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1814 ho commenced business as a publisher in Hartford. | anatomy, pathology, and morphology formed Goodsir's chief He visited Europe in 1823–4, and on his return to America study. The connexion of these two men was illustrated in removed to Boston, where from 1828 to 1842 he published a paper read at the British Association in 1840 on Pelonaia, an illustrated journal, the Token, to which he was a frequent and further researches on the British Ciliograda. In that contributor both in prose and verse. A selection from these year Goodsir became a member of the Wernerian Society, contributions was published in 1841 under the title Sketches contributing several papers, some jointly with Forbes. from a Student's TVindow. In the same year he established Professor Jameson was the president, which may account Merry's Museum, which he continued to edit till 1854. In for the greater part of Goodsir's studies in comparative 1827 he commenced, under the name of " Peter Parley,” his anatomy from 1840 to 1847 being imparted to its members. series of books for the young, which, embracing geography, In 1841 he joined the Edinburgh Botanical Society, holding biography, history, science, and miscellaneous tales, num- the office of secretary from 1842-48, when he was chosen bered in 1857 as many as 170 volumes, of which about vice-president. In 1840-42 ulcers and abscesses and 7,000,000 had been sold, and 300,000 were being sold continued fever, in cases of which he advocated the depleannually. In 1858 he published Recollections of a Lifetime, tive system, occupied his attention. He had associated which contains a list both of the works of which he was the himself with the Royal Medical Society in 1833, and was author and of the spurious works published under his name. in 1841-42 elected the senior president, at the same time By his writings and publications he amassed a large fortune. becoming president of the Anatomical and Physiological In 1838 he was chosen a member of the senate of Massa- Societies, to which he subunitted his studies on the strucchusetts, and in 1851 he was appointed consul to Paris, ture of the liver and kidneys. A member of the Royal where he remained till 1855, taking advantage of his stay Physical Society in 1841, he read his papers on the developto have several of his works translated into French. After ment of the skeleton in the series of invertebrate animals ; his return to America he published, in 1859, History of the in 1849 he was elected president, remaiving in office Animal Kingdom. He died at New York, May 9, 1860. till 1852. His own estimate of his work at this period was
GOODSIR, JOHN (1814–1867), anatomist, born at represented to the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh Anstruther, Fife, March 20, 1814, was the son of Dr John on his candidature for the post of conservator of the Goodsir, and grandson of Dr John Goodsir of Largo. He museuin, He stated that he had practised every dewas educated at the burgh and grammar schools of his partment of preparation and conservation, that he had connative place, and at the university of St Andrews. He siderable experience in modelling in clay, plaster, and wax, served an apprenticeship for a short time to Mr Nasmyth, and in the use of microscope and pencil, and that his own the eminent dentist, but the higher studies of medicine and collection of preparations in human, comparative, and surgery were more to his liking, and, under the fascinating morbid anatomy exceeded 400 examples. He succeeded impulsion of the lectures of Dr Knox, anatomy, descriptive, Macgillivray in April 1841, giving lectures on the subjects surgical, and pathological, became his hobby,—the work of illustrated by the museum. Goodsir rested no small part Carus giving the first impetus to his investigations in of his reputation on his knowledge of the anatomy of developmental anatomy. From his mother he had imbibed tissues. In his lectures in the theatre of the college in a love of art, and his sketches and casts, and methodical 1842-43 he evidenced the largeness of his observation of demonstrations were the admiration of his fellow students. cell-life, both,pbysiologically and pathologically, advocating In Dr Knox's rooms he made the acquaintance of Edward the importance of the cell as a centre of nutrition, and Forbes, the naturalist. Goodsir also worked under Mr Syme, pointing out that the organism is subdivided into a number Professor Christison, Dr John Macintosh, Professor Robert of departments. Virchow recognized his indebtedness to Jameson, Dr Thomas Hope, and Dr Grabam. His earliest these discoveries by dedicating bis Cellular Pathologie to scientific paper was on the snail,-a novel, elaborate, and Goodsir, as “one of the earliest and most acute observers highly illustrated treatise. In 1835 he became a licentiate of cell-life.” In 1843 Goodsir obtained the post of curator of the Royal College of Surgeons, Edinburgh. After aiding in the university of Edinburgh; the following year he was Mr Nasmyth, he joined his father in practice at Anstruther. appointed demonstrator of anatomy to Professor Monro, Three years later he communicated to the British Associa- and in 1845 curator of the entire museum. He elucidated tion a paper on the pulps and sacs of the human teeth, his about this time much that had been obscure in digestion, researches on the whole process of dentition being at this in parasitic formation and in the secreting structures. He time distinguished by their completeness. He had already fully confirmed the supposition that cells are the structures commenced the formation of a natural history museum, which perform the process of secretion, and that the funcwhich attracted many visitors,—the habits of animals, from tions of nutrition and secretion are essentially alike in their the polype to the ape, possessing an irresistible charm for nature. His views on the nucleated cell as the great agent him. The results of his studies in natural history were in absorption, nutrition, and secretion are established data laid before the Society of St Andrews, at the request of in the science of physiology. In 1846 Goodsir was elected whose president, Sir D. Brewster, he furnished an account to the anatomical chair'in the university of Edinburgh, his of çilia, reading to the society in 1840 his views on the highest ambition being thus satisfied. The same year the cephalic termination of the sympathetic nerve. The ich- Royal Society of London enrolled him as a fellow. All thyolites of the Concerres quarry had not escaped him; and his energies were now devoted to the perfection of the we find him now foreshowing his diversified knowledge in science of anatomy; and his system of teaching was regarded essays on the eye of the cephalopodous mollusks, in descrip- as the best that ever regulated the anatomical department tions of his dredging expeditions with Edward Forbes, and of any British university or medical scbool. in his lectures at Cupar on the conditions of health. On Human myology was his strong point; no one had the nomination of Forbes, he was in 1838 elected to the laboured harder at the dissecting-table; and he strongly famous coterie called the “Universal Brotherhood of the emphasized the necessity of practice as a means of research. Friends of Truth,” which comprised artists, scholars, He believed that anatomy, physiology, and pathology could naturalists, and others whose relationship became a potent never be properly advanced without daily consideration and influence in science. Goodsir was a noble example of the treatment of disease. In 1848 he became a fellow of the brotherhood, which sought to bind man to man in ties of Royal College of Surgeons, and in the same year lie home and friendship, love and good will. Goodsir and joined the Highland and Agricultural Society, acting as Forbes worked together at marine zoology, but human chairman of the veterinary department, and advising on
strictly agricultural matterz. In 1847 he delivered a series | English merchants and refugees at Arnheim. Returning of systematic lectures on the comparative anatomy of the to London soon after Laud's impeachment by the Long invertebrata ; and, about this period, as member of an Parlinment, he ministered for some years to an Independent æsthetic club, he wrote papers on the natural principles congregation in the parish of St Dunstan’s-in-the-East, and of beauty, the æsthetics of the ugly, of smell, the approba- rapidly rose to considerable eminence as a preacher; in tion or disapprobation of sounds, and other refinements. 1643 he was chosen a meinber of the Westminister Owing to the failing health of Professor Jaineson, Goodsir Assembly, and at once identified himself with the Conwas induced to deliver the course of lectures on natural his- gregational party, generally referred to in conteniporary tory during the summer of 1853. It was mainly zoological, documents as “the dissenting brethren." He frequently and included the psychological conditions of man as comprenched by appointment before the Commons, and in pired with the brute, and the highest exercise of the human January 1630 his talents and learning were rewarded by faculties—perception, logic, and science. These lectures the House with the presidentship of Magdalen College, are among the memorabilia of the university ; but the in- Oxford, a post which he held until the period of tho finite amount of thought and exertion which they cost Restoration. He rose into high favour with the Protector, broke the health of the lecturer. Goodsir, nevertheless, and ultimately became somewhat prominent among his persisted in work till 1853, when the necessity for rest more intimate advisers. From 1660 until his death, which urged itself with prinful force. A sojourn on the Continent, occurred on the 23d of February 1679, he lived in London, though it refreshed, could not rid him of incipient paralysis, and devoted himself exclusively to theological study and to the common penalty for overtaking powers. The death of the pastoral charge of a small congregation which his piety Forbes in 1854 was a sore trial to Goodsir, and though and intellectual abilities hnd attached to him. other friends were numerous, the firm attachment of this The works published by Goodwin during his lifetime consist man could not be replaced. Goodsir persevered in his chiefly of sermons printed by order of the House of Commons; but labours, writing in 1855 on organic electricity, in 1856
he was also associated with Nye and others in the preparation of on morphological subjects, and afterwards on the structure
the Apologeticall Narration (1643). His collected writings, which
include expositions of considerable portions of the Epistle to the of organized forms,-his speculations in the latter domain Ephesians and of the Apocalypse, were published in five folio giving birth to his theory of a triangle as the mathematical volumes between 1681 and 1704, and have recently been reprinted figure upon which nature had built up both the organic and
in twelve 8vo volumes (Edin. 1861-66). Characterized by great inorganic worids. The fundamental principle of form he yet one-sided reading, remarkable at once for the depth and for tla
narrowness of their observation and spiritual experience, often conceived to exist within the province of crystallograplıy, admirably thorough in their workmanship, yet in style prolix to a and to be discernible by a close study of the laws of that degree that
, by modern readers at least, is sometimes found to to science. As he believed that every cell had a parent cell, almost intolerable,--they fairly exemplify both the merits and a mother,” so he argued there was an umbilicus or
the defects of the special school of religious thought to which they
belong. Calanny's estimate of Goodwin's qualities may be quoted is centre in everything. He regarded man as simply a con. both friendly anu just. “He was a considerable scholar and an glomerate of cells, rising up, maturing, and decaying. He eminent divine, and had a very happy faculty in descanting upon saw in the growth and form and finished structure of man
Scripture so as to bring forth surprising remarks, which yet gene. a tetrahedron,--man, a physical being and a form divine, rally tended to illustration.” A memoir, derived from his own
papers, by his son is prefixel to the fifth volume of his collected but a crystal in his structural entity and arrangement. Works; as a “patriarch and Atlas of Independency" he is also Goodsir hoped to complete the triangle theory of formation noticed by Wood in the Athene Oxonienses.
A somewhat amusing and law as the greatest of his works, In his lectures on sketch, from Addison's point of view, of the Puritan president of the skull and brain he held the doctrine that symmetry of Magdalen’s is to be met with in No. 494 of the Spectator. brain had more to do with the higher faculties than bulk GOOJERAT. See GUJARAT. or form. Goodsir was still working out these higher GOOLE, a market town and river-port of England, West studies when death ended his labours. He expired at Riding of Yorkshire, is situated on the right bank of the Wardie, near Edinburgh, on the 6th of March 1867, in the Ouse, 25 miles W. of Hull, on the Hull and Doncaster same cottage in which his friend Edward Forbes died. Railway, and at the eastern terminus of the Wakefield, Goodsir's anatomical lectures are remarkable for their solid Pontefract, and Goole branch of the Lancashire and Yorkbasis of fact; and no one in Britain took so wide a field shire Railway. About a mile north of Goole the Ouse is for survey, or marshalled so many facts for anatomical crossed by a railway swing bridge, worked by hydraulic tabulation and synthesis.
power. Until it was made a bonding port in 1823, Guole See Anatomical Memoirs of John Goodsir. I.R S., cdiled by W. was an obscure hamlet; but since the erection shortly Turner, M.E., with Memoir by H. Lonsdale, M.D. Edinb. 1868, afterwards of commodious docks, it has steadily advanced 2 vols., in which Goodsit's lectures, addresses, and writings are epitomized; i'rozcculings of the Roy. Soc. of Lond., vol. iv., 1868; in prosperity. The harbour, 250 feet long and 200 wide, Transactions of the Botanical Soc. Edin., 1868, vol. ix. (T. N.) communicates by gates with the wet docks, which consist
GOODWIN, THOMAS (1600-1679), a prominent English of the ship dock 700 feet by 200, with a depth of 18 feet, divine of the later Puritan period, was born at Rollesby, the railway dock 600 feet by 200, and the steamship dock Norfolk, on the 5th of October 1600, and a little before 900 feet by 150. The town is well built, and possesses a the completion of his thirteenth year was enrolled n student fine modern parish church in the Perpendicular style, & of Christ's College, Cambridge, where in 1616 he pro. Roman Catholic chapel in the Early English style, a nezt ceeiled to the degree of B.A. In 1619 he removed to St custom-house, a market hall, a handsome courthouse, a Catherine's Hall, and there in 1620 he was chosen fellow. union poorhouse, public, free, and national schools, and In 1625 he was licensed a preacher of the university; and extensive warehouses for grain and other goods. The three years afterwards he became lecturer of Trinity Church, number of British ships that entered the port in 1877 was ti» the vicarage of which he was presented by the king in 1686, with a tonnage of 298,150; of foreign ships 62, 1632. Harassed by the interferences of his bishop, who with a tonnage of 16,399. The number of British ships was a zealous adherent of Laud, he resigned all liis prefer-thint cleared was 2643, with a tonnage of 342,727 ; of ments and left the university in 1634. He then seems to foreign ships 64, with a tonnage of 17,038. There is huvo lived for some time in London, where in 1639 lie regular steam communication with London and che prinmarried the drughter of an alderman; but, in the follow- cipal Continental ports. The chief exports are cual, ing year, he found it expedient to withdraw to lolland, woollen goods, and machinery; and the chief imports, and for aome time was puelor of a giall congregation of butter, fruit, indigo, logwood, timber, and wool. The
industries include the manufacture of alum, sugır, ropes, and transparent, and so thin that it often splits into fine filaagricultural instruments, and iron-founding: Shipbuilding ments, which, remaining free for an inch or more, often is also carried on, and thero is a large dry dock, and a coalesce again.: patent slip for repairing vessels. The population in 1971 The other British species of typical Geese are the Beanwas 7680.
Goose (A segetum), the Pink-footed (A. brachyrhynchus), and GOOSANDER. See MERGANSER.
the White-frontei (A. albifrons). On the continent of GOOSE (Anglo-Saxon, Gós), the general English name Europe, but not yet recognized as occurring in Britain, is for a considerable number of birds, Lelonging to the Family a small form of the last (A. erythropus) which is known to Anatidæ of modern ornithologists, which are mostly larger breed in Lapland. All these, for the sake of discrimination, than Ducks and less than Swans. Technically the word may be divided into two groups--(1) those having the Goose is reserved for the female, the male being called “nail" at the tip of the bill white, or of a very pale flesh Gander (Anglo-Saxon, Gandra).
colour, and (2) those in which this “nail” is black. To The most important species of Goose, and the type of the the former belong the Grey Lag Goose, as well as A. albigenus Anser, is undoubtedly that which is the origin of our frons and A. erythromis, and to the latter the other two. well-known domestic race, the Anser ferus or A. cinereus of A. albifrons and A. erythropus, which hardly differ but in most naturalists, commonly called in English the Grey or size,-the last being not much bigger than a Mallard (Anas Grey Lag! Goose, a bird of exceedingly wide range in the boschas),-may be readily distinguished from the Grey Lag Old World, apparently breeding where suitable localities are Goose by their bright orange bill and legs, and their mouseto be found in most European countries from Lapland to coloured upper wing-coverts, to say nothing of their very Spain and Bulgaria. Eastwards it extends to China, but conspicuous white face and the broad black bars which does not seem to be known in Japan. It is the only species cross the belly, though the two last characters are occasion. indigenous to the British Islands, and in former days bred ally observable to some extent in the Grey Lag Goose, abundantly in the English Fen-country, where the young which has the bill and legs flesh-coloured, and the upper were caught in large numbers and kept in a more or less wing-coverts of a bluish-grey. Of the second group, with ri:claiined condition with the vast flocks of tame-bred Geese the black “nail,” A. segetum has the bill long, black at the that at one time formed so valiable a property to the base and orange in the middle; the feet are also orange, and dwellers in and around the Fens. It is impossible to deter- the upper wing-coverts mouse-coloured, as in A. albifrons mine when the wild Grey Lag Goose ceased from breeding and A. erythropus, while A. brachyrhynchus has the bill in England, but it certainly did so towards the end of the short, bright pink in the middle, and the feet also pink, the last century, for Daniell mentions (Rural Sports, iii. p. 242) | upper wing-coverts being nearly of the same bluish-grey as his having obtained two broods in one season. In Scotland in the Grey Lag Goose. Eastern Asia possesses in A. this Goose continues to breed spiringly in several parts of grandis a third species of this group, which chiefly differs the Highlands and in certain of the Hebrides, the nests from A. segetum in its larger size. In North America there bcing generally placed in long henther, and the eggs seldom is only one species of typical Goose, and that belongs to the exceeding five or six in number. It is most likely the birds white-" nailed” group. It very nearly resembles A. albireared here that are from time to time obtained in England, frons, but is larger, and lias been described as distinct under for at the present day the Groy Lag Goose, though once the name of A. gambeli. Central Asia and India possess 80 numerous, is, and for many years has been, the rarest in the Bar-headed Goose (A. indicus) a bird easily distinspecies of those that habitually resort to the British Islands. guished from any of the foregoing by the character implied The domestication of this species, as Mr Darwin remarks by its English name; but it is certainly somewhat abnormal, (Animals and Plants under Domestication, i. p. 287), is and, indeed, under the name of Eulabia, has been separated doubtless of very ancient date, and yet scarcely any other from the genus Anser, which has no other member indigenanimal that has been tamed for so long a period, and bred ous to the Indian Region, nor any at all to the Ethiopian, so largely in captivity, has varied so little. It has increased | Australian, or Neotropical Regions. greatly in size and fecundity, but almost the only change But the New World possesses by far the greatest wealth in plumage is that tame Geese lose the browner and darker of Anserine forms. Beside others, presently to be mentints of the wild bird, and are invariably more or less tioned, its northern portions are the home of all the species marked with white-being often indced 'wholly of that of Snow-Geese belonging to the genus Chen. It is true colour. The most generally recognized breeds of domestic that two of these are reported as having appeared, and that Geese are those to which the distinctive names of Emden not unfrequently, in Europe and Asia; but they possibly and Toulouse are applied ; but a singular breed, said to have been but stragglers from America. The first of these have come from Sebastopol, was introduced into Western is C. hyperboreus, the Snow-Goose proper, a bird of large Europe about the year 1856.' In this the scapulars are size, and when adult of a pure white, except the primaries, elongated, curled, and spirally twisted, having their shaft which are black. This has long been deemed a visitor to
the Old World, and sometimes in considerable numbers, but 1 The meaning and derivation of this word Lag had long been a puzzle until Prof. Skeat suggesteil (Ibis, 1870, p. 301) Lliat it signified
the later discovery of a smaller form, C. albatus, scarcely late, last, or slow, as in luggurd, a loiterer, lagman, the last mian, lagtceth, the posterior inolar or
teeth (as the last to 3 Want of space forbids our entering on the breeding of tamo Geese, appear), and lagclock, a clock that is behind time. Thus the Grey which was formerly so largely practised in some English counties, Lag Goose is the Grey Goose wliich in England when the name was especially Norfolk and Lincoln. It was no uncommon thing for a given was not migratory but laggcul behind the other wild species at man to keep a stock of a thousand, each of which might be reckoned the season when they betook themselves to their northern breeiling- to rear on an average seven Goslings. The flocks were regularly taken quarters. In connexion with this worl, however, inust be noticed the to pasture and water, just as sheep are, and the man who tended them curious fact' mentioned by the late Mr Rowley (Orn. Miscell., iii. p. was called the Gooseherd, corrupted into Gozzerd. 213), that to this day the flocks of tame Gecge in Lincolnshire are plucked five times in the year, and in autumn the flocks were driven urged on by their drivers with the cry of “Ing'em, Lag'em."
to London or other large markets. They travelled at the rate of about * From the times of the Romans white Geese have been held in a mile an hour, and would get over nearly ten miles in the day. For great estimation, and hence, donbtless, they have been preferred as further particulars the reader may he referred to Pennant's British breeding stock, but the practice of plucking Geese alive, continued for Zoology; Montagu's Ornithological Dictionary; Latham's General so many centuries, has not improbably also helped to perpetuate this History of Birds; and Rowley's Ornithological Miscellany (iii. pp. variation, for it is well known to many birul-keepers that a white 206-215), where some account also may be found of the Goose-fatting feather is often produced in place of one of the natural colour that has at Strasburg, which, since the reconquest of Alsace, has been transbeen pulled out.
ferred to the south of France.
The birds were
differing except in size, throws some doubt on the older | North America, but is said to breed in Iccland, and occarecords, especially since examples which have recently been sionally in Norway. Its usual incunabula, however, still obtained in the British Islands undoubtedly belong to this form one of the puzzles of the ornithologist, and the diffilesser bird, and it would be satisfactory to have the occur- culty is not lessened by the fact that it will breed freely in rence in the Old World of the true C. hyperboreus placed / semi-captivity, while the Brent-Gooso will not From the on a surer footing. So nearly allied to the species last latter the Bernacle-Goose is easily distinguished by its named as to have been often confounded with it, is the larger size and white cheeks. Hutchins's Goose (B. Blue-winged Goose, C. cærulescens, which is said never to Hutchinsi) seems to be its true representative in the New attain & snowy plumage. Then we have a very small World. In this the face is dark, but a white crescentic or species, long ago described as distinct by Hearne, the Arctic triangular patch extends from the throat on either side traveller, but until 1861 discredited by ornithologists. upwards behind the eye. Almost exactly similar in coloraIts distinctnegs has now been fully recognized, and it has tion to the last, but greatly superior in size, and possessing received, somewhat unjustly, the name of C. rossi. Its 18 rectrices, while all the foregoing have but 16, is the face is adorned with numerous papillæ, whence it has been cominon wild Goose of America, B. canadensis, which, for removed by Mr Elliot to a separate genus, Eranthemops, some two centuries or more, has been introduced into and for the same reason it has, for more than a cen- Europe, where it propagates so freely that it has been tury, been known to the European residents in the fur included by nearly all the ornithologists of this quarter of countries as the “ Horned Wavey”-the last word being a the globe, as a member of its fauna. An allied form, by rendering of a native name, Wawa, which signifies Goose. some deemed a species, is B. leucopareid, which ranges over Finally, there appears to belong to this section, though it the western part of North America, and, though having 18 has been frequently referred to another (Chloephaga), and rectrices, is dist shed by a white collar round the lower has also been made the type of a distinct genus (Philacte), part of the neck. The most diverse species of this group the beautiful Painted Goose, C. canagica, which is almost of Geese are the beautiful B. ruficollis, a native of Northpaculiar to the Aleutian Islands, though straying to the con- eastern Asia, which occasionally strays to Western Europe, tinent in winter, and may be recognized by the white edg: and has been obtained more than once in Britain, and that ing of its remiges.
which is peculiar to the Hawaian archipelago, B. sandviThe southern portions of the New World are inbabited censis. by about half a dozen species of Geese, akin to the foregoing, The largest living Goose is that called the Chinese, but separated as the genus Chloephaga. The most notice Guinea, or Swan-Goose, C'yynopsis cygnowles, and it secins to able of them are the Rock or Kelp Goose, C. antarctica, and be the stock whence the domestic Geese of several Eastern the Upland Goose, C. magellanica. In both of these the countries have sprung. It may not unfrequently be seen sexes are totally unlike in colour, the male being nearly in English farmyards, and it is found to cross readily with white, while the female is of a mottled brown, but in others our common tame Goose, the offspring being fertile, and a greater similarity obtains. Very nearly allied to the Blyth has said that these crosses are very abundant in birds of this group, if indeed that can be justifiably separ- India. The true home of the species is in Eastern Siberia ated, comes one which belongs to the northern hemisphere, or Mongolia. It is distinguished by its upright bearing, and is common to the Old World as well as the New. It which has been well rendered by Bewick's excellent figure. contains the Geese which have received the cominon names The Ganders of the reclaimed form are distinguished by the of Bernacles or Brents, and the scientific appellations of knob at the base of the bill, but the evidence of many Bernicla and Branta-for the use of either of which much observers shows that this is not found in the wild race. Of may be said by nomenclaturists. All the species of this sec- this bird there is a perfectly white breed. tion are distinguished by their general dark sooty colour, We have next to mention a very curious form, Cereopsis relieved in some by white of greater or less purity, and by way novce-hollandiæ, which is peculiar to Australia, and appears of distinction from the members of the genus Anser, which to be a more terrestrial type of Goose than any other now are known as Grey Geese, are frequently called by fowlers existing. Its short, decurved bill and green cere give it Black Geese. Of these, the best known both in Europe and a very peculiar expression, and its almost uniform grey North America is the Brent-Goose--the Anas bernicla of plumage, bearing rounded black spots, is also remarkable. Linnæus, and the B. torquata of many modern writers—a It bears captivity well, breeding in confinement, and may truly marine bird, seldom (in Europe at least) quitting salt- be seen in many parks and gardens. It appears to have water, and coming southward in vast flocks towards autumn, been formerly very abundant in many parts of Australia, frequenting bays and estuaries on our coasts, where it live from which it has of late becn exterminated. Some of its chiefly on sea-grass (Zostera maritima). It is known to peculiarities seem to have been still more exaggerated in a breed in Spitsbergen and in Greenland. A form which is bird that is wholly extinct, the Cremiornis calcitrans of by some ornithologists deemed a good species, and called New Zealand, the remains of which were described in full by them B. nigricans, occurs chiefly on the Pacific coast of by Professor Owen in 1873 (Trans. Zool. Society, ix. p. North America. In it the black of the neck, which in the 253). Among the first portions of this singular bird that common Brent terminates just above the breast, extends were found were the tibiæ, presenting an extraordinary over most of the lower parts. The true Bernacle-Goose, 3 development of the patella, which, united with the shankthe B. leucopsis of most authors, is but a casual visitor to bone, gave rise to the generic name applied. For some See Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Society, 1876, pp. 361-369.
time the affinity of the owner of this wonderful structure * The etymology of these two words is exceedingly obscure, and no
was in doubt, but all hesitation was dispelled by the disuseful purpose could bo attained by discussing it here, especially as covery of a nearly perfect skeleton, now in the British any disquisition upon it must needs be long. Suffice it to say that Museum, which proved the bird to be a Goose, of great the ordinary spelling Bernicle seems to be wrong, if wo may judga size, and unable, from the shortness of its wings, to fly. from the analogy of the French Bernache. In both words the e should be sounded as a.
* The old fable, perhaps still believed by the uneducated in some should remember that the doctrine of spontaneous generation has still parts of the world, of Bernacle-Geese being produced from the Ber- many adherents, and that seems to be hardly less extravagant than Dacles (Lepadidm) that grow on timb's exposed to salt-water, is not the notion of birds growing from " worms," as they were then called. more absurd than many that in darker ages had a great hold of the The mistake of our forefathers is of course evident, but that is no popular mind, and far less contemptible than the conceited spirit in reason for deriding their innocent ignorance as some of our conter. which many modern zoologists and botanists often treat it. They 'poraries are fond of doing.
In correlation with this loss of power may also be noted the l of the inany hundred sorts enumerated in recent horti. dwindling of the keel of the sternum. Generally, however, cultural works, few perhaps equal in flavour some of the its osteological characters point to an affinity to Cereopsis, older denizens of the fruit-garden, such as the “old rough 28 was noticed by Dr Hector (Trans. New Zeal. Institute, red” and “ hairy amber.” The climate of the British ri pp. 76-84), who first determined its Anserine character. Islands seems peculiarly adapted to bring the gooseberry
Birds of the genera Chenalopex (the Egyptian and Orinoco to perfection, and it may be grown successfully even in the Geese), Plectropterus, Sarcidiornis, Chlamydochen, and most northern parts of Scotland; indeed, the flavour of the
; some others, are commonly called Geese. To the writer it fruit is said to improve with increasing latitude. In seems uncertain whether they should be grouped with the Norway even, the bush flourishes, in gardens on the west Ansering. The males of all appear to have that curious coast, nearly up to the Arctic circle, and it is found wild enlargement at the junction of the bronchial tubes and the as far north as 63°. The dry summers of the French and trachea which is so characteristic of the Ducks or Anatinæ. German plains are less suited to it, though it is grown As much may be said for the genus Vettapus, but want in some hilly districts with tolerable success. of space precludes further consideration of the subject berry in the south of England will grow well in cool bere.
(A. N.) situations, and may be sometimes seen in gardens near GOOSEBERRY, Ribes grossulari«, a well-known fruit- London flourishing under the partial shade of apple trees ; basă of northern and central Europe, usually placed in the but in the north it needs full exposure to the sun to same genus of the natural order to which it gives name bring the fruit to perfection. It will succeed in almost any as the closely allied currants, but by some made the type soil, but prefers a rich loam or black alluvium, and, though of a small sub-genus, Grossularia, the members of which naturally a plant of rather dry places, will do well in moist differ from the true currants chiefly in their spinous stems, land, if drained. and in their flowers growing on short footstalks, solitary, The varieties are most easily propagated by cuttings or two or three together, instead of in racemes.
planted in the autumn, which root rapidly, and in a The wild gooseberry is a small, straggling bush, nearly re- few years form good fruit-bearing bushes. Much differsembling the cultivated plant,--the branches being thickly ence of opinion prevails regarding the mode of pruning set with sharp spines, standing out singly or in diverging this valuable shrub; it is probable that in different situations tafts of two or three from the bases of the short spurs or it may require varying treatment. The fruit being borne lateral leaf shoots, on which the bell-shaped flowers are on the lateral spurs, and on the shoots of the last year, it produced, singly or in pairs, from the groups of rounded, is the usual practice to shorten the side branches in the deeply-crenated 3 or 5-lobed leaves. The fruit is smaller winter, before the buds begin to expand ; some reduce the than in the garden kinds, but is often of good favour; it longer leading shoots at the same time, while others prefer 13 generally hairy, but in one variety smooth, constituting to nip off the ends of these in the summer while they are the R. uva-crispa of writers; the colour is usually green, still succulent. When large fruit is desired, plenty of but plants are occasionally met with having deep purple manure should be supplied to the roots, and the greater berries. The gooseberry is indigenous to the central parts portion of the berries picked off while still small. Burof Europe and western Asia, growing uaturally in alpine bidge states that the gooseberry may be with advantage thickets and rocky woods in the lower country, from France grafted or budded on stocks of some other species of Ribes, eastward, perhaps as far as the Himalaya. In Britain it is R. aureum, the ornamental golden currant of the flower often found in copses and hedgerows and about old ruins, garden, answering well for the purpose.
The giant goosebut has been so long a plant of cultivation that it is difficult berries of the Lancashire “fanciers are obtained by the to decide upon its claim to a place in the native flora of the careful culture of varieties specially raised with this object, island. Common as it is now on some of the lower slopes the growth being encouraged by abundant manuring, and of the Alps of Piedmont and Savoy, it is uncertain whether the removal of all but a very few berries from each plant. the Romans were acquainted with the gooseberry, though Single gooseberries of nearly 2 ounces in weight have been it may possibly be alluded to in a vague passage of Pliny: occasionally exhibited; but the produce of such fanciful the hot summers of Italy, in ancient times as at present, horticulture is generally insipid. The bushes at times suffer would be unfavourable to its cultivation. Abundant in much from the ravages of the caterpillar of the gooseberry Germany and France, it does not appear to have been or magpie moth, Abraxas grossulariata, which often strip much grown there in the Middle Ages, though the wild the branches of leaves in the early summer, if not destroyed fruit was held in some esteem medicinally for the cooling before the mischief is accomplished. The most effectual properties of its acid juice in fevers; while the old English way of getting rid of this pretty but destructive insect is to name, Fea-berry, still surviving in some provincial dialects, look over each bush carefully, and pick off the larvæ by indicates that it was similarly valued in Britain, where it hand; when larger they may be shaken off by striking the was planted in gardens at a comparatively early period. branches, but by that time the harm is generally doneTurner describes the gooseberry in his Herball, written the eggs are laid on the leaves of the previous season. about the middle of the 16th century, and a few years Equally annoying in some years is the smaller larva of the later'it is mentioned in one of Tusser's quaint rhymes as V-moth, Halias vanaria, which often appears in great an ordinary object of garden culture. Improved varieties numbers, and is not so readily removed. The gooseberry were probably first raised by the skilful gardeners of is sometimes attacked by the grub of a fiy, Nematus ribesii, Holland, whose name for the fruit, Kruisbezie, may have of which several broods appear in the course of the spring been easily corrupted into the present English vernacular and summer, and are very destructive. The grubs bury word. Tuwards the end of the last century the gooseberry themselves in the ground to pass into the pupal state; became a favourite object of cottage-horticulture, especially the first brood of flies, hatched just as the bushes are in Lancashire, where the working cotton-spinners have coming into leaf in the spring, lay their eggs on the raised numerous varieties from seed, their efforts having lower side of the leaves, where the small greenish larvæ been chiefly directed to increasing the size of the fruit. soon after emerge. For the destruction of the first broods
it has been recommended to syringe the bushes with tar1 The Scotch grossart, originally grosel, evidently from the French
water; perhaps a very weak solution of carbolic acid might groseille, may have the same ultimate origin ; the usual derivation from grossus, a green fig, seems far-fetched. The rough wild fruit is called prove more effective. The powdered root of white belleby the Germans krausbcere.
bore is said to destroy both this grub and the caterpillars