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the water of which is largely used for irrigation. The feræ arta Yusu the Little. The painting of the interior was naturae consist of tigers, leopards, bears, wolves, and deer, probably executed by the Venetian artists mentioned by Large game birds are plentiful.

Bruce. The city was founded in the 15th century by This district has no particular history of its own ; what ancient emperor Fasilidas, or A'lem-Seged; it has been frequently history it has is included in that of Oudlh. On the outbreak of the sacked, and in 1868 it was laid in ruins by Theodorus, mutiny, the rájá of Gonda, after honourably escorting the Govern, who did not spare either the castle or the churches. The ment treasure to Fyza bad, joined the rebels. His estates, along with those of the rini of Tulsipur, were confiscated, and conferred population, estimated by Bruce at 10,000 families, has as rewards upon the mahárijas of Balrámpur and 'Shahganj, who been brought to a very low ebb by the political distrachad remained loyal. The census of 1869 disclosed a population of tions of the country. In 1853 Heuglin thought the in1,166,515 (602,862 males, and 563,653 females) -- Hindus, 1,019,397; habitants might number from 5000 to 6000, and in 1861-62 Mahometans, 117,070; Christians-European, Eurasian, and native Five towns contain a population exceeding 5000, namely,

be raised the figure to from 6000 to 7000. About 2000 Gonda, Balrampur, Colonelganz, Nawabganj, and Utraula. Rice of the number are Mahometans, and there is a considerable wheat, and barley are the chief products of the distriet. The settlement of Jews (Falasha). Cotton cloth, gold and arga under cultivation is 993,858 acres. The exports are rice and silver ornaments, copper wares, fancy articles in bone and food grains ; the imports, cotton, European piece goods, and salt. ivory, excellent saddles, and shoes are among the products The administration is under a deputy commissioner, aided by two

of the local industry. The shoes are made almost exEuropean assistants. The total revenue (1875–76) amounted to £135,509 ; the expenditure to £15,810. The police force (1873) clusively for the clergy, as the ordinary Abyssinians either consisied of 484 officers and men, maintained at a cost of £6655.

go barefoot or wear sandals. See especially Rüppell, Reise Education still in its infancy. In 1875-76 there were 116 schools

in Abyssinien, Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1838–40; Heuglin, under Government inspection, attended by 5879 pupils. Fever is prevalent throughout the district. The other principal diseases are Reise nach Abessinien, Jena, 1868; Lejean, Voyage en scurvy, cholera, diarrhea, and goitre. The average rainfall during Abyssinie, Paris, 1872; and Raffray, Afrique Occidentale, the eleven years 1865-1876 was 42:0 inches. The averago yearly Paris, 1876. Views of the castle are given by Heuglin temperature is 77.5° Fahr., the highest recorded being 106°, the and Raffray. Jowest 48%.

GONDOKORO. See ISMAILIA. GONDA, the chief town and administrative headquarters GONDWANA, a tract of country in Central India, 63of Gonda district, in 27° 8' N. lat. and 82° 1' E. long. tending from the 19th to the 25th degree of N. lat., derivThe site on which the town now stands was originally a ing its name from the aboriginal tribe of Gonds, who iorm jungle, in the centre of which was a cattle fold (Gontha or the predominant element in the population. The tract may Gothán), in which the cattle were enclosed at night as a be considered as comprising pert of the British territory protection against wild beasts, and from this the town of Ságor and Nerbudda, with the districts of Singraulí, Cbotá derived its name. The place was formerly celebrated for Nágpur, and Sirguja, the petty native states on the S.W. the manufacture of shields; now it is neither of com. frontier of Bengal, the Cuttack Mahals, and the northern mercial nor of religious importance. The town contains a portion of Nagpur. It is estimated to be 400 miles in civil station, dispensary, school, literary institute, court- length by 280 in average breadth. Gondwána, in its most house, and jail. Population, 13,722,

extensive sense, includes all that part of India within the GONDAR, properly GUENDAR, a town of Abyssinia, above-mentioned boundaries which remained unconquered formerly the capital of the Amharic kingdom, is situated by the Mahometans up to the reign of Aurungzebe. But on a basaltic ridge in the couutry of Dembea, about 21 Gondwana proper is limited to four districts, named Mándla, miles N.E. of Lake Tsana or Tana, a splendid view of Chhatisgarh, Nagpur, and Chándal, and it stretches south which is obtained from the castle. According to Ruppell, along the east side of the Wardha and Godávari, to within its latitude is 12° 35' N. and its longitude 37° 31' 57" E., | 100 miles of the mouth of the latter. The greater part of and it lies 7460 feet above the level of the sea. Two this province is a mountainous, unhealthy, and ill-watered streams, the Angreb on the east side and the Gaha or country, covered with jungle, and thinly inhabited; and Kaha on the west, flow down from the ridge, and meeting to its poverty and other bad qualities its independence may below the town pass onwards to the lake. In the Gahe be ascribed. A continued chain of moderately elevated the Christian inhabitants of Gondar are accustomed to hills extends from the southern frontier of Bengal almost to batha in vast disorderly crowds on the feast of St John the the Godavari, and by these the eastern was formerly separBaptist (10th September), and again in a more decent ated from the western portion of the Nagpur dominions, manner on the anniversary of the Saviour's birth. The This province contains the sources of the Nerbudda and the town is divided into several districts separated from each Son, and is bounded by the Wardha and Godavari ; but a other by wood and field,

-one being the Abun-Bad or want of water is still the general defect, the streams by bishop's quarter, another the Etchege-Bed or quarter of which it is intersected, namely, the Mabánadi, Kárun, the prior or chief of the monks, while a third takes its Hatus, and Siláir, being inconsiderable, and not navigable namo from the Debra Birhan or Church of the Light, within its limits. The Gonds, or the hill tribes who took and a fourth from the Gemp or castle. This was at refuge in the mountains and fastnesses from the invaders. one time a splendid pile, designed on the plan of a of the country, are the original inhabitants of the country, mediæval stronghold; and the solidity of its masonry, the and, till recently, retained all their primeval habits of beauty of its ornamentations, and the general effect of its barbarism. They here now adopted a form of Hinduism, arrangement stand in striking contrast to the mean and but they retain many of their ancient customs, and abstain monotonous houses of the town, which are all erected after from no flesh except that of the ox, eow, and bull. Accord. the cylindro-conical type. It was built in the 16th ing to the censis of 1872 they numbered 2,041,276, or century for King Socinius by the Portuguese adventurers, nearly 25 per cent. of the entire population of the Central who employed Indian workmen in its erection. At some Provinces. The more fertile tracts of Gondwana were sub distance there is another palace built at a later date for Ras dued at an early period by the Marhattás, who claimed as Michael, which affords no bad imitation of the Portuguese paramount over the whole. The inhabitants were rendered style. Upwards of forty churches, all in the circular nominally tributary; but it was found impossible to Abyssinian style, ara said to exist in the town and collect any revenue from them without military force, so immediate vicinity; of these the nost important is that, in fact, the collection of the revenue was like a the Quisquam or Flight into Egypt, erected by Mint- plundering expedition, the cost of which always exceeded wab Muntwar, the empress mother of Yasu tho Great lite profit,


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Dnting the war against the Pindiiris in 1818, when the British garded as unnatural or unbecoming in a nian circumstanced troopis invaded the territories of Appa Sahib, the raja of Nagpur, as he was From this time he began to spend a portion of their operations were greatly facilitated by the insurrection of the each year at the seat of the court, first at Valladolid and hill tribes, who occupied the passes to the Nagpur territories. For a long series of years it was the policy of the raja of this terri- afterwards at Madrid, where as Pellicer, his contemporary, tory, a descendant of Sivaji, to interfere as little as possible with remarks, be "noted everything and pecked at everything the neighbouring powers. At length, in 1803, Raghoji Blionslá with his satirical pen.” His circle of literary and other distras induced, in an evil hour for himself, to depart from this system tinguished admirers was now greatly enlarged; but the of neutrality, and to join Sindhia in a confederacy against the British. He was soon reduced, however, by the defeats which the acknowledgment wbich the court accorded to his singular confederates sustained at Assaye and Argaum, to sue for peace, as genius was both slight and tardy. Ultimately indeed, the price of which he ceded a large portion of his dominions to the through the influence of the duke of Lerma and the marquis conquerors, namely, the province of Orissa. After the death of of Siete Iglesias, he obtained an appointment as honorary this rajă, the throne, contested by various competitors, was at last secured by Appa Sahib, his nephew, who, in the war against the chaplain to Philip III., but even this slight honour he was l'indiris, joined the coalition against the British power, and was not permitted long to wear. A severe illness, which had involved in ruin along with his other allies. A treaty of peace was seriously impaired his memory, compelled his retirement to concluded with him, which he violated; and he was finally deposed in 1815, and the grandson of the late ráji put in his stead. Perhe Cordova, where, after a period of deep seclusion, he peacefully latter prince, after a reign of 35 years, died without issue in 1853 ;

breathed his last on the 23d of May 1627. An edition of his the dynasty thus became extinct, and the kingdom of Nagpur was poems was published almost immediately after his death ljy incorporated with the Britislı empire, and now forms the chief Juan Lopez de Vicuña; but the frequently reprinted edition commissionership of the Central Provinces.

by Hozes did not appear till 1633. The collection consists GONG (Chinese, gong-gong or tam-tam), a sonorous or of numerous sonnets, heroical, amorous, satirical, humorous, musical instrument of Chinese origin and manufacture, elegiac, and" miscellaneous," of various odes, ballads, songs made in the form of a broad thin disc with a deep rim. for the guitar, of a few uncompleted comedies, and of Gongs vary in diameter from about 20 to 40 inches, and certain larger poems, such as the Soledades ("Solitary they are made of bronze containing a maximum of 22 Musings ") and the Polifemo, which hardly admit of classiparts of tin to 78 of copper; but in many cases the pro- fication. They all exhibit that learned and polished elabor. portion of tin is considerably less. Such an alloy, wien ation of style (estilo culto) with which the name of Góngora cast and allowed to cool slowly, is excessively brittle, but is inseparably associated; but if, since the days of Lope it can be tempered and annealed in a peculiar manner. If de Vega, they have been justly censured for their affected suddenly cooled from a cherry-red heat, the alloy becomes Latinisms, unnatural transpositions, strained metaphors, 80 soft that it can be hammered and worked on the lathe, and frequent obscurity, it must never be forgotten that and afterwards it may be hardened by re-heating and cool their author was a man of genius,--a fact cordially ing it slowly. In these properties, it will be observed, the acknowledged by those of his contemporaries who were alloy behaves in a manner exactly opposite to steel, and the most capable of judging, and indeed a fact capable of direct Chinese avail themselves of the known peculiarities for pre- verification by any one who chooses to take the trouble of paring the thin sheets of which gongs are made. They reading him even in an imperfect translation. It was only cool their castings of bronze in water, and after bammering in the hands of those who served themselves heirs to out the alloy in the soft state, the finished gongs are Góngora's style, without inheriting his genius, that “cul. hardened by heating them to a cherry red, and allowing tismo” became really laughable; but it is manifestly unjust. them to cool slowly. The gong is beaten with a round, to charge the memory of the master with the follies of his hard, leather-covered pad, fitted on a short stick or handle. weaker disciples. It emits a peculiarly sonorous sound, its complex vibrations A series of Lecciones Solemnes, or expository lectures on the Poli. bursting into a .wave-like succession of tunes, sometimes femo, Soledades, Panegirico, and Piraino y Tisbe was published by shrill, sometimes deep. In China and Japan it is used in

Pellicer in 16.30; an Ilustracion y Defensa de la Fabula de Piramo

y Tisbe, by Salazar Mardones, followed in 1636; there is also a religious ceremonies, state processions, marriages, and other commentary on the entire works by Salcedo Coronel (1636-48). A festivals ; and it is said that the Chinese can modify its good edition of the works of the "Andalucian Pindar” (as Cós.gora tone variously by particular ways of striking the disc.

is designated by Pellicer) is that of Brussels (1659). The admirable Among Western communities it is only employed as a

labours of Churton (Gongora, an Historical and Critical Essay on

the Times of Philip III. and IV. of Spuir, with Translations, 1862) substitute for a dinner bell or a general household signal. have made this obscure author easily accessible to the English

GONGORA Y ARGOTE, LUIS DE (1561-1627), reader. Spanish lyric poet, was born at Cordova, on the 11th of GONIOMETER. * Strictly speaking this name is appli. July 1561. His father, Don Francisco de Argote, was cable to any instrument, such as a mural circle, a theodolite, corregidor of that city; and bis mother, Doña Leonora de and so on, used for measuring an angle; it is in reality, Góngora, was descended from an ancient and noble family however, applied exclusively to instruments used for measurof Navarre. Having been sent, at the age of fifteen, as a ing the angles between the faces of crystals. The oldest student of civil and canon law to the university of Sala. instrument of the kind was invented by Carangeot, and conmanca, he soon took a prominent place among his fellow. sisted simply of a pair of rulers jointed together and fitted students; but the great talent which he exhibited did not with a graduated circle for measuring the angle between point in the direction either of legal or of diplomatic em. their edges. A carpenter uses a somewhat similar instruployments. Leaving the university some years afterwards ment, not, it is true, for measuring, but for transferring (the exact date is unknown) without a degree, but already angles. The application of the principle of reflexion by with a considerable literary reputation, he returned to Wollaston in 1809 converted the goniometer into an instru. Cordova, where he had succeeded to a moderate property, ment of precision. His form, with a vertical divided circle, and where he was able to associate on terms of intimacy is still much used. The principle of reflexion is briefly and equality with the best society of the city and province. this. The crystal is mounted so that it can be rotated Lope de Vega, writing about 1593, speaks of him as sur- about an axis parallel to the edge in which its two faces rounded there by a literary society, and ackvowledged as its meet. It is first placed so that a ray of light coming in chief. In 1604, when past his fortieth year, he took the some fixed direction (say, along the axis of a collimator), tonsure, and accepted a prebendal stall in the cathedral of when reflected from one face, passes in another fixed direc-' Cordova,-steps which have usually been attributed to tion (gay, along the axis of a telescope). The crystal is worldly or sordid motives, but which really cannot be re. then turned till the ray reflected from the other face passcy,

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in the same direction as before. The angle through which I at Paris in 1684, leaving behind her a volume of interesting the crystal has been turned is either 180° + 2A or 180° – 2A, Memoirs (London and Paris, 1686). Carlo died in 1639, where A is the angle between the faces. The introduc- and was succeeded by his grandsou Carlo III., who, on his tion of the fixed mirror by Degen and Lang, and of the death in 1665, was succeeded by his son Carlo IV. This horizontal circle with collimators, brought the instrument duke married in 1670 Anna Isabella, eldest daughter of into its most modern form. Babinet, Malus, Mitscherlich, Ferdinand duke of Guastella ; and on the death of FerdiHaidinger, Von Lang, and others have contributed towards nand in 1679, he endeavoured to obtain possession of that perfecting the instrument. Recently Professor W. H. Miller duchy, but was compelled to relinquish his claims to (Phil. Mag., 1876) has described a new form of gonio. Vincenzo, a cousin-german of the deceased duke. He took meter. In the paper quoted some useful details concern part on the side of France in the Spanish succession war, ing the use of the instrument will be found. For further and received a French garrison into Mantua. After the instructions how to use the goniometer the reader may refer defeat of the French he was placed under the ban by the to Phillips's Mineralogy, or Groth's Physikalische Krystallo emperor Joseph I., whereupon Victor Amadeus of Savoy graphie, Abth. iii. The modern goniometer has so much conquered Montferrat, and Austria, in agreement with in common with the spectrometer that it is unnecessary France wliom Carlo bad offended, took possession of to describe it in detail here. See SPECTROSCOPE.

Mantua. On his death without issue in 1708, the dynasty GONSALVO. See GonzalO.

of the Gonzagas of Mantua became extinct. GONZAGA, or GonzuGUE, an old princely family of GONZAGA, Thomaz ANTONIO (1744-1809), “the Italy, which traces its origin to the einperor Lothair, but Portuguese Petrarch,” perhaps better known as Dirceu, was first came into notice in the 11th century, after the over- born at Oporto in 1744, and received his early education throw of the imperial power in Italy, where they for some there and at Bahia, where his father, after having held vari. time disputed the sovereignty of Mantua with the Bonacosse. ous judicial appointments, became a member of the supreme The long dispute was ended by the murder of Passerino de court in 1759. Having completed his law studies at the Bonacossi in 1328, after which the Gonzaga retained posses university of Coimbra, which he attended from 1763 to sion of Mantua for four centuries. Their claims were in 1768, Gonzaga in the latter year returned to Brazil, and after 1354_confirmed to Ludovico I. (1267–1360) by Louis having acted for some years as juiz de fora or local magis. the Bavarian, wbo nominated him imperial vicar, and trate at Beja and elsewhere he ultimately was appointed gave him also the sovereignty of Reggio and other towns. a judge (ouvidor) at Villa-Rica in the province of Minas, Petrino, youngest son of Ludovico, founded the countship where he highly distinguished himself it is said both by his of Novellara, which became extinct in 1728. The elder administrative ability and by the many excellences of his branch of the family was continued by Guido and his private character. He appears before this time to have son Ludovico II., who, on his death in 1382, was succeeded developed some talent for versification, and his literary by his brother Francesco. He was followed in 1407 by his tastes soon brought him into intimate association with son Giovanni Francesco (1394-1444), on whom, for his Claudio Manoel, Alvarenga Peixoto, and other writers of services in the Italian wars, the emperor Sigismund in 1433 the so-called Minas school; but the love which makes the bestowed the title of marquis. Ludovico III. (1414-1478), poet did not, in his own opinion at least, come upon son of the preceding, surnamed, for what reason is not quite him until he had made the acquaintance (about 1788) of certain, the Turk, retained a body of troops which he granted D. Maria Joaquina Dorothea de Seixas, the “Marilia de on hire to neighbouring prioces. The younger sons of this Dirceu” to whom all his extant poems relate. He had Ludovico, Giovanni Francesco and Rudolpho, founded the just been nominated a member of the supreme court of dukedoms of Gabioneta and Castiglione respectively, which Bahia, and was ou the eve of his marriage, when discovery were confiscated in 1692. The elder branch of the family was made of the treasonable plot of Minas, and he was was continued by Frederick I. (1439-1484), whose son, arrested on suspicion of having been implicated in it. On Giovanni Francesco II. (1466-1519), was in 1494 appointed merely circumstantial evidence, and that of a very incon. to the supreme command of the united Italian army against clusive kind, he was condenined, 18th April 1792, to Charles VIII. of France, and on the 6th of July of the follow- banishment for life to Pedras de Angoche, a sentence which ing year gained the victory of Fornovo, and took prisoner the was afterwards commuted to one of ten years' exile at biistard of Bourbon. His son, Frederick II. (1500–1540), Mozambique. Here he made some etfort to practise as an received in 1530 the title of duke from Charles V., and advocate, but he never recovered from the wearing-out de. in 1536 the principnlity of Montferrat. A younger son, pression into which he had been thrown by his cruel lot ; Ferdinand, was the founder of the Guastella branch of the an attack of nervous fever undermined his health, and family, which became extinct in 1746. Of the succeeding after years of an ever-deepening melancholy, which occumembers of the elder branch, the only notable one was sionally alternated with fits of acute mania, he died in Vincenzo I. (1562-1612), to whom the Admirable Crichton 1809. was tutor, and by whom he was murdered from jealousy in His collection of poems, entitled Marilia de Dirceu, consists of 1582. This branch became extinct in 1627 through the

two parts. In the first of these, the charts of Marilia and his own death of Vincenzo II., sixth successor of Frederick II. The happiness in the love he bears to her are his endlessly varied theme.

The second, written during his imprisonment, is full of laments nearest heir was Carlo I., duke of Nevers, who was recog. over his terrible fate, protestations of his innocence, and many fiue nized by the Mantuans, but his claims were contested by expressions of the support and comfort he still finds in the remem. Ferdinand II. of Guastella, who had the support of the brance of his love. Almost everywhere these "lyras" plainly enough emperor Ferdinand II. In the war which followed, the also exhibit an imaginative charm, a naturalness and delicacy of

betray a conscious imitation of Petrarch or other models ; but they duke of Nevers obtained the assistance of Louis XIII. of feeling, a harmoniousness of diction, and a gracefulness of versification France, but in 1630 Mantua was captured and pillaged by which, in the unanimous opinion of competent critics, entitle them the imperial troops, and the duke was forced to retire to the to rank among the best love lyrics in the language. In Brazil their States of the Church. In 1631 a treaty was, however con

popularity, perhaps aided by feelings of sympathy for their unfor.

tunate author, has from the first been very great. The editions are cluded between France and the emperor, by which the duke, very numerous, the best probably being that of J. M. P. da Sylva on making submission, was reinvested with the duchies of which is accompanied with an historical and biographical introduc: Blantun and Montferrat. Anna, a daughter of Carlo I.; of Gonzaga: will be found in Wolfs Brésil Littéraire (1863). They

tion (1845). A critical notice, along with selections from the poems became wife of Edward, elector-palatine of the Rhine, and

have been translated into French by Monglave and Chalas (1825), after playing a distinguished vart at the French court, died | into Spanish by Vedia, and into Italian by Ruscalla.

GONZALO DE BERCEO, mystic and didactic poet, 1 reflected more lustre on his ororen than the conquest and one of the earliest names in Castilian literature, was of Granada. After having, early in 1500, efficiently coparish priest at Berceo, near San Domingo de la Calzada, operated with Tendilla in putting down the Moorish insurin the province of Burgos, and lived, it is believed, during rection in the Alpujarras, Gonzalo, in May of the same year, the first sixty years of the 13th century. His works, which took command of an armada designed to operate on the are reprinted in the Poesias Castellanas Anteriores al Siglo coast of Sicily and in the Lerant, and generally to uphold XV. of Sanchez, amount to upwards of 13,000 lines of the influence of Spain. In conjunction with the Venetian verse, chiefly in rhymed quatrains. The subjects chosen admiral he stormed St George in Cephalonia, in January for treatment are the Lives of San Domingo de Silos, Santa 1501; and soon afterwards returning to Sicily, commenced Oria, and San Millan; the Sacrifice of the Mass; the operations against Frederick in accordance with the treaty Jiracles, Glories, and Pains of the Blessed Virgin; the concluded between France and Spain for the partition of Signs of the Day of Judgment; and the Martyrdom of San Naples. The whole of Calabria was occupied in less than Lorenzo. Apart from the interest which attaches to them a month, with the exception of Tarento, which did not surin the eyes of the literary and ecclesiastical archæologist; render until March 1502. On the outbreak of hostilities they have little to attract the modern reader. The monotony between France and Spain in July of the saine year, Gonof their “sermo pedestris” is but seldom relieved by any zalo was compelled to fall back upon Barletta, wlience, aftre toucbes of poetical genius; in some places, however, as having sustained a memorable siege of nenrly ten months, Ticknor remarks, there is a simple-hearted piety that is he sallied in April 1503, and coming upon the French trool s very attractive, and in others a power in story.telling at Cerignola, inflicted on them a disastrous defeat, which it that is very striking. The poem on the Miracles of the

once made him master of the city of Naples and of the Virgin, which is the largest, is also the most curious; but greater part of the kingdom. A subsequent victory at the that upon the Signs of the Last Day is often very solemn, bridge of Garigliano (29th December 1503) gave him Gaeta, while the Mourning of Mary at the Cross breathes such a and terminated the war. For more than three years lie childlike spirit of gentle, faithful, credulous devotion as continued to act with popularity and efficiency at Naples enables one to realize with some vividness many of the as Ferdinand's viceroy ; but the jealousy and distrust of best characteristics of the religious life of the time. that somewhat narrow-ininded monarch led to his recall in

See Ticknor, History of Spanish Litcrature; and Carus, Darstel. 1507, and to his subsequent retirement from court shortly lung der Spanischen Literatur (1846); also Dunham's History of afterwards. The remainder of his days were passed on his Spain and Portugal, vol. iv. (1832).

estate at Loja, wliere, in the midst of preparations for a GONZALO FERNANDEZ Y AGUILAR (1453– voyage to Flanders, he was seized with a fever, of which he 1515), commonly known as Gonsalvo de Cordova, El Gran died, 22 December 1515. Capitan (" The Great Captain ”), was born at Montilla The life of “the great captain" has been rather a favourite sube on the 16th of March 1453, and in his fifteenth year was ject with literary men, having been treated by Giovio in his Vitoc presented to Queen Isabella at Segovia, where bis manly well as by Florian (Gonsalve de Cordoue, ou Grenade licconquise,

Illustrium Virorum, and by Quintana in his Españoles Célebres, as beauty, his graceful manners, and his soldierly accomplish- 1791), Duponcet (IIistoire de Gonsalve de Cordoue, 1714), and an ments speedily made him conspicuous in the court. He anonymous author, sometimes supposed to be Pulgar (Crónica del first saw active military service in Portugal under Alonzo Gran Capitan, 1584). A skilful and judicious use of all these de Cardenas, and gained special praise for his conduct on

sources has been made by Prescott in his History of the Ricign of

Ferdinand and Isabella, where the purity, generosity, and loyalty the battlefield of Albuera in 1479. In the protracted of the private character of Gonzalo, as well as the coolness, sobriety, Moorish war begun in 1481, he served with distinction in and energy of his military genius, are verv fully and viviilly illusa various capacities, and was finally employed to conduct the trated. peace negotiations with Abdallah. For his efficient services GOOD, JOAN MASON (1764-1827), a writer on medical, in this business he was rewarded with a pension and a grant religious, and classical subjects, was born May 25, 1764, at ont of the conquered territory (1492). When, in con- Epping, Essex, where his father, the Rev. Peter Good, was sequence of the advance of Chnrles VIII. into Italy, a Independent minister. After receiving his education in the Spanish expedition was decided upon in 1495, Gonzalo was seminary conducted by his father, he was, at about the age selected for the chief command ; and although at Seminara of fifteen, apprenticed to a surgeon-apothecary at Gosport. near Reggio, through the interference of the friendly Ferdi- In 1783 he went to London to prosecute bis medical studies, pand of Naples, he lost the battle (it was the only occasion on and in the autumn of 1784 he commenced practice as 2 which he ever was defeated), he gnined in reputation both for surgeon at Sudbury in Suffolk. Through an obligation prudence and for bravery. In spite of his subsequent suc- rendered to a friend he, in 1792, got into pecuniary embarcesses in Lower Calabria, the campaign of this year closed rassment, and, with a view to surmount liis difficulties, lic with indecisive results; but in the opening of the following removed in 1793 to London, where he entered into part season, he still further increased his fame by his brilliant nership with a surgeon and apothecary who enjoyed an surprise and capture of Laino, and by his junction with the extensive practice. In November of the same year he was Neapolitan forces before Atella, after an arduous march admitted a member of the college of surgeons. On account through hostile territory. It is most commonly, and with of disagreements with liis colleague, the partnership was most probability, said to have been on this occasion that he soon afterwards dissolved, and to increase his income lic received the honourable title of El Gran Capitan, by which now devoted more of his attention to literary pursuits. the Spaniards still delight to designate him. The conquest of Besides contributing both in prose and poetry to the aniCalabria having been thus rapidly achieved, he, at the pope's lyt:cal and Critical Reviews, and the British and Monthly invitation, proceeded to clear Ostia of the French garrison Magazines, and other periodicals, he is the author of a largo hy which it had been held, and shortly afterwards entered number of works relating chiefly to medical and religious Rome itself, where he was greeted by the populace as subjects. In 1794 he became a member of the British "deliverer of the city.”_The object of his expedition, the Pharmaccutical Society, and in that connexion, and especitotal expulsion of the French from Neapolitan territory, ally by the publication of his work, A Ilistory of Medicine, having been fully attained, he, in August 1498, returned he did much to effect a greatly needed reform in the to Spain, where he was received with the utmost enthusiasm profession of the apothecary. In 1820 he took the diplcnin by all classes, the king publicly declaring that the reduction of M.D. at Marischal Collego, Aberdeen. He died, January of Naples, and the humiliation inflicted on the French, 2, 1827. Dr Good was not only well versed in classical

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literature, but was acquainted with the principal European | Friday and Saturday fast followed by an Easter Sunday languages, and also with Persian, Arabic, and Hebrew. His feast. As the Western churches gained in intluence, the prose works display wide erudition and considerable intel- practice of tolerance became increasingly difficult ; alieady lectual vigour, and contain much interesting and curious in 190 A.D. we find Victor of Rome insisting on tlie coninformation ; but their style is dull and tedious, and they formity of Polycrates of Ephesus, and proclaiming the conare now very generally forgotten. His poetry never rises tumacious Asiatics to be out of communion (åkoivwvýtovs). above pleasant and well-versified commonplace.

To secure uniformity in this matter was one of the objects The following are his principal writings :- Alaria, an elegiac ode, for which the council of Nice was convened in 325; no 1786; Diseases of Prisons and Poorhouses, 1795; History of Medi; canon, however, was framed by the fathers there assembled, cine, 1795; Parish Workhouses, 1798; Song of Songs, translated

but it was recommended in a circular letter that Easter from the Hebrew, with notes critical and explanatory, 1803; Tri. umph of Britain, an Ode, 1803; Memoirs of the Life and Writings (Táoxa) should invariably be observed on a Sunday, and of Alex. Geddes, LL.D., 1803; The Nature of Things: a Didactic that the passion should, with equal regularity, be comPoem, translated from the Latin of Titus Lucretius Carus, with the memorated on Friday. Considerable progress towards the original text and notes philological and explanatory, 1805-7, 2 vols. 4to, which is still of considerable value for its parallel passages and compulsory establishment of a uniform paschal usage was quotations both from European and Asiatic languages; Oration on made in the years immediately following; thus, by a canon the Structure and Physiology of Plans, 1808; Essay on Medical of the council of Antioch (341), the followers of the Oriental Technology, 1810; The Book of Job literally translated, &c., 1812 ; use were laid under severe ecclesiastical censures; in the The Study of Medicine, 1822, 4 vols. 8v0, 3d ed. in 1832, edited by decrees of that of Laodicea (361) the ominous woml aipeous Dr Samuel Cooper; and The Book of Nature, 1826, 3 vols. Memoirs by Olinthus Gregory, LL.D., 1828, and a biographical is heard (aipeous TÛV teocapes kaldeKaTiTwv); while in the sketch in the Gentleman's Magazine for March 1827. His Thoughts Theodosian Code (xvi. 5, 9; 6,6; 10, 24), the Quartodecifor all Seasons, in Prose and Verse, was published, with a short mans are formally ranked among the other heretics whose biographical sketch, in 1860.

error is to be visited with civil pains and penalties. GOOD FRIDAY, the usual English name for the day

From the earliest period of its observance, the day was observed throughout a great part of Christendom as the marked by a specially rigorous fast, and also, on the whole, anniversary of the passion and death of Christ. In the Greek Church it bas been or is known as Táoxa (grav- the church. Prior to the 4th century there is no evidence

by a tendency to greater simplicity in the public services of ρώσιμον), παρασκευή, παρασκευή μεγάλη or αγία, σωτηρία or | of non-celebration of the eucharist on Good Friday ; but Tà owrúpia, nuépa tow otavpov, while among the Latins the after that date the prohibition of communion became comnames of most frequent occurrence are Pascha Crucis, Dies

In Spain, indeed, it became customary to close the Dominicæ Passionis, Parasceve, Feria Sexta Paschæ, Feria churches altogether as a sign of mourning; but this practice Sexta Major in Hierusalem, Dies Absolutionis. It was

was condemned by the council of Toledo (633). In the called Long Friday by the Anglo-Saxons? and Danes; in Romish Church the Good Friday ritual at present observed Germany it is sometimes designated Stiller Freitag (com- is marked by many special features, most of wbich can be pare Greek, éßdopàs atpaktos ; Latin, hebdomas inofficiosa, traced back to a dáte at least prior to the close of the 8th non laboriosa), but more commonly Charfreitag. The

century (see the Ordo Romanus in Muratori's Liturg. Rom. etymology of this last name has been much disputed, but Vet.). The altar and officiating clergy are draped in black, there seems now to be little doubt that it is derived from the this being the only day on which that colour is permitted. Old High German chara, meaning suffering or mourning.

Instead of the epistle, sundry passages from Hosea, HabakThe origin of the custom of a yearly commemoration of kuk, Exodus, and the Psalms are read. The gospel for the the crucifixion is involved in some obscurity. It may be day consists of the history of the passion as recorded by St regarded as certain, indeed, that among Jewish Christians John. The reading of this is followed by bidding prayers it almost imperceptibly grew out of the old habit of annu.

for the peace and unity of the church, for the pope, the ally celebrating the Passover on the 14th of Nisan, and of clergy, all ranks and conditions of men, the sovereign, for observing the days of unleavened bread," from the 15th catechumens, the sick and aflicted, lieretics and schismatics, to the 21st of that month. In the Gentile churches, on the Jews and heathen. Then follows the “adoration of the other hand, it seems to be well established that originally cross” (a ceremony said to date back to near the time of no yearly cycle of festivals was known at all. The weekly Helena's “invention of the cross "); the hymns Pange observance of the dies dominica, however, became universal Lingua and Vexilla Regis are sung, and the reserved host at a very early date; and the practice of giving special brought out and partaken of by the priest. In inany Roman prominence to Easter Sunday (the first Sunday after the Catholic countries, as, for example, in Spain, it is usual with 14th of Nisan), as well as that of keeping a previous fast the faithful to spend much time in the churches in meditaof considerable rigour, though of indeterminate duration, tion on the “seven last words” of the Saviour; no carriages had established itself in Egypt and in the Western churches at least by the middle of the 2d century. The accounts silent; and in every possible way it is sought to deepen the

are driven through the streets; the bells and organs are which have been transmitted by Eusebius, Socrates, and impression of a profound and universal grief. In the Greek Epiphanius of the paschal controversies, wbich began to be Church also the Good Friday fast is excessively strict; as agitated about 160 A.D., are obscure on many points--so ob- in the Roman Church, the passion history is read and the scure, indeed, as to suggest doubts whether these historians

cross adored; towards evening a dramatic representation of had altogether comprehended the questions under dis- the entombment takes place, amid open demonstrations of cussion. So much, however, is clear, that Occidental feeling contempt for Judas and the Jews. In Lutheran churches had even then begun to take great offence at the prevailing the organ is silent on this day; and altar, font, and pulpit Eastern practice. In Asia Minor, Syria, and Mesopotamia, are draped in black, as indeed throughout Holy Week. In the 14th and 16th of Nisan were specially observed, alto. the Church of England the history of the passion from the gether irrespective of the day of the week, and for this gospel according to John is also read; the collects for the apostolic sanction was urged by Polycarp; but Anicetus of day are based upon the bidding prayers which are found in Rome, with great earnestness, though still with deference, the Ordo Romanus. pleaded immemorial usage for the custom of observing a GOODRICH, SAMUEL GRISWOLD (1793-1860), au

American author better known under the pseudonym of See Johnson's Collection of Ecclcsiastical Lares (vol. i., anno 957): " Housel ought not to be hallowed on Long Friday, because Christ Peter Parley, was the son of a Congregational minister, and suffered for us on that ihny."

was born at Ridgefield, Connecticut, August 19, 1703. In


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