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Dravida, the north-west portion being subject to the Orissa kings, Godolphin owed his rise to power and his continuance and the south-western belonging to the Vengi kingdom. For cen- in it under four sovereigns chiefly to his exceptional mastery turies it was the battlefield on which various chiefs fought for

of financial matters; for if latterly he was in some degree independence with varying success till the beginning of the 16th century, when the whole country may be said

to have passed under indebted for his promotion to the support of Marlborough, Mahometan power.

At the conclusion of the struggle with the he received that support mainly because Marlborough recogFrench in the Carnatic, Godavari with the Circars was ceded to the nized that for the prosecution of England's foreign wars English by the nawáb, and finally confirmed by the imperial sanad

his financial abilities were an indispensable necessity. He in 1765. The present district was constituted in 1859, by the redistribution of the territory comprising the former districts of was cool, reserved, and cautious, but his prudence was less Guatoor, Rajahmandri, and Masulipatam, into what are now the associated with high sagacity than traceable to the weakKistna and Godávari districts.

ness of his personal antipathies and prejudices, and his GODEFROI. Ses GOTHOFRED.

freedom from political predilections. Perhaps it was his GODFREY OF BOUILLON. See BOUILLON.

unlikeness to Marlborough in that moral characteristic GODOLPHIN, SIDNEY GODOLPHIN, Earl of (c. 1635- which so tainted Marlborough's greatness that rendered 1712), was a cadet of an ancient family of Cornwall, and possible between them a friendship so intimate and undis-' was born most probably in 1635. At the Restoration he turbed : he was, it would appear, exceptionally devoid was introduced into the royal household by Charles II., with of the passion of avarice; and so little advantage did he whom he had previously become a favourite, and he also take of his opportunities of aggrandizement that, though at the same period entered the House of Commons as mem- his style of living was unostentatious, -and in connexion ber for Helstone. Although he very seldom addressed the with his favourite pastimes of horse-racing, card-playing, and House, and, when he did so, only in the briefest manner, cockfighting he gained parhaps more than he lost,_all he gradually acquired a reputation as its chief if not its that he left behind him did not, according to the duchess only financial authority. Iu March 1679 he was appointed of Marlborough, amount to more than £12,000. His & member of the privy council, and in the September follow. treacherous intercourse with James II. was doubtless ing he was promoted, along with Viscount Hyde (afterwards largely due to the spell of Marlborough's influence; but in earl of Rochester) and the earl of Sunderland, to the chief any case it indicates that, if in other respects his political management of affairs. Though he voted for the Exclusion conduct was upright and trustworthy, this is to be accounted Bili in 1680, he was continued in office after the dismissal for by his prudence and certain other mental peculiarities, of Sunderland, and in September 1684 he was created rather than by the strength of his moral principle or bis Baron Godolphin of Rialton, and succeeded Rochester as keen sense of honour. His son and successor Francis, who first lord of the treasury. After the accession of James II. had married Henrietta, eldest daughter of the duke of Marlhe was made chamberlain to the queen, and, along with borough, in 1698, died in 1766, leaving no male issue. Rochester and Sunderland, enjoyed the king's special con. GODOY. See ALCUDIA. fidence. In 1687 be was named commissioner of the GODWIN, FRANCIS (1561-1633), son of Dr Godwin, treasury. He was one of the council of five appointed by bishop of Bath and Wells, was born at Havington in North King James to represent lim in London, when he went to amptonshire in 1561. He was elected student of Christ join the army after the landing of William prince of Orange Church, Oxford, in 1578, took his bachelor's degree in 1580, in England, and, along with Halifax and Nottingham, he and that of master in 1583. Entering holy orders, be Was afterwards appointed a commissioner to treat with the became successively rector of Sampford-Orcais in Somerset, prince. On the accession of William, though he only sbire, and vicar of Weston-in-Zoyland in the same county. obtained the third seat at the treasury board, be bad In 1587 be was appointed subdean of Exeter. Haying virtually the chief control of affairs. He retired in March turned his attention to the subject of British antiquities, be 1690, but was recalled on the November following, and became acquainted with Camden, whom in 1590 he accomappointed first lord. While holding this office he for several panied in a journey through Wales. He was created bachelor years continued, in conjunction with Marlborough, a of divinity in 1593, and doctor in 1595. In 1601 he pubtreacherous intercourse with James II., and is said even to lished his Catalogue of the Bishops of England since the first have anticipated Marlborough in disclosing to James in- planting of the Christian Religion in this Island, a work telligence regarding the intended expedition against Brest. which procured him in the same year the bishopric oi After Fenwick's confession in 1696 regarding the Assassina. Llandaff from Elizabeth. A second edition appeared in tion Plot, Godolphin, who was compromised, was induced 1615, and in 1616 he published an edition in Latin with a to tender his resignation ; but when the Tories came into dedication to King James, who in the following year conpower in 1700, he was again appointed lord treasurer, and ferred upon him the bishopric of Hereford. The work was retained office for about a year. Though not a favourite republished, with a continuation by Dr Richardson, in 1743. with Queen Anne, be was, after her accession, appointed to In 1616 Godwin published Rerum Anglicarum, Henrico his old office, on the strong recommendation of Marlborough. VIII., Edwardo VI., et Maria regnantibus, Annales, which He also in 1704 received the honour of knighthood, and in was afterwards translated and publishod by his son under the December 1706 he was created Viscount Rialton and Earl title Annales of England, 1630. The last of his works pubof Godolphin. The influence of the Marlboroughs with the lished before his death, wbich took place in 1633, was Comqueen was, however, gradually supplanted by that of Mrs putation of the value of the Roman Sesterce and Attic Talent, Masham and Harley earl of Oxford, and with the fortunes which appeared in 1630. He is also the author of a someof the Marlboroughs those of Godolphin were indissolubly what remarkable story, published posthumously in 1638, united. The services of both were so appreciated by the and entitled The Man in the Moon, or a Discourse of a nation that they were able for a time to regard the loss of Voyage thither, by Domingo Gonsales, written apparently the queen's favour with indifference, and even in 1708 to sometime between the years 1599 and 1603. In this proprocure the expulsion of Harley from office; but after the duction Godwin not only declares himself a believer in the Tory reaction which followed the impeachment of Dr Copernican system, but adopts so far the principles of the Sacheverel, the queen made use of the opportunity to take law of gravitation by supposing that the earth's attraction the initiatory step towards delivering herself from the irk diminishes with the distance. The work, which displays some thraldom of Marlborough by abruptly dismissing considerable fancy and wit, was translated into French, and Godolphin from office, 7th August 1710. He died 15th was imitated in several important particulars by Cyrano do September 1712.

Bergerac, from whom Swist obtained valuable hints in


writing his voyage to Laputa. Another work of Godwin's, the French. Mary, a Fiction, the story already mentioned, Nuncius Inanimatus in Utopia, originally published in 1629, was not published till 1796. The Elements of Morality, but subsequently suppressed, seems to have been the proto- an old fashioned book for children, and Lavater's Physiogtype of Wilkins's Mercury, or Secret and Swift Messenger, nomy, were among her translations. Her Original Stories which appeared in 1641. Godwin's pamphlet was again from Real Life were published, with illustrations by published in 1657.

Blake, and in 1792 appeared A Vindication of the Rights GODWIN, MARY WOLLSTONECRAFT (1759-1797), an of Woman, the work with which her name is always English authoress of the last century, was born at Hoxton, associated. on April 27, 1759. Her family was of Irish extraction, It is not among the least oddities of this book that it is and Mary's grandfather, who was a respectable manufac- dedicated to M. Talleyrand Périgord, late bishop of Autun. turer in Spitalfields, realized the property which his son Mary Wollstonecraft still believed him to be sincere, and squandered. Her mother, whose maiden name was Dixon, working in the same direction as herself. In the dewas Irish, and of good family. Mr Wollstonecraft, after dication she states the “main argument” of the work, dissipating the greater part of his patrimony, tried to earn “built on this simple principle that, if woman be not prea living by farming, which only plunged him into deeper pared by education to become the companion of man, she difficulties, and be led a wandering, shifty life. The will stop the progress of knowledge, for truth must be family roamed from Hoxton to Edmonton, to Essex, to common to all, or it will be inefficacious with respect to its inBeverley in Yorkshire, to Laugharne, Pembrokeshire, and Auence or general practice.” In carrying out this argument back to London again.

she used extraordinary plainness of speech, and it was this After Mrs Wollstonecraft's death in 1780, soon followed that caused all, or nearly all, the outcry. For she did not by her husband's second marriage, the three daughters, attack the institution of marriage, nor assail ortovdox Mary, Everina, and Eliza, sought to earn their own liveli- religion; her book was really a plea for equality of eduhood. The sisters were all clever women,– Mary and Eliza cation, passing into one for state education and for tho sar above the average, --but their opportunities of culture joint education of the sexes. It was a protest against the bad been few. They turned their thoughts towards the assumption that woman was only the plaything of man, profession of teaching, and Mary, the eldest, was to make and she asserted that intellectual companionship was the the first venture. She went in the first instance to live chief, as it is the lasting, happiness of marriage. It may, with her friend Fanny Blood, a girl of her own age, whose however, be admitted tbat she discussed some subjects, not father, like Wollstonecraft, was addicted to drink and usually mentioned in print, with a certain want of reticence dissipation. As long as she lived with the Bloods, Mary and delicacy. She dealt directly with dangerous and cxhelped Mrs Blood to earn money by taking in, plosive questions, incidentally upbeld greater freedom of while l'anny painted in water-colours. Everina went to divorce, and denied the eternity of the torments of hell. live with her brother Edward, and Eliza made a hasty and, Mrs Wollstonecraft, as she now styled herself, desired to as it proved, unhappy marriage with a Mr Bishop. All the watch the progress of the Revolution in France, and went Wollstonecraft sisters were enthusiastic, excitable, apt to to Paris in 1792. Godwin, in bis memoir of bis wife, con. exaggerate trifles, and to magnify inattentions into slights; siders that tbe change of residence may have been prompted and Eliza had the fanıily temperament in excess. Bishop by the discovery that she was becoming attached to Fuseli, was a man of violent temper, and when his wife's reason but there is nothing to confirm this surmise; indeed, it had almost given way under the miseries of her married was first proposed that she should go to Paris in company life, Mary resolved to find some means of supporting her, with him and his wife, nor was there any subsequent and arranged her secret and sudden flight. A legal separn. breach in their friendship. She remained in Paris during tion was asterwards obtained, and the sisters, together with the Reign of Terror, when communication with England Fanny Blood, took a house, first at Islington, afterwards was difficult or almost impossible. Some time in the at Newington Green, and opened a school, which was spring or summer of 1793 Captain Gilbert Imlay, an carried on with indifferent success for nearly two years. American, became acquainted with Mary-an acquaintance During their residence at Newington Green, Mary was in which ended in a more intimate connexion. There was no troduced to Dr Johnson, who, as Godwin tells us, treated legal ceremony of marriage, and it is doubtful whether such her with particular kindness and attention."

a marriage would have been valid at the time; but she In 1785 Fanny Blood married Hugh Skeys, merchant, passed as Imlay's wife, and her brother, Charles Wollstoneand went with bim to Lisbon, where she died in child.craft, wrote from Pbiladelphia that he had seen a gentleman bed after sending for Mary to purse her. “ The loss of who informed him “that Mary was married to Captain Fanny," as she said in a letter to Mrs Skeys's brother, Imlay of this country.” Imlay himsell terms her in a George Blood, was sufficient of itself to have cast a cloud legal document, “ Mary Imlay, my best friend and wife," over my brightest days. . . . I bave lost all relish for and she believed that his love, which was to her sacred, pleasure, and life seems a burden almost too heavy to be would endure. In August 1793 Jmlay was called to Havre endured.” Her first novel, Mary, a Fiction, written in on business, and was absent for some months, during 1787, was intended to commemorate her friendship with which time most of the letters published after her death by Fanny. After closing the school at Newington Green, Mary Godwin were written. Towards the end of the year she obtained a situation as governess in the family of Lord joined Imlay at Havre, and there in the spring of 1794 Kingsborough, in Ireland, which she held for nearly a year. she gave birth to a girl, who received the name of Fanny, Her pupils were much attached to ber, especially Margaret in memory of the dear friend of her youth. Imlay became King, afterwards Lady Mountcashel; and indeed Lady involved in a multitude of speculations, which rendered him Kingsborough gave the reason for dismissing ber that the restless and dissatisfied, and his affection for Mary and children loved their governess better than their mother. their child was already waping. He left her for some Mary now resolved to devote herself to literary work, months at Havre, and when he allowed her to join bim in and she was encouraged in this purpose by Jobuson, the England, it appears from her letters that she went with a publisher in St Paul's Churchyard, in whose bouse she heavy heart and forebodings of sorrow. In June 1795, in resided for a few weeks, before sbe obtained lodgings in less than two months after their reunion, Mary again left George Street, Blackfriars. She acted as Johnson's England for Norway, empowered by the document in which literary adviser, and undertook translations, chiefly from Imlay calls ber bis wife, to act for him in his business

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relations with Norwegian timber merchants. Her Letters William Godwin was educated for liis father's profession, from Norway, divested of all personal details, were after and was at first more Calvinistic than his teachers, becomwards published. She returned to England late in 1795, ing a Sandemanian, of which sect he says, that they were and found letters awaiting her from Imlay, intimating his the followers of “a celebrated north-country apostle (Glas), intention to separate from her, and offering to settle an who after Calvin had damned ninety-nine in a hundred of annuity on her and her child. For herself she rejected this mankind, has contrived a scheme for damping ninety-nine offer with scorn : " From you," she wrote, “I will not in a hundred of the followers of Calvin.” receive anything more. I am not sufficiently humbled to He officiated as a minister at Ware, Stowmarket, and depend on your beneficence.” They met again, and for a Beaconsfield. At the second of these places the teachings short time lived together, until the discovery that he was of French Reformers were brought before him by a friend, carrying on an intrigue under her own roof drove her to and these, while they intensified his political, undermined despair, and she attempted to drown herself by leaping his religious opinions. He came to London, still nominally from Putney bridge, but she was rescued by waternien. a clergyman, to set about the work of the regeneration of Imlay now completely descrted her, although she continued society with his pen-a real enthusiast, who, theoretically, to bear his name.

shrank from no conclusions from the premises which he In 1796, when Mary Wollstonecraft was living in laid down. These were the principles of the Encyclopedists, London, supporting herself and her child by working, as and his own aim was the complete overthrow of all existing before, for Mr Johnson, she met William Godwin. A institutions, political, social, and religious. He believed, friendsluip sprang up between them,-a friendship, as he however, that calm discussion was the only thing needful himself says, which “melted into love.” Godwin states to carry every change, and from the beginning to the end that “ideas which he is now willing to denominate prejudices of his career lie deprecated every approach to violence

. He made him by no means willing to conform to the ceremony was, like Bentham-whom, however, he does not seem to of marriage;" but these prejudices were overcome, and have influenced or been influenced by—a philosopbic radithey were married at St Pancras Church on March 29, cal in the strictest sense of the term. 1797. And now Mary had a season of real calm in her His first published work was an anonymous Life of Lord stormy existence. Godwin, for once only in his life, Chathum; the first to which he gave his name was still Wis stirred by passion, and his admiration for his wife nominally clerical. Under the inappropriate title Sketches equalled his affection. But their happiness was of short of History, he published six sermons on the characters of duration. A daughter, Mary, afterwards the wife of Percy Aaron, Hazael, and Jesiis, in which, though writing in the Bysshe Shelley, was born August 30, 1797. At first all character of an orthodox Calvinist, he enunciates the pregseemed to go well, but unfavourable symptoms set in, and on nant proposition, “God himself has no right to be a tyrant.” September 10th, the mother, after enduring all her sufferings This was published in 1782, and for the next nine years he with unvarying gentleness and sweetness of temper, passed wrote largely in the Annual Register and other periodicals, away. She was buried in the churchyard of Old St Pancras, producing also three novels, which have more completely but her remains were afterwards removed by Sir Percy , vanished from the world than even the contributions to Shelley to the churchyard of St Peter's, Bournemouth. reviews.' They were probably not worth preserving, but

Jler principal publisheil works are as follows:- Thoughts on the the “Sketches of English History” written for the Annual Fluetion of Danyhters, 1787; The Female Picader (sclections), Register from 1785 onward still deserve study.

He 1789; Original Stories from Rral Life, 1791; Ar Historical and More Virw of the Origin and Progress of the French Revolution, joined a club called the Revolutionists, and associated ne vel the Effects it has proluced in Europe, vol. i. (no more pub? much with Lord Stanhope, Horne Tooke, Holcroft, and lishel), 1790 ; Vindication of the liyhts of Woman, 1792 ; Vindi- others, who, from their political principles and activiły, culion of the Rights of Man, 1793 ; Mary, a Fiction, 1796; Letters irrilles during a short liesilesice in Surden, Norưay, and non

were obnoxious to men in power. It is perhaps needless werk, 1796 ; Posthumous Works, 4 vols., 1798. It is impossible to

to say that the title of "reverend” dropped off from him true the many articles contributed by her to periodical literature, without difficulty, and with no sense of discordance beor to identify the translations executed for Mr Johnson.

tween the old and the new. Doubt and change never of her life was published by Godwin soon after «lecease. A large seem to have brought with them any keen sense of pain portion of the work, Il'illiam Godwin, his Friends and Contempo. raries, was devoted to her, and a new edition of the Letters to Inlay,

or outrooting. The equable calni of a cold temperament Lonlon, 1879, of which the first edition was published by: Golwin, preserved liim from much which affects warmer natures ; is preficed by a somewhat fuller memoir.

(C. K. P.) but he also knew that he was at all times seeking after GODWIN, William (1756-1836), an English political truth, and striving for what seemed right; and while such writer, historian, novelist

, and dramatist

, was born Marchan one can scarcely be called modest, he is preserved for 3, 1756, at Wisbeach in Cambridgeshire, at which place his many qualms which affect more nervous and more selffather was a Nonconforinist minister. His family came on distrustful persons. both sides of wortlıy middle-class people, able to trace their In 1793 Godwin published his great work on political descent in the same level of society for about 150 years; science, The Inquiry concerning Political Justice, and its and it was probably only as a joke that Godwin, a stern Influence on General Virtue ani llappiness. Although political reformer and philosophical radical, attempted to this work is little known and less read now, it was one of trace his pedigree to a time before the Norman conquest the epoch-making books of English thought.

Godwin and the great Earl Godwine. His father was a cold and could never have been himself a worker on the active stago dull mın, bis mother uneducated, but clever, shrewd, and of life. But he was none the less a power behind the full of sound common sense. Both parents were Calvinists : workers, and Political Justice takes its place with Milton's the father strict in observances beyond what was even then Speech for Unlicensed Printing, with Locke's Essay on ordinary; the mother regretting in Godwin's maturer years, Education, with Rousseau's Émile, among the unseen levers and when some of her sons had turned out ill, that slie had which have moved the changes of the times. It is there. given birth to so many children, who, as sho thought, were fore necessary to speak of this book more particularly. licirs of damnation. Mr Godwirt, senior, died young, and By the words “political justice” the author meant "tho ucver inspiral love or much regret in his son ; but in spite adoption of any principle of morality and truth into the of wide differences of opinion, the most tender affection practice of a community.” and the work was therefore an always subsisted between William Godwin and his mother, inquiry into the principles of society, of government, an: until her death at an advanced age.

of morals. For many years Godwin Lad been "satisfied

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A memoir

that monarchy was a species of government unavoidably, easy to read when the style is once mastered, and it is a great corrupt,”and from desiring a government of the simplest con- help to the understanding of his cold, methodical, unimpasstruction, he gradually came to consider that “government sioned characters. He carried his method into every detail by its very nature counteracts the improvement of original of life, and lived on his earnings with extreme frugality. mind.” Believing in the perfectibility of the race, that Until he made a large sunı by the publication of Politica there are no innate principles, and therefore 10 original Justice, he lived on an average of £120 a year. In 1797, propensity to evil, he considered that “our virtues and our the intervening years having been spent in strenuous vices may be traced to the incidents which mako the history literary labour, Godwin married Mary Wollstonecraft (see of our lives, and if these incidents could be divested of last article). Since both held the same views regardevery improper tendency, vice would be extirpated from the ing the slavery of marriage, and since they only married at world.” All control of man by man was more or less in- all for the sake of possible offspring, the marriage was contolerable, and the day would come when each man, doing cealed for some time, and the happiness of the avowed what seems right in his own eyes, would also be doing inarried life was very brief. Mrs Godwin died in giving what is in fact best for the community, because all will be birth to a daughter, afterwards the second wiso of Percy guided by principles of pure reason. But all was to be Bysshe Shelley, on September 10, 1797, leaving Godwin, done by discussion, and matured change resulting from dis- prostrated by aliction, and with a charge for which he was cussion. Hence, while Godwin thoroughly approved of the wholly unfit-bis own little daughter Mary, and her stepphilosophic schemes of the precursors of the Revolution, he sister, l'anny Imlay, who ever afterwards bore the name of was as far removed as Burke himself from agrecing with Godwin. jlis untitwess for the cares of a family, far niore the way in which they were carried out. So logical and than love, led him to contract a second marriage with Mrs uncompromising a thinker as Godwin could not go far in Clairmont, in 1800. She was a widow with two children, the discussion of abstract questions without exciting the energetic and pajustaking, but a bursh step mother; and it most lively opposition in matters of detailed opinion An may be doubced whether the children were not worse off affectionate son, and ever ready to give of his hard-carned under ber cure than they would have been under Godwin's income to more than one ne'cr-dowell brother, he main neglect. The second fiction which proceeded from Godwin's tained that natural relationship had no claim on man, nor pen was called st Leon, and published in 1799. It is was gratitude to parents or benefactors any part of justice chiefly remarkable for the beautiful portrait of Marguerite, or virtue. In a day when the penal code was still the heroine, which was drawn from the character of bis extremely sovere, he argued gravely against all punishments,

own wife. not only that of death. Property was to belong to hiin The events of Godwin's life were few. Under this advice who most wants it; accumulated property was a monstrous of the second Mrs Godwin, and with her active co-operation, injustice. Hence marriage, which is law, is the worst of all le carried on business as a bookseller under the pseudonym la vvs, and property the worst of all properties. A man so of Edward Baldwin, under which name he published sevopassionless as Godwin could venture thus to argue without ral useful school-books and bouks for chuldren, sone by suspicion that he did so only to gratify his wayward desires. Charles and Mary Lanıb. But tho speculation was unsuc. Portions of this treatise, and only portions, found ready cessful, und for niany years Godwin struggled with constant acceptance in thuse minds which were prepared to receive pecuniary difficulties, for which more than one subscription them. Perhaps no one received the whole teaching of the was raised by the leaders of the Liberal party, and by book. But it gave cohesion and voice to philosophic radi literary men. In his later years the Government of Earl calism;

it was the manifesto of a scliool without which the Grey conferred upon him the office known as “ Yeoman milder and more creedless liberalism of the present day had Usher of the Exchequer,” to which were attached apart not been. Godwin himself in after days modified his com- ments in Palace larü, where he died in the full posses, munistic views, but his strong feeling for individualisnı, bis sion of his faculties, April 7, 1836, having completed his hate of all restrictions or liberty, his trust in inan, his faith eightieth year. in the power of reason remained; it was a manifesto which In his own time, by his writings and by his conversation, enunciated principles modifying action, even when not Godwin had a great power of influencing men, and especially wholly ruling it.

young men. Though his character would scem, from much In May 1794 Godwin publishea the novel of Caleb which is found in his writings, and from anecdotes told by Williams, or Things as they are, a book of which the politi- those who still remember him, to have been unsympathetic, cal object is overlooked by many readers in the strong it was not so understood by enthusiastic young people, who interest of the story. It is one of the few novels of that hung on his words as those of a prophet. The most remarktime which may be said still to live. A theorist who able of these was Percy Bysshe Shelley, who in the glowing lived mainly in his study, Godwin yet came forward boldly dawn of his genius turned to Godwin as his teacher and to stand by prisoners arraigned of high treason in that guide. The last of the long series of young men who sat same year-1794. The danger to persons so charged was at Godwin's feet was Edward Lytton Bulwer, afterwards then great, and he deliberately put himself into this same Lord Lytton, whose early ronances were formed after those danger for his friends. But when his own trial was dis- of Godwin, and who, in Eugene Aram, succeeded to the cussed in the Privy Council, Pitt sensibly held that story as arranged, and the plan to a considerable extent Politicul Justice, the work on which the charge could sketched out, by Godwin, whose age and failing bealth best have been founded, was priced at three guineas, and prevented him from completing it. could never do much harm among those who had not three Godwin's more important works are- The Inquiry concerning shillings to spare.

Political Justics, and ils Influence on General l'irtue and Happiness, From this time Godwin became a notable figure in London 1793; Things as they are, or the Adventures of Caleb Williams, society, and there was scarcely an important person in polis of the Rights of Woinan, 1798 ; St Leon, a Tale of the Sixteenth Con

1794 ; Thc Inquirer, a serirs of Esseys, 1796; Mcmoirs of the duthor tics, on the liberal side, in literature, art, or science, who tury, 1799; Antonio, a Tragedy, 1801; The Life of Chaucer, 1803; does not appear familiarly in the pages of Godwin's singular Flectwood, á Novel, 1805; Faulkner, a Tragedy, 1807; Essay on Sepul. diary. For forty-eight years, beginning in 1788, and con

chres, 1809; Lires of Edward and Johu Philips, the Nephcus of tinuing to the very end of his life, Godwin kept a record of Milton, 1815; Mandeville, a Tale of the Times of Cromwell, 1817

History of the Cominonwealth, 1824-1828; Cloudesloy, a Novel, 1830; every day, of the work he did, the books he read, the friends Thoughts on Man, a scries of Essays, 1881; Lives of the Necroman

Condensed in the highest degree, the diary is yet I cers, 1834. A voluing of essays was also collected from his papers

ne saw.

and published in 1873, as left for publication by his daughter Mrs , berland and Msercia. He then acted as the chief minister of
Shelley. Many other short and anonymous works proceeded from Emma, while she was regent on behalf of Harthacnut during
his ever busy pen, but many are irrecoverable, and all are forgotten. his first reign. During this time the Ætheling Ælfred, son of
Godwin's place in literature is permanent, in that he produced one
work which proved effective in changing the course of thought in. Æthelred and Emma, landed in England in the hope of
its time, but not pernianent in the sense that his writings will winning back his father's crown; but coming into the
continue to be widely read. His life was published in 1876 in two power of Harold, he was blinded by his order, and died of
volumes, under the title William Godwin, his friends and Con-
temporaries, by C. Kegan Paul. The best estimate of his literary

his wounds. Godwine was said to have betrayed Ælfred position is that given by Mr Leslie Stephen in bis English Thought

to Harold, and the charge was eagerly seized upon by the in the 18th Century.

(C. K. P.) Norman writers. But it was not invented by them. At GODWINE, son of Wulfnoth, earl of the West-Saxons, is the beginning of Harthacnut's second reign_in 1040, the leading Englishman in the first half of the 11th century, Godwine was formally accused of the death of Ælfred, and and he holds a special place in English history generally. was regularly tried and acquitted. His guilt is asserted in a He is the first Englishman who plays the part of a minister poem inserted in one of the Chronicles, but the words which and parliamentary leader, of one high in office under the tell against him are carefully altered in another version. crown who at the same time sways the assemblies of the The story is told with great confusion and contradiction, nation by his power of speech. Such a position was per- and the version unfavourable to Godwine seems to be inconfectly possible before the Norman Conquest; it did not sistent with his position at the time as minister, not of again become possible for some ages. Godwine appears as

Harold, to whom he is said to have betrayed Ælfred, but the chief champion of England against Norman influence of Harthacnut, whose kingship seems to be forgotten in the and as the father of the last English king of the native story. Godwine remained in power during the reigns of stock. In these two characters he drew on himself the Harold and Harthacnut, and on the death of the last-named fullest bitterness of Norman hatred ; and to this hatred is king in 1042, he was foremost in promoting the election of doubtless largely, though not wholly, owing the extraor- Eadward, the son of Æthelred and Emma, to the vacant dinary contradiction with which the chief events of his life throne As earl of the West-Saxons he was the first man are told, and the amazing slanders which have been heaped in the kingdom, but his power was still balanced by that upon his memory.

of the other great earls, Leofric in Mercia and Siward in His birth and origin are utterly uncertain. The highest Northumberland. His sons Swegen and Harold, together authorities, the contemporary English Chronicles, are silent with Beorn, the nephew of his wife Gytha, were promoted There are two alternative statements, which are seemingly to earldoms (1043-1045), and his daughter Eadgyth was quite irreconcilable, but either of which alone would have married to the king (1045). We hear much of his good much to be said for it. By putting together certain and strict government of his earldom, and of bis influence passages in the English Chronicles, in Domesday, and in the with the king and with the whole nation. He was not, will of the Ætheling Æthelstan, son of King Æthelred, a however, all-powerful; in one very remarkable case, which strong presumption is raised that Godwine was the son is most instructive as a piece of constitutional history, be of Wulinoth the South-Saxon who was outlawed in 1009, was out-voted in the witenagemót on a question of foreign and that his services in the war against Cnut were deomed policy. In 1047, when his wife's nephew Swegen Estrithto entitle him to a restitution of his father's forfeited lands. son, now king of the Danes, was at war with Magnus of There is no direct statement to this effect, but a number of Norway, Godwine proposed to help Swegen with fifty ships ; undesigned coincidences point towards such a belief. On but the notion was opposed by Leofric, and "all folk" acthe other hand, there is a story which appears in various cepted the amendment of the Mercian earl. Godwine had quarters, and which seems to come from more than one in- also to strive against the king's fondness for Normans and dependent source, which makes Godwine's father Wulfnoth other strangers, above all in the disposal of ecclesiastical a churl somewhere on the borders of Gloucestershire and offices. Godwine's policy, in this and in other matters, was Wiltshire, and which makes Godwine win the favour of the opposed to all French connexions of every kind. Next to Danish sarl Ulf by showing him his way after the battle Englishmen he favoured natives of the kindred Continental of Sherstone in 1016. A third account connects Godwine lands, and he supported a policy of alliance with the empire with the family of Eadric the traitor of Æthelred's day; and its princes. In all this, at home and abroad, he had but this version seems at once to be impossible to reconcile specially to withstand the influence of the king's Norman with either of the other two stories, and to rest on less favourite Robert of Jumiéges, appointed bishop of London authority than either.

in 1044 and archbishop of Canterbury in 1051. Godwine But, whatever was Godwine's origin, there is no doubt was supported by the English bishops Stigand of Winchesthat, according to Cnut's rule of preferring Englishmen to ter and Lyfing of Worcester. The appointment of Robert high office, he rose to power very early in that king's reign. to the archbishopric marks the decline of Godwine's power ; He was an earl in 1018. The next year he distinguished the foreign influence was now at its height, and the English himself at the head of the English troops in Cnut's Northern earl was to feel the strength of it. wars, and received in marriage Gytha, the sister of the In the course of 1051 & series of outrages committed by king's brother-in-law Earl Ulf. In 1020 he became earl the king's foreign favourites led to a breach between the of the West-Saxons, that is, of all England south of the king and the earl. The king's brother-in-law, Eustace Thames, & new office, doubtless connected with Cnuts fro- count of Boulogne, returning with his followers from a visit quent absences from England. All this again is not in to the king, tried to obtain quarters by force in the houses the Chronicles, though particular points are incidentally of the burgesses of Dover, An Englishman who withstood confirmed by them. Still this stage of his history seems to them was killed ; a fight followed, in which the count and be fairly made out from other sources.

his company were driven out of the town. The king, hearFrom Cnut's death in 1035 the events of Godwino's life ing the tale from Eustace, bade Godwine inflict military are recorded in the Chronicles, often with great minuteness. chastisement on the townsmen ; "the earl refused, and deMuch is also learned from the contemporary biographer of manded a fair trial of the charge before the witan. About Eadward. He asserted the claims of Hartbacnut, the son of the same time men's minds were stirred by the outrages of Cnut and Emma, to the crown of his father ; but he had to several Normans who had received estates in Herefordshire. consent to a division of the kingdom, and could only secure the influence of the arcbbishop was used against Godwine, Wessex for Harthacnut, while Harold reigned in Northum- and he was summoned to appear before the witan at

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