first two or three months, as the oftener tho young twice iu twelve months; but this is not advisable. udder is emptied when once full the quicker it is replenAs a rule, at the first birth one kid only is produced, but isbed, a suficient supply of food being of course provided. afterwards two and sometimes three. One has been known It is a good plan to accustom the animal to jump on a platfor three consecutive years to drop four at a birth ; but form whilst being milked ;' the tcats are thus more asily this is rare and by no means desirable, as the progeny aro manipulated, and more command is obtained over the goat sure to be sınall and thrive badly,—the dam in most cases and the pail

. Feeding and milking should always be having insufficient milk for so large a family.

carried on at the same time. The goat propagates at a very early period of its life. Many persons are under the wrong impression that the The male is generally capable of engendering at seven milk of the she-goat, —which by the way has no strong months; and, in the case just referred to of four at a birth, hircine scent attaching to her like the male, another the father on ony occasion was barely six months old. common error, -possesses a fluvour peculiar to itself; One is sufficient for a hundred females. The latter bring but this is quite a mistake. Out of dozens kept by the fortlı at twelve months, and sometimes earlier. For the present writer, only one has been found to yield milk sake of the future growth and productiveness of the animal, differing from that of the cow in taste. The peculiarity in however, it is unwise to perinit intercourse between the this case seemed natural to the animal, and the milk was sexes earlier than at eighteen or at least sixteen months. decidedly unpalatable. It is owing to the baneful practice of letting them breed The flesh of the common goat, although quite eatable, is as soon as they will, under the mistaken idea that a more not to be recommended in comparison with mutton, being rapid return is obtained, that so many diminutive specimens rather hard and indigestible. Kid, however, is a great are met with, both dam and progeny being spoiled in. delicacy, and tastes like lamb or veal, according to the consequence.

manner of dressing. It is preferable cooked like veal, The best kind for milch purposes are those with long with layers of bacon tied round and stuffed, for with the and deep bodies, not necessarily so broad at the chest as exception of the suet there is very little fat. A good rich about the haunches, the belly ample, and the legs tolerably gravy should accompany the joint when served, and there short ; head fine and tapering, with prominent eyes, ears

should be no lack of cooking. Hot or cold it is then equally long, thin, wide, and inclining horizontally, horns short and acceptable. Suckling kids are the best cating, as they not corrugated, neck thick, and coat close and short. The have then their milk flesh, and are nice and plump. The uddor above all must be not only large but soft and elastic, skins dressed and sewed together make handsome rugs. with nice pointed teats. Hornless specimens are often the For food and other remarks on goat-keeping see AGRICULbest milkers

TURE, vol. i. p. 399.

's. H. P.)

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GOATSUCKER, a bird from very ancient times absurdly | fixed at one end and in a state of vibration at the other, believed to have the habit implied by the common panie and loud enough to reach in still weather a distance of halfit bears in many European tongues besides our own- a-mile or more. On the wing, while toying with its mate, as testified by the Greek Aiyoondas, the Latin Capri- or performing its rapid evolutions round the trees where it mulgus, Italian Succiacapre, Spanish Chotacabras, French finds its food, it has the habit of occasionally producing Teltlechèvre, and German Ziegenmelker. The common another and equally extraordinary sound, sudden and short, Goatsucker (Caprimulgus europeus, Linn.), is admittedly but somewhat resembling that made by swinging a thong the type of a very peculiar and distinct Family Caprimut in the air, though whether this noise proceeds from its gida, a group remarkable for the fat bead, enormously mouth is not ascertained. In general its flight is silent, but wide mouth, large eyes, and soft, pencilled plumage of its at times when disturbed from its repose, its wings may be members, which vary in size from a Lark to a 'Crow. Its heard to smite together. The Goatsucker, or, to use perposition has been variously assigned by systematists. haps its commoner English name, Nightjar, passes the day Though of late years judiciously removed from the Passeres, in slumber, crouching on the ground or perching on a tree in which Linnæus placed all the species known to him, —in the latter case sitting not across the branch but lengthProfessor Huxley considers it to form, with two other ways, with its head lower than its body. 'In hot weather, Families—the Swifts (Cypselidæ) and Humming-birds however, its song may sometimes be beard by day and even (Trochilidæ), the division Cypselomorphæ of his larger group at noontide, but it is then uttered, as it were, drowsily, and Ægithognathæ, which is equivalent in the main to the without the vigour that characterizes its crepuscular or Linnæau Passer es There are two ways of regarding the nocturnal performance. Towards evening the bird becomes Caprimulgidæ-one including the genus Podargus and its active, and it seems to pursue its prey throughout the allies, the other recognizing them as a distinct Family, night uninterruptedly, or only occasionally pausing for a Podargida. As a matter of convenience we shall here few seconds to alight on a bare spot—a pathway or roadcomprehend these last in the Caprimulgidæ, which will and then resuming its career. It is one of the few birds then contain two subfamilies, Caprimulgince and Podar- that absolutely make no nest, but lays its pair of beautifullyginæ; for what, according to older authors, constitutes a marbled eggs on the ground, generally where the herbage thitd, though represented only by Sleatornis, the singular is short, and often actually on the soil. So light is it that

the act of brooding, even where there is some vegetable growth, produces no visible depression of the grass, moss, or lichens on which the eggs rest, and the finest sand equally fails to exhibit a trace of the parental act. Yet scarcely any bird shows greater local attachment, and the precise site chosen one year is almost certain to be occupied the next. The young, covered when hatched with dark. spotted down, are not easily found, nor are they more easily discovered on becoming fledged, for their plumage alroust entirely resembles that of the adults, being a mixture of reddish-brown, grey, and black, blended and mottled in a manner that passes description. They soon attain their full size and power of flight, and then take to the same manner of life as their parents. In autumn all leave their summer baunts for the south, but the exact time of their

departure has hardly been ascertained. The habits of the Wood

Nightjar, as thus described, seem to be more or less essenConimon Goatsucker.

tially those of the wbole Subfamily—the differences obser

vable being apparently less than are found in other groups Oil-bird, or Guacharo, certainly seems to require separation of birds of similar extent. as an independent Family (see GUACHARO).

A second species of Goatsucker (C. ruficollis), wbich is Some of the differences between the Caprimulgince and somewhat larger, and has the neck distinctly marked with Podarginæ have been pointed out by Mr Sclater (Proc. Zool. rufous, is a summer visitant to the south-western parts of Soc., 1866, p. 123), and are very obvious. In the former, Europe, and especially to Spain and Portugal. The occur. the outer toes have four phalanges only, thus presenting a rence of a single example of this bird at Killingworth, very uncommon character among birds, and the middle near Newcastle-on-Tyne, in October 1856, has been re. claws are pectinated; while in the latter the normal number corded by Mr Hancock (Ibis, 1862, p. 39); but the season of five phalanges is found, and the claws are smooth, and of its appearance argues the probability of its being but a other distinctions more recondite have also been indicated casual straggler from its proper home. Many other species by him (tom. cit., p. 582). The Caprimulginæ may be of Caprimulgus inbabit Africa, Asia, and their islands, further divided into those having the gape thickly beset by while one (C. macrurus) is found in Australia. Very strong bristles, and those in which there are few such nearly allied to this genus is Antrostonus, an American bristles or none—the former containing the genera Capri. group containing many species, of which the Chuck-will'smulgus Antrostomus, Nyctidromus, and others, and the widow (A. carolinensis) and the Whip-poor-will (A. vocilatter Podager, Chordiles, Lyncornis, and a few more ferus) of the eastern United States (the latter also reaching

The common Goatsucker of Europe (C. europaeus) arrives Canada) are familiar examples. Both these birds take late in spring from its winter-retreat in Africa, and its pre- their common name from the cry they utter, and their sence is soon made known to us by its habit of chasing its habits seem to be almost identical with those of the Old. prey, consisting chiefly of moths and cockchafers, in the even- World Goatsuckers. Passing over some other forms which ing-twilight. As the season advances the song of the cock, need not here be mentioned, the genus Nyctidromus, from its singularity, attracts attention amid all rural sounds though consisting of only one species (E. albicollis) which This song seems to be always uttered when the bird is at rest, though the contrary has been asserted, and is the con

? Other English names of the bird are Evejar, Pern-Owl, Churn-Owl.

and Wheel-bird--the last from the bird's song resembling the noise tinuous repetition of a single barring note, as of a thin lath made by a spinning-wheel in motion.

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inhabits Central and part of South America, requires re. to Tasmanian colonists, and several other species, the nummark, since it has tarsi of sufficient length to enable it ber of which is doubtful, from Australia and New Guinea. to run swiftly on the ground, while the legs of most birds They have comparatively powerful bills, and it would seen of the Family are so short that they can make but a feed to some extent on fruits and berries, though they shufiling progress. Heleothreptes, with the unique form of mainly subsist on insects, chiefly Cicadæ and Phasmida. wing possessed by the male, needs mention. Notice must They also differ from the true Goatsuckers in having the also be taken of two African species, referred by some outer toes partially reversible, and they are said to build a ornithologists to as many genera (Macrolipter, - and Cos. flat nest on the horizontal branch of a tree for the reception metornis), though probably one genus would suffice for of their eggs, which are of a spotless white. Apparently both. The males of each of them are characterized by the allied to. Podargus, but differing among other respects in wonderful development of the ninth primary in either its made of nidification, is Ægotheles, which belongs also to wing, which reaches in fully adult specimens the extra- the Australian Subregion; and further to the northward, ordinary length of 17 inches or more. The former of extending throughout the Malay Archipelago and into India, these birds, the C. macrodipterus of Afzelius, is considered comes Batrachostomus, wherein we again meet with species to belong to the west coast of Africa, and the shaft of the baving aural tufts somewhat like Lyncornis. The Podarelongated remiges is bare for the greater part of its length, ginæ are thought by some to be represented in the New retaining the web, in a spatulate form, only near the tip. World by the genus Nyctibius, of which several species occur The latter, to which the specific name of vexillarius was from the Antilles and Central America to Brazil

. Finally, given by Mr Gould, has been found on the east coast it may be stated that none of the Caprimulgidæ seem to occur of that continent, and is reported to have occurred in in Polynesia or in New Zealand, though there is scarcely Madagascar and Socotra. In this the remigial streamers any other part of the world suited to their habits in whicb do not lose their barbs, and as a few of the next quills are members of the Family are not found.

(A. X.) also to some extent elongated, the bird, when flying, is GOBELIN, the name of a family of dyers, who in all said to look as though it had four wings. Specimens of probability came originally from Rheims, and who in the both are rare in collections, and no traveller seems to have 15th century established themselves in the Faubourg Saint had the opportunity of studying the habits of either so as Marcel, Paris, on the banks of the Bièvre. The first head to suggest a reason for this marvellous sexual development. of the firm was uamed Jehan, and died in 1476. He dis

The second group of Caprimulginc, those which are but covered a peculiar kind of scarlet dye, and he expended so poorly or not at all furnished with rictal bristles, contains much money on his establishment that it was named by the about five genera, of which there is here only room to par. common people la folie Gobelin. To the dye works there ticularize Lyncornis of the Old World and Chordiles of the was added in the 16th century a manufactory of tapestry. New. The species of the former are remarkable for the So rapidly did the wealth of the family increase, that in tuft of feathers which springs from each side of the head, the third or fourth generation some of them forsook their above and behind the ears, so as to give the bird an appear- trade and purchased titles of nobility. More than one of ance like some of the “Horned" Owls—those of the genus their number held offices of state, among others Balthasar, Scops, for example; and remarkable as it is to find certain who became successively treasurer general of artillery, forms of two Families, so distinct as are the Strigidæ and treasurer extraordinary of war, councillor secretary of the the Caprimulgidæ, resembling each other in this singular king, chancellor of the exchequer, councillor of state, and external feature, it is yet more remarkable to note that in president of the chamber of accounts, and wbo in 1601 some groups of the latter, as in some of the former, a very received from Henry II. the lands and lordship of Briecurious kind of dimorphism takes place. In either case this comte-Robert. He died in 1603. The name of the has been frequently asserted to be sexual, but on that point Gobelins as dyers cannot be found later than the end of doubt may fairly be entertained. Certain it is that in some the 17th century. In 1662 the works in the Faubourg groups of Goatsuckers, as in some groups of Owls, indivi. Saint Marcel, with the adjoining grounds, were purchased duals of the same species are found in plumage of two by Colbert on behalf of Louis XIV, and transformed into entirely different hues-rufous and grey. Tbe only ex- a general opholstery manufactory, in which designs both planation as yet offered of this fact is that the difference is in tapestry and in all kinds of furniture were exceuted sexual, but, as just hinted, evidence to that effect is con. under the superintendence of the royal painter Lebrun. flicting. It must not, however, be supposed that this com. On account of the pecuniary embarrassments of Louis XIV., mon feature, any more than that of the existence of tufted the establishment was closed in 1694, but it was reopened forms in each group, indicates any close relationship in 1697 for the manufacture of tapestry, chiefly for royal between them. The resemblances may be due to the same use and for presentation. During the Revolution and the causes, concerning which future observers may possibly reign of Napoleon the manufacture was suspended, but it enlighten us, but at present we must regard them as analo. was revived by the Bourbons, and in 1826 the manufacture gies not homologies. The species of Lyncornis inhabit the of carpets was added to that of tapestry. In 1871 the Malay Archipelago, one, however, occurring also in China. building was partly bumed by the Communists. Of Chordiles the best known species is the Night-hawk of See Lacordaire, Notice historique sur les manufactures impériales North America (C. virginianus or C. popetue), which has de tapisserie des Gobelin et de tapis de la Savonneric, précédée du a wide range from Canada to Brazil. Others are found in catalogue des tapisscries qui y sont exposécs, Paris, 1853; and also

the article TAPESTRY. the Antilles and in South America. The general habits of all these birds agree with those of the typical Goatsuckers.

GOBI is the name usually applied by European geoWe have next to consider the birds forming the genus graphers to a vast stretch of desert in Central Asia, which Podargus and those allied to it, whether they be regarded has its western limits in the neighbourhood of 75° E. long., as a distinct Family, or as a Subfamily of Caprimulgidæ. and its eastern somewhere between 114° and 115o. Like As above stated, they have feet constructed as those of birds many other geographical designations, the word is not only normally are, and their sternum seems to present the con

of doubtful origin, but in conventional usage has modified stant though comparatively trivial difference of having its its meaning. According to Sir T. Douglas Forsyth, it is posterior margin elongated into two pairs of processes, while originally the Turki for “great”; and Richthofen informa only one pair is found in the true Goatsuckers. Podargus

In New Zealand, however, this panis is given to an Owl (Scelo inclures the bird (P.cuvierz) known from its cry as Morepork glauz nova-zelandic).

a

as that by the Chinese it is employed, not as a proper name, | lines the course of the river., Away towárds the southbit

, like Shamo, as a general term for any sandy and desert west there stretch, if we may trust to native reports, those piece of country. This being the case, the great German vast fields of drifting and Dreacherous sands which bave geographer proposes to displace the word Gobi in European given so much of its terror to the legendary account of the usage by the Chinese Han-hai or Dry Sea, suggestive as he desert of Gubi. That the reports are in the main true, and says not only of the present appearance but also of the that the legends are founded on fact, appears to be rendered former history of the region ; but it is to be feared that probable by the statements of Sir T. Douglas Forsyth, who the older designation has become too fainiliar, and the dis- has contributed an interesting paper on the subject to the advantages arising from its use are of too recondite a cbar. Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society (1876). The acter, to render it likely that his proposal will be generally population of the Tarim basin is scanty and poverty-stricken. accepted.

On the Lower Tarim there are nine villages with a total of As a sea the Gobi or Han-hai must have been comparable 1200 souls. Cattle-rearing is more general than agriculture, in extent to the Mediterranean, and the ancient coast-line which indeed is of the most recent introduction, and concan be pretty clearly recognized. In its present state it fines itself to barley and wheat. Mahometanism is the unimay be divided into two distinct basins, tbe western taking versal religion, and the language appears to be identical its name from the river Tarim or Tarym, and the eastern with the Taranchi and the Sart. from the Chinese Shamo or “Sand Desert.” The Dzun. The Shamo or eastern basin is quite different in its chargarian valley stretches westwards like a gulf. The Tarim acter. Here we have no large river like the Tarim, and, basin is bounded on the S. by the range of mountains which, instead of its boundaries being marked by lofty ranges of under various names applicable to different portions, such mountains from 13,000 to 20,000 feet high, the ground as the Kwen-lun and the Altyntag, forms the northward rim gradually rises in a series of scarcely marked terraces. The of the great plateau of Thibet; on the west it comes up to central point, at Ozon Khoshu, is the lowest discovered in the spurs of the Pamir plateau, and on the north it lies Central Asia, being only 607 metres (1948 feet) above the along the foot of the Thian Shan.. If we measure from the level of the sea. “ The aspect of the country," says Ney source of any of its principal tributaries, the Tarim" must Elias, " who crossed in a north-westerly direction from bave a course of more than 1000 miles. The bead waters China, is that of low hills or downs, with valleys and plains rise in the mountains just named, and the more important of intervening, the whole of a rocky or stony nature rather them in the south and west. The Khotan river and its than sandy, though patches of sand do occur every here and confluent the Kara-Kash both descend from the Karakorum there. What little vegetation exists is chiefly composed of mountains, and flow in a generally northward direction; / weeds, 'scrub,' and heath, there being scarcely any grass, the Zarafshan or Yarkand River, rising in the same range, and only a dwarfed and stunted tree here and there, in the winds about in the first part of its course so as to enter the gorges or passes of those low rocky ranges that at uncertain Gobi almost from the west; and the Kizil Su or Kashgar intervals cross the desert in almost parallel lines from east River has its numerous head streams in the Kizil Yart to west.” Of the western portion of the basin ve bave po mountains belonging to the Pamir plateau, The Aksai modern account. River and the Shah Yar are the most important contributions Marco Polo was the first European who gave a distinct description from the Thirn Shan. The course of all of these rivers of the desert of Gobi. He tells us how on quitting Charchau (the after they enter the Gobi is largely matter of conjecture, modern Chachan, according to Yule), “you ride some five days and all that can be asserted with confidence is that they through the sands finding pone but bad and bitter water ; and then

you come to a city called Lop at the edge of the desert .. unite to form the Tarim, and 6nd their final goal in an length of the desert is so great that it would take a year and more inland lake. They have probably all reached a common to ride from one end of it to the other. It is all composed of hills channel aboat 82° E. long. ; but as the stream presses east and valleys of sand." And then he goes on to speak of spirits that ward it again breaks up into numerous branches, the

haupt the waste, and syllable men's names, and of strange noises like

the tramp and hum of a great cavalcade, of the sound of drums, arrangement of which, except along the route followed by and a variety of musical instruments. Polo appears to have proPrzhevalski, is still unknown. As it passes east the stream ceeded east from Khotan to Lob, and then further east to Etsina gradually loses in volume by absorption, evaporation, and on the southern edge of the desert, and afterwards to have spent the demands of riparian populations. In the neighbourhood forty days in crossing the desert northwards to Karakorum. 1

Liter notices of the Gobi, especially of its eastern portions, are of the Ugendarya, the breadth is about 300 or 360 feet, given by Gerbillon, 1688-98 (in Duhalde's appendix), by the Dutchand the depth about 20. The course of the Tarim lies man Evert Ysbrand Ides (1692-94), and by Lorenz Lange, who was much nearer the northern side of the Gobi than the southern, sent in 1727-28 and in 1736 by Peter the Great to Peking. But it but it gradually trends south east, and at length passing accumulate about the eastern portions, and the traveller who has

was not till the present century that accurate information began to through Lake Karaburan, loses itself in Lake Chon-Kul lifted the veil from the western portions is still engaged in his ex: (ie, great lake) or Kara-Kurcbin. This last lake is identi plorations. In 1830-31 Fuss and Bunge crossed the eastern Gobi fed with the famous Lob-nor, the position of which has from Urg: to Kalgan; and Dr Fritsche executed a series of journeys been one of the outstanding problems of comparative geo- in the same district between 1869 and 1873. The

missions of the graphy. Against the identification a number of objections (1868) added little to the knowledge of the region ; but in 1870

Russian officials Andre Gustavitch Prinz (1863) and Shishmaroff have been urged by Richthofen (f. " Bemerkungen zu den Pavlinoff, consul at Chuguchak, being accompanied by a Government Ergebnissen von Ober-lieut. Prejewalski's Reise” in Zeit- topographer Matusovski, made valuable observations on the route

Of stiN sch, für Erdk., Berlin, 1878), the most important of which from Saok to Kobdo, and from Kobdo to Uliassutai. are the prevailing tradition" that the Lob-nor was a salt greater moment were the travels of Ney Elias in 1872-73, and of lake while the Chon. Kul is fresh, and the fact that the Przhevalski travelled across the Gobi in a line almost due south from

Przhevalski between 1870 and 1877. In his earlier journey (1870-72) Chinese maps place the Lob-nor to the north of the position Orga, and in 1877 he struck south-east from the Yulduz range one assigned to the Chon Kul, which according to Przhevalski of the outrunners of the Thian Shan, lies about 39° 30' N. lat., immediately to the N. of the

Besides the works referred to in the text see especially Richtho.en s Altyntag range (13,000 to 14,000 feet high). The

See Yule's Marco Polo, vol. i. p. 178-200. country through which the Lower Tarim flows is dreary

been Tageand monotonous

. " In general," reports the traveller, “ the buch zuvoer Reisen von L. Lange : aus ungedruckten Quellen milLob-nor desert is the wildest and most unfertile of all that getheilt vom Herrn Prof. Pallas, Leipsic, 1781. I have yet seen in Asia ; it is sadder than the desert of

• See Verhandlungen der Gesellschaft für Erdkunde, 1874, and for

map Zeitsch. der Ges. für Erdk., Berlin, 1874. A meagre vegetation of tamarisks and reeds

* See results of journey in Petermann's Mittheil., Jan. 1873.

The

Ala-Shan.”

masterly account of the Gobi in his China, vol i., Berlin, 1877, and, where the main stream is crossed by the irrigation anicut. Prejevalsky, Mongolia, the Tangut Country, &c., London, 1876, and

The river has seven mouths, the largest being the Gautami From Kulja across the Tian-Shan to Lob Nor, London, 1879. An account of Elias's journey will be found in Journal of the Royal Geo- | Godavari

. The Godavari is regarded as peculiarly sacred, graphical Society, 1873, and in Guido Cora's Cosmos 1874, and once every twelve years the great bathing festival

GOBY. The Gobies (Gobius) are small fishes readily re-called Pushkaram is held on its banks. cognized by their ventrals (the fins on the lower surface of The upper waters of the Godavari are scarcely utilized

for irrigation, but the entire delta has been turned into a garden of perenuial crops by means of the anicut at Dhaulaishvaram, from which three main canals are drawn off. The river channel here is 34 miles wide. The anicut is a substantial mass of stone, bedded in lime cement, about 2} miles long, 130 feet broad at the base, and 12 feet high. The stream is thus pent back so as to supply a volume of 3000 cubic feet of water per second during

its low season, Fio. 1. -Gobius lentiginosus.

and 12,000 cubic feet at time of flood. The canals bave the chest) being united into one fin, forming a suctorial a total length of 528 miles, capable of irrigating 780,000 disk, by which these fishes are enabled to

acres, while 463 miles are also used for navigation. In attach themselves in every possible posi

1864 water-communication was opened between the rivertion to a rock or other firm substances.

-systems of the Godavari and Kistna. Rocky barriers and They are essentially coast-fishes, inhabi

rapids obstruct navigation in the upper portion of the ting nearly all seas, but disappearing to

Godávari. Attempts have been made to construct canals wards the Arctic and Antarctic Oceans.

round these barriers but with little success, and lately the Many enter, or live exclusively in, such

undertaking has been entirely abandoned. fresh waters as are at no great dis.

GODÁVARI, a district of Madras presidency, British tance from the sea. Between 200 and Fig. 2.—United ven- India, lying between 16° 15' and 17° 35' N. lat., and 300 different kinds are known.

trals of Goby. between 80° 55' and 82° 38' E. long.; and bounded N. by GOD. See THEISM.

the Central Provinces and Vizagapatam district, E. by GODALMING, a municipal borough and market-town Vizagapatam and the Bay of Bengal, S. by the Bay of of England, county of Surrey, is situated 32 miles S. W. of Bengal and Kistna district, and W. by the Nizám's London, in a valley on the right bank of the Wey, which is dominions. The district is divided by the Godavari river navigable thence to the Thames. It consists principally of into two nearly equal parts. The scenery along the course one street nearly a mile in length, on the high road between of the river is varied and striking. The only lako of London and Portsmouth. The chief public buildings are importance is the Koléru, which is studded with islands the town-hall and market-house, Wyat's almshouses for poor and fishing villages. Building stone and limestone are men, the public ball, and the parish church, an old cruci- abundant in the uplands. Iron is also found. The jungle form building, of mixed architecture, but principally Early products are myrobalans, soap-nuts, tamarinda, bambooEnglish and Perpendicular. The church was repaired in rice, honey, and beeswax. Wild animals and game birds 1840, and also in 1867. It contains a large number of old are numerous. memorials. Godalming has manufactures of paper, leather, 789,338"females), showing a considerable increase on former years.

The population in 1871 numbered 1 592,939 (803,603 males, parchment, and hosiery, and some trade in corn, malt, bark, The Hindus nuin bered 1,655.981, the Mahometans 35,178, the hoops, and timber, The town obtained a market from Christians 1483 (Protestants and Roman Catholics in nearly equal Edward I. in 1300, and was incorporated in 1575. The numbers); 39 were Buddhists, and 263 not separately classified. population in 1871 was 2444.

Nineteen towns each contain upwards of 5000 inhabitants,-the GODÁVARI, a river of Central India, which flows across

aggregate population of the three chief towns, Ellor, Rájahmandri,

and Cocanada, being 63,064. the Deccan from the western to the Eastern Ghats, for The total area of the district is 7345 square miles, of which 2718 sanctity, picturesque scenery, and utility surpassed only by square miles belong to Government of Government land, 386,400 the Ganges and the Indus. The total length is 898 miles ;

acres are under cultivation; the rest either belongs to the camindári the estimated area of drainage basin, 112,200 square miles states, or is waste and upcultivable. The chief productsare rice, gram,

jute, hemp, gingelly, tobacco, sugar-cane, and indigo; rice and food Its traditional source is on the side of a hill behind the grains have improved in quality owing to the extension of irrigation village of Trimbak in Nasik district, Bombay, but according by canals. Government tenants have permanent right of occupancy to popular legend it proceeds from the same ultimate source so long as they pay tho Government demand, while on the ramindart as the Ganges, though underground. Its course is generally supplied with means of communication by 491 miles of good road

estates cultivators are merely yearly tenants. The district is well south-easterly. After passing through Nasik district, it

and 431 miles of canals. The principal manufactures are cotton crosses into the dominions of the nizam of Hyderabad. and woollen carpets, sheep wool blankets, appada cloths, sugar, and When it again strikes. British territory it is joined by the indigo.

The chief articles of trade are grain, cotton, jaggery, Pranhita, with its tributaries the Waraha, the Penganga, gingelly seed, lamp-oil, salt, tamarinds, cattle, teakwood, skins,

turmeric, cocoa-nut, Alax-cloth, onions, garlic, lace cloths, tobacco, and Wainganga. For some distance it flows between the opium, and indigo. Cocanada, Ellor, Rajahmandri, Mandapetta, Nizam's dominions and the upper Godavari district, and Jaggampetta, Husan bada, Nasapur, Palakollu, Dowlaishvaram, receives the Indravati, the Sal, and the Sabári. The stream Ambaji petta, and Jagannathpur are the most important seats of is now very imposing, with a channel varying from 1 to 2

The estimated value of imports in 1874-75 was

£204,238, and of exports, £903,253. The total revenue in 1875-76 miles in breadth, occasionally broken by alluvial islands.

was £558,812 ; the expenditure, £28,604 : the total municipal Parallel to the river stretch long ranges of bills; on the income, £5152. There are 28 magisterial and 15 revenue and civil opposite side the country is more open and cultivated.

There are 387 schools, attended by 7759 pupils.

The Below the junction of the Sabári the scenery is such that administrative headquarters is at Cocanada. The prevailing the Godavari has got the name of the Indian Rhine. The epidemic diseases are beri-bori and fevers; cholera and small-pos channel here begins

occur during the hot season, but only the poorer classes are contract. The flanking hills gradu. attacked. Cattle diseases also prevail. The average annual rainally close in on both sides, and the result is a magnificent fall from 1871 to 1875 was 43-35 inches; the average mean gorge only 200 yards wide through which the water flows temperature at Rájahmandri in 1876 was 82.40 Fahr. Two severe into the plain of the delta, about 60 miles from the sea.

storms, which caused great destruction to property, occurred in

1832 and 1839. The head of the delta is at the village of Dhaulaishvaram, The Godávari district formed part of the Andhra division of

commerce.

courts.

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