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of the gooseberry and V-moth; infusion of foxglove, and include linen and woollen clotii, leather, glue, paper, tobacco-water, are likewise tried by some growers. If machines, and toys. Three niles north of the town are the the fallen leaves are carefully removed from the ground in ruins of the old castle of Hohenstaufen, with the Barbarossa the autumn and burnt, and the surface of the soil turned chapel, containing, besides other adoruments, an old fresco over with the fork or spade, most eggs and chrysalils will of Frederick Barbarossa dating probably from the 16th be destroyed

century. Göppingen originally belonged to the house of The gooseberry was introduced into the United States Hohenstaufen, and at a later period came into the possesby the early settlers, and in some parts of New England sion of the counts of Würtemberg. It was surrounded by large quantities of the greeu fruit are produced and sold for walls in 1129. The population in 1875 was 9532. culinary use in the towns; but the excessive heat of the GORAKHPUR, a district of the North-Western ProAmerican summer is not adapted for the healthy maturation vinces, India, between 26° 50' 15" and 27° 28' 48" N. lat., of the berries, especially of the English varieties. Perhaps and between 83° 7' and 84° 29' E. long., bounded on the if some of these, or those raised in the country, could be N. by the territory of Nepál, on the E. by Champaran and crossed with one of the indigenous species, linds might be Sáran, on the S. by the Gogra river, and on the W. by Basti obtained better fitted for American conditions of culture, and Fyzabad, with an area of 4578 square miles. The disalthough the gooseberry does not readily hybridize. The trict lies immediately south of the lower Himalayan slopes, bushes are apt to be infested by a minute fly, known as the but forms itseli a portion of the great alluvial plain. Only a gooseberry midge, Cecidomyia grossulariæ, which lays its few sandhills break the monotony of its level surface, which eggs in the green fruit, in which the larvæ are hatched, is, however, intersected by numerous rivers studded with causing the berries to turn purple and fall prematurely. lakes and marshcs. In the north and centre dense ferests According to Mr Fitch, the midge attacks the wild native abound, and the whole country has a verdant appearance. species as well as the cultivated gooseberry.

The principal rivers are the Rápti, the Gogra, the great The gooseberry, when ripe, yields a fine wine by the and little Gandak, the Kuana, the Rolim, the Ami; and fermentation of the juice with water and sugar, the result- the Gunghi. The tiger is found in the north, and many ing sparkling liquor retaining much of the favour of the other wild animals abound throughout the district, Thic fruit. By similarly treating the juice of the green fruit, lakes are well stocked with fish. picked just before it ripens, an effervescing wine is pro- The population, which in 1853 numbered 1,816,390, had risen to duced, nearly resembling some kinds of champague, and, 2,019,361 in 1872, a great increase in so short a period ; of thes, when skilfully prepared, far superior to much of the liquor .,7,819,445 or 90°1 per cent. are Hindus, 199,372 lussulmans, and

'533 Christians. 'l'he district contains a total cultivated area of sold under that name. Brandy has been made from ripe

2621 square miles, with 897 square miles available for cultivation, gooseberries by distillation; by exposing the juice with most of which is now under forest. The chief products are cotton, sugar to the acetous fermentation a good vinegar may be rice, bajra, jour, moth, and other food-stuffs. The commerce o obtained. The gooseberry, when perfectly ripe, contains Gorakhpur is confined to the above products. The means of com a large quantity of sugar, most abundant in the red and through the district, one from Gorakhpur to Benares ria Bar

munication are still imperfect. Two good metalled roads rur amber varieties; in the former it amounts to from 6 to halgunj, the other to Basti and Fyzabad. The total revenue ir upwards of 8 per cent. The acidity of the fruit is chiefly 1876 was £?27,738. The police force in 1875 numbered 75 due to malic acid.

officers and mea. In 1875 there were 435 schools, with 13,595 Several other species of the sub-genus produce edible fruit,

pupils.

The district is not subject to very intense heat, fron

which it is secured by its vicinity to the hills and the moisture o though none have as yet been brought under economic cul- its soil. Dust-storms are rare, and cool breezes from the south ture. Among them may be noticed R. oryacanthoides and rushing down the gorges of the Himalayas, succeed each shor R. cynosbati, abundant in Canada and the northern parts

interval of warm weather. The climate is, however, relaxing. The of the United States, and R. gracile, common along the southern and eastern portions are as healthy as most parts of the

province, but the tirai and forest-tracts are still subject to malaria Alleghiny range. The group is a widely distributed one,

The average rainfall from 1860 to 1871 was 45 -8 inches; the maxi species occurring to the west of the Rocky Mountains, and mum was 60 inches in 1861, and the minimum 25 inches in 1863 in Siberia and Japan, while one is said to have been found The mean monthly temperature in the shade was 77° in 1870, ani by recent explorers on the lofty Kilimanjaro, near the lake

76° in 1871. The death rate in 1875 was 40.092, or 19-85 pe

thousand of the population. sources of the Nile.

(c. P. J.) Gautama Buddha, the founder of the religion bearing his pame GOPHER (Testudo gopher, Bartr.), the only living died within the district of Gorakhpur. It thus became the head representative on the North American continent of the quarters of the new creed, and was one of the first tracts to receive

it. T'estudinide or family of land tortoises, where it occurs

The country from the beginning of the 6th century was the in the south-eastern parts of the United States, from Florida

scene of a continuous struggle between the Bhars and their Arya antagonists, the Rahtors.

About 900 the Domhatárs or militar in the south to the river Savannah in the north. Its cara- Brahmans appeared, and expelled the Rahtors from the town o pace, which is oblong and remarkably compressed, measures Gorakhpur, but they also were soon driven back by other invaders from 13 to 14 inches in extreme length, the shields which During the 15th and 16th centuries, after the distriet had beer

desolated by incessant war, the descendants of the various con cover it being grooved, and of a yellow-brown colour. The

querors held parts of the territory, and ench seems to have lived gopher abounds chiefly in the forests, but occasionally quite isolated, as no bridges or roads attest any intercourse wit visits the open plains, where it does great damage, especially each other. Towards the end of the 16th century, Mussulman to the potato crops, on which it seeds. It is a nocturnal occupied Gorakhpur town, but they interfered very little with th animal, remaining concealed by day in its deep burrow, and

district, and allowed it to be controlled by the native rájás. I

the middle of the 18th century a formidable foe, the Banjáras fron coming forth at night to feed. Its strength in proportion the west, kept the district in a state of terror, and so weakened th to its size is said to be enormoas, it being able, according to power of the rájás that they could not resist the fiscal exactions Dumeril and Bibron, to move along comfortably bearing the Oudh officials, who plundered and ravaged the country to a man on its back. The flesh of the gopher or mungofa,

great extent. The district formed part of the territory ceded b

Oudh to the British under the treaty of 1801. During the mutir as it is also called, is considered excellent eating.

it was lost for a short time, but under the friendly Gurkhas to -- GÖPPINGEN, a town of Würtemberg, circle of the rebels were driven out, and the whole district once more passe Danube, on the right bank of the Fils, 22 miles E.S.E. of under British rule. Stuttgart. It possesses an old castle erected by Duke GORAKHPUR, a municipal city, and the administratis Christopher in the 16th century, two evangelical churches, headquarters of Gorakhpur district, North-Western Pro a Roman Catholic chapel, a synagogue, a real school, é vinces, in 26° 44' 8" N. lat., and 83° 23' 44" E. long., o classical school, and an advanced school. The manufactures the river Rápti, near the centre of the district

It wa

fonnded about 1400, on the site of a more ancient city. popular clamour and assumed the purple. His son was It is the headquarters of a civil and sessions judge, with associated with him in the dignity. The senate confirmed the usual administrative offices, and has a consideruble the choice of the Africans, and most of the provinces trade in grain and timber sent down the Rápti to the Gogra gladly sided with the new emperors; but, eveu while their and the Ganges. The municipal revenue in 1875-76 was cause was so successful abroad, they had fallen before £1771. Population (1872), 51,117

the sudden inroad of Capellianus, wlio commanded GORANY, or GOURAMY (Osphronemus oljaz), is reputed Mauretania in the interest of Waximin. They had reigned to be one of the best-flavored freshwater fishes in the only 36 days. Both the Gordians had deserved by East Indian archipelago. Its original home is Java, their amiable character their high reputation; they were Sumatra, Borneo, and several other East Indian islands, men of great accomplishments, fond of literature, and but thence it has been transported to and acclimatized in voluminous authors; but they were rather intellectual Penang, Malacca, Mauritius, and even Cayenne. Being voluptuaries than alle statesmen or powerful rulers.

Having embraced tho cause of Gordian, the senate was obliged to continue the revolt against Maximin, and appointed Maximus and Balbinus, two of its noblest and most esteemed members, as joint einperors. At their inauguration a scdition aruse, and the popular outcry for a Cordian was appeased by the association of M. Antonius Gordianus Pius, nephew of the younger and grandson of the elder Gordian, a boy of thirteen. Maximin forth with invaded Italy, but was murdered by his own troops while besieging Aquileia ; and a revolt of the prætorian guards, to which Maximus and Balbinus fell victims, left Gordian sole emperor. For some years he was under the control of

his mother's eunuchs, till happily Misitheus, his teacher Goramy.

of rhetoric, whose daughter le married, roused him to free an almost omnivorous fish and tenacious of life, it seems to himself from the ignoble tyranny. Misitheus was appointed recommend itself particularly for acclimatization in other prefect of the prætorian guards, and wielded ably the tropical couutries; and specimens kept in captivity become supreme power that now belonged to him. When the as tame as carps. It attains the size of a large turbut. Persiuns invaded Mesopotamia, the young emperor at Its shape is flat and short, the body covered with large his persuasion opened, for the last time recorded in hisscales ; the dorsal and anal fins are provided with numerous tory, the temple of Janus, and marched in person to the spinos, and the ventral fins produced into long filaments. East. Misithcus proved a skilful and prudent general;

GORCUM, or Gorkum (Dutch, Gorinchem), a town of but his sudden death under strong suspicions of poisoning the Netherlands, chief town of a circle in the province of was the end of Gordian's prosperity. Discontent and South Holland, 22 miles E.S.E. of Rotterdam, on the right seditions, fostered by Philip, who had succeeded Misitheus, bank of the Merve or Merwede, at the influx of the Linge, by arose in the camp, and Gordian was slain by the mutinous wlrich it is intersectod. It is surrounded by walls, and has an suldiers (244). A monument near the coufluence of the old town-house adorned with fine old paintings, a prison, a Euplırates and Aboras marked the scene. c'istom-house, barracks, an arsenal, and a military hospital. GORDIUM, an ancieut town of Bithynia, was situated The old church of St Vincent contains the monuments of the not far from the river Sangarius, but the site has not been lords of Arkel. The cbaritable and benevolent institutions exactly ascertained, though M. Lejean believes that it may are numerous, and there is also a library and several learned be identified with ruins which he observed iu the vicinity associations. Gorcum possesses a good harbour, and carries of the village Emret. It was undoubtedly a place of high on a considerable trade in grain, hemp, cheese, potatoes, and antiquity, and though Strabo describes it as a village, it fish, although it is still destitute of railway communication. afterwards increased in size, and, under the name of The population in 1876 was 9301.

Juliopolis, which it received in the reign of Augustus, it The earliest notice of Gorcum is in a document of John I., duke of continued to flourish to the time of Justinian at least. Brabant (in the close of the 13th century), granting the town's folk According to the legend, Gordium was founded by a cerfree trade throughout his duchy. The history in the 15th century is closely connected with that of the countship of Arkel. It was

tain Gordius, who had been called to the throne by the within its walls that William, the last lord of Arkel, perished in

Phrygians in obedience to an oracle of Zeus commanding 1417, on the capture of the town by the Kabeljaus; and it was the them to select the first person that rode into the agora in burghers of Gorcum who in 1573 laid the castle of Arkel in ruins. In 1572, when the town was taken by William de la Marck, he put and another oracle declared that whoever succeeded in un

The king afterwards dedicated his car to the god, to death 19 priests and friars, who have a place in the Romish calendar as the Martyrs of Gorcum. The place defended itself suc- tying the strangely entwined knot of the yoke should reign cessfully against the French in 1672, but was taken by the Prussians over all Asia. Alexander the Great, according to the wellin 1785, by the French in 1795, and by the allies in 1814.

known story, overcame the difficulty of the Gordian knot GORDIANUS, or GORDIAN, the name of three Roman by a stroke of his sword. emperors. The first, Marcus Antonius Africanus Gordi- See Kiepert, Beiträge zur inschriftlichen Topographie Kleinanus, the wealthiest of the Romans, was descended on the Asions, 1863 ; Lejean, in Bull. de la Soc. de Géogr., Paris, 1869. father's side from the Gracchi, on the mother's from GORDON, ALEXANDER, the "Sandy Gordon" of Scott's Trajan, while his wife was the granddaughter of Antoninus Antiquary, is believed to have been a native of Aberdeen, Pius. While he gained unbounded popularity by his mar and a graduate of either King's or Marischal College, but nificent games and shows, his prudent and retired life did of his parentage and early history nothing is known. not alarm the tyranny of Caracalla. Alexander Severus When still a young man ho is said to bave travelled called him to the dangerous honours of government in abroad, probably in the capacity of tutor. He must, howAfrica, and during his proconsulsluip there occurred the ever, have returned to Scotland previous to 1726, when, usurpation of Maximin. The universal discontent roused betaking himself to antiquarian pursuits, he made the by the oppressive rule of Maximin culminated in a revolt acquaintance of, among others, Roger Gole, the first vicein Africa in 238, and Gordian reluctantly yielded to the president of the Society of Antiquaries. In the year just

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mentioned appeared the Itinerarium Septentrionale, his before the riots were quelled. For his share in instigating greatest and best known work. He was already the friend 'the riots Lord Gordon was apprehended on a charge of biglı of Sir John Clerk, of Penicuick, better known as Baron , treason; but, mainly through the skilful and eloquent Clerk, from his having been appointed one of the Barons defence of Erskine, he was acquitted on the ground that of the Exchequer; and the Baron and Roger Gale are the he had no treasonable intentious. In 1786 be was excon"two gentlemen, the honour of their age and country,” municated by the archbishop of Canterbury for refusing to whose letters were published, without their consent it bear witness in an ecclesiastical suit; and in 1787 he was appears, as an appendix to the Itinerarium. Subsequently convicted of libelling the queen of France, the French amGordon was appointed secretary to the Society for the bassador, and the administration of justice in England. He Encouragement of Learning, with an annual salary of was, however, permitted to withdraw from the court without £50. Resigning this post he succeeded Dr Stukeley as 'bail, and made his escape to Holland; but on account of secretary to the Society of Antiquaries, and also acted for representations from the court of Versailles he was coma short time as secretary to the Egyptian Club, an associa- manded to quit that country, and, returning to England, tion composed of gentlemen who had visited Egypt. In was apprehended, and in January 1788 was sentenced to 1741 be accompanied Governor Glen to South Carolina. five years’ imprisonment in Newgate, where, after refusing to No explanation has yet been given of the reasons which grant the guarantees required as a condition of his obtaining led to this step, or of the relations between the old bis liberty at the conclusion of his original term of imprison“Roman” antiquary and his new patron. A lint, but ment, he died of delirious fever November 1, 1793. Some nothing more, is affurded by the fact that in the list of time before his apprehension he had become a convert to subscribers to the Itinerarium we find the name of “ Jarnes Judaism, and had undergone the initiatory rite. A serious Glen of Longcroft, Esq.” Through the influence probably 1 defence of most of his eccentricities is undertaken in The

| of his friend, Gordon, besides receiving a grant of land in Life of Lord George Gordon, with a Philosophical Review Carolina, was appointed registrar of the province, and justice of his Political Conduct, by Robert Watson, M.D., Lonof the peace, and filled several other offices. From his 'don, 1795. will, stiil in existence, dated 220 August 1754, we learn i GORDON, Sir John Watson (1788–1864), Scottish that he had a son Alexander and a daughter Frances, to painter, was the eldest son of Captain Watson, R.N., whom he bequeathed most of his property, among which a cadet of the family of Watson of Overmains, in the county were portraits of himself and of frieuds painted by his of Berwick. He was born in Edinburgh in 1788, and, it own hand.

being his father's desire that he should enter the army, was Some additional particulars regarding Gordon and luis works may cducated specially with a view to his joining the Royal be got from a communication to the Society of Antiquaries of Scots Engineers. As drawing was even at that period conland by Professor Daniel Wilson, LL.D., Toronto, printed in the Proceedings, with Additional Notes and an Appendix of Original sidered a not inappropriate accomplishment for the scientific Letters by the late Dr David Laing (Proc. Soc. of Antiq. of Scot., service, he was, while waiting for his commission, entered vol. x. pp. 363-382).

as a student in the Government school of design, then as GORDON, LORD GEORGE, (1751-1793), third and now under the management of the Board of Manufactures. youngest son of Cosmo George, duke of Gordon, was born with the opportunity, his nntural taste for art quickly in London 26th December 1751. After completing liis developed itself

, and his industry and progress were such education at Eton, he entered the navy, where he rose to that his father was persuaded to allow him to adopt it as the rank of lieutenant; but on account of a disagreement his profession. Captain Watson was himself a skilful regarding promotion with Lord Sandwith, then at the head draughtsman, and his brother George Watson, afterwards of the admiralty, he resigned his commission shortly before president of the Scottish Academy, stood high as a the commencement of the American war. In 1774 be portrait painter, second only to Sir Henry Raeburn, who entered parliament as member for the small borough of also was a friend of the family. Between the studios of Luggershall, and possessing some wit, great ease of address, his uncle and his friend, John Watson seems to have and the confidence arising from sincere conviction, le advo- thought he had every necessary assistance a young artist cated his individual notions on any subject with great volu- required, and neither then nor at a future period showed bility and with something of the eagerness of monomania

. any desire for foreign study; his art cousequently is more After supporting the ministry, for some time, he began to purely of native growth than that of any of his contemporattack both ministry and opposition with such ceaseless aries. In the year 1808 he sent to the exhibition of the pertinacity that it became a common saying that “there Lyceum in Nicolson Street a subject from the Lay of the were threo parties in parliament, the ministry, the opposi- Last Minstrel, and continued for some years to exhibit fancy tion, and Lord George Gordon.” He vehemently opposed subjects; but, although freely and sweetly painted, they were the passing of the Acts for the removal of the Roman altogether without the force and character which in his own Catholic disabilities, and took a leading part in organizing proper walk stamped his portrait pictures as the works of thie Protestant associations of Scotland and England. Of a master. After the death of Sir Henry Raeburn in 1823, both associations he was chosen president, and on June 2d he succeeded to much of his practice ; and as there were at 1780 he headed the mob which marched in procession from that time in Edinburgh four artists of the name of Watson, St George's Fields to the Houses of Parlianient in order to all of them portruit painters, he assumed in 1826 the name present the monster petition against the Acts. After the of Gordon, by which he is best known. Mixing a good mob reached Westminster a terrific riot ensued, wbich con- deal in literary and scientific society, he painted most of tinued several days, during which the city was virtually at the notabilities who lived in or visited the porthern metrotheir mercy. At first indeed they dispersed after threaten- polis during his career; one of the earliest of his famous ing to make a forcible entry into the House of Commons, but sitters was Sir Walter Scott, who sat for a first portrait in reassembled soon afterwards and destroyed several Roman 1820. Then came J. G. Lockhart in 1821 ; Professor Catholic chapels, pillaged the private dwellings of many Wilson, 1822 and 1850, two portraits ; Sir Archibald Alison, Roman Catholics, set fire to Newgate and broke open all 1839; Dr Chalmers, 1844; a little later De Quincey; and Sir the other prisons, attacked the Bank of England and several David Brewster, 1864, being the last picture he painted. other public buildings, and continued the work of violence Among his most important works may be mentioned the and conflagration until the interference of the military, by earl of Dalhousie, 1833, now in the Archers' Hall, Edinwhom no fewer than 450 persons were killed and wounded burgh; Sir Alexander Hope, 1835, in the county buildings,

Lialithgow; Lord President Ilope, in the Parliament House; his return to Russia, he in 1687 and 1689 took part as and Dr Chalmers, 1344. These are all full lengths, and quartermaster-general in the expeditions against the Crim were exhibited in London, where they attracted great atten- Tartars in the Crimea. On the breaking out of the revolution (the Chalmers portrait was purchased some years tion in Moscow in the latter year, Gordon with the troops later by Sir Robert Peel, and is now in the Peel Gallery); he commanded virtually decided events in favour of the they belong to his middle period, and are distinguished by czar Peter I., and against the czarina Sophia. He was great sweetness in execution, and, unlike his later works, are therefore during the remainder of his life in high favour with generally rich in colour. The full length of Dr Brunton, the czar, who confided to him the command of his capital 1844, and Dr Lee, the principal of the university, 1846, both during his absence from Russiu, employed him in organizing in the staircase of the Collego Library, mark a modification his army according to the European system, and Jatterly of his style, which ultimately resolved itself into extreme reised him to the rank of general-in-chief.

He died simplicity, both of colour and treatment.

November 29, 1699. The czar, who had visited him During the last twenty years of his life he painted many frequently during his illness, was with him when he died, distinguished Englishmen who came to Edinburgh to sit to and with his own hands closed his eyes. him. And it is significant of the position he beld in the General Gordon left behind him a diary of lsis lisc, written in Eng. esteem of artists themselves that David Cox, the landscape lish. Several of those parts of the diary connected with the military painter, on being presented with his portrait, subscribed for history of Russia were at an early period translated into German

then the literary language of si Petersburg—but never printed, by many friends, chose to go to Edinburgh to have it although made use of for various other works. A completo German executed by Watson Gordon, although he neither knew the translation, by Prince M. A. Kolenski and Mr M. C. Powell, was painter personally nor had ever before visited the country. published, the first volume at Moscow in 1849, the second 'at St Among the portraits painted during this period, in what Petersburg

in 1951, and the third at St Petersburg in 1853 ; and

Passagrs from the Diary of General Patrick Gordon of Auchleuchries, may be termed his third style, are De Quincey, the opium 1635-1699, was printed, under the editorship of Joseph Robertson, eater, in the National Portrait Gallery, London ; General for the Spalding Club, Aberdeen, 1859. Sir Thomas Macdougall Brisbane, in the Royal Society; the GORE, MRS CATHERINE GRACE (1799-1861), an exceedprince of Wales, Lord Macaulay, Sir M. Packington, Lord ingly prolific English novelist, was born in 1799 at East Murray, Lord Cockburn, Lord Rutherford, and Sir John Retford, Nottinghamshire, and was the daughter of Mr Shaw Lefevre, in the Scottish National Gallery, and a host Moody, a wine-merchant. In 1823 she was married to of others, for latterly he not only possessed great facility Captain Charles Gore; and, in the same year, she published of brush but was industrious to a fault. These latter ber first work, Theresa Marchmont, or the Maid of Honour. pictures are mostly clear and grey, sometimes showing Then followed, in rapid succession, the Lettre de Cûchet and little or no positive colour, the flesh itself being very grey, The Reign of Terror (1827), Hungar ian Tales, Manners and the handling extremely masterly, though never ob of the Day (1830), Mothers and Daughters (1831), and truding its cleverness. He was very successful in rendering The Fair of May Fair (1832). At this point the critics acute observant character, and there is a look of mobility of began to say that Mrs Gore had written enough ; and she feature, in repose it is true, but suggesting that the eye accordingly went to France to extend her range of obsercould twinkle and the lips relax. As an example of his vation, and did not publish till 1836, when her next novel, last style, showing pearly flesh painting freely handled, yet entitled Mrs Armytage, appeared. Every succeeding yer highly finished, the head of Sir John Shaw Lefevre will hold saw several volumes from her pen; and in 1839 The its own in any school.

Cabinet Minister, Preferment, and The Courtier of the Days John Watson Gordon was one of the earlier members of of Charles II. were issued from the press. But in 1841 the Royal Scottish Academy, and was elected its president Mrs Gore faiqly eclipsed her other novels by the publication in 1850; he was at the same time appointed limner to her of Cecil, or the Adventures of a Coxcoinb, which produced a majesty for Scotland, and received the honour of knight great sensation. This year also appeared Greville, or a hood. Since 1841 he had been an associate of the Royal Season in Paris. Then followed, in 1842, Oi mington, or Academy, and in 1851 he was elected a Royal Academician. Cecil a Peer, Fascination, and The Ambassador's Wife; and Sir John continued to paint with little if any diminution in 1843 Mrs Gore produced another masterpiece, entitled of power until within a very few weeks of liis death, which I'he Banker's Wife. She continued to write, with unfailing occurred on the 1st of June 1864.

fertility of invention, till her death in January 1861. Mrs GORDON, PATRICK (1635–1699), of Auchleuchries, a Gore also published some dramas and translations from the Russian general, was descended from a Scotch family of French; but it is as a fashionable novelist that she is re. Aberdeenshire, who possessed the small estate of Auchleuch- membered. Her life was one of extraordinary literary inries, and were connected with the house of Haddo. He was dustry, as may be inferred from the fact that she is the born in 1635, and after completing his education at the author of more than seventy distinct works. Among her parish schools of Cruden and Ellon, entered, in his fifteenth best novels are Cecil, or the Adventures of a Coxcomb, year, the Jesuit college at Braunsberg, Prussia ; but, as "his Greville, and The Banker's Tife. Cecil gives extremely humour could not endure such a still and strict way of vivid sketches of London fashionable life, and is full of living," he soon resolved to return home. He changed his happy epigrammatic touches. It displays great knowledge mind, however, before re-embarking, and after journeying of London clubs, for which Mrs Gore was indebted to Nr on foot in several parts of Germany, ultimately, in 1655, Beckford, the author of Vathek. The narrative is varied enlisted at Hamburg in the Swedish service. In the course by occasional glimpses of Continental life. Greville is of the next five years he served alternately with the Poles marked by faithful pictures of English country life, and of and Swedes as he was taken prisoner by either. In 1661, the ease and grace of French society. The Barker's Wife after changing his resolution more than once, be took service is distinguished for masterly studies of character, especially in the Russian army under Alexis I., and in 1666 he was in the persons of Mr Hamlyn, the cold calculating moneysent on a special mission to England. After his return he maker, and his warm-hearted country neighbour, Colonel distinguished himself several wars against the Turks and Hamilton.

Tartars in southern Russia, and in recognition of his services Mrs Gore's works are characterized by great cleverness he in 1678 was made major-general, in 1679 was appointed in invention, lirely satire, shrewd insight into character, to the chief command at Kieff, and in 1683 was made and keen observation of life. They are exceedingly deficient lieutenant-general. Ho visited England in 1686, and, after | in feeling; and the lover of fiction passes a pleasant hour

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or two over her novels, not much excited by the triumphs, , ing. rhetoric; and that he ended his day's at Larissa, in or vexed by the sufferings of her characters. Sometimes Thessaly. His birth and death may be approximately dated her novels weary the reader ; but this does not arise from respectively at 483 and 375 B.C. He was the author of a any failing in her style, which is always clear, animated, lost work On Nature or the Non-existent (Tepi toll yn Övtos and full of point, nor from lack of inventiveness, but from tepi púoews), the substance of which may be gathered the endless repetitions involved in writing so many books from the writings of Sextus Empiricus, and also from the on a subject of such comparatively limited range as treatise (ascribed to Theophrastus) De Melisso, Xenophane, fashionable life. Mrs Gore's novels have not only achieved Gorgia. His philosophical opinions may be suinmed up in an immense temporary popularity, but possess genuine three propositions, which stand in direct relation to the histo value as eminently readable, and on the whole teachings of the Elea cbool. Ho held (1) that there is faithful, pictures of the life and pursuits of the English nothing which has any real existence; (2) that, even if any

thing did really exist, it could not be known; and (3) that, GOREE (in French Gorée, and in the native tongue Bir supposing real existence to be knowable, the knowledge or Berr, that is, a belly, in allusion to its shape), a small would be incommunicable. On the first point his argumeut island off the west coast of Africa, belonging to the French was that a real existence must either liave come into being colony of the Senegal. It lies immediately to the south of or have been eternal. But the first alternative would reCape Verd, and, according to the Almaire du Sénégal for quire it to liave been produced, either from the existent or 1878, in 14° 39' 55" N. lat. and 12° 16' 40" W. long. ir ni the non-existent; the second aiterontive would require The distance from the mainland in one direction is about us to identify it witli the infinite, but the infnite exists 8 miles, and in another from 3 to 4. Though little moro nowhere (for that would involve the absurdity of its existthan a barren rock, Goree is of importance as a commercial inco either within itself or within something else), but what and military post, and all the more as it has the advantage exists nowhere is nothing. In support of the second proof a milder climato than the neighbouring mainland. The position he argued that, if existence could be known, then greater part of its area is occupied by the town, which was thought would be existence, and the non-existent would be constituted a commune in 1872, and placed under the unthinkable and crror would be impossible. The third government of a municipal council of 14 menubers. The point for which lie argued was the inadequacy of language streets are narrow, and the houses, built for the most part to convey ideas, and the impossibility of the idea being the of dark red stone, are flat-roofed. Among the principal same in different minds. In natural philosophy, his huildings are the castle of St Michael, which occupies the opinions, so far as these are known, appear to have been rocky eminence in the south of the island, the governor's similar to those of Empedocles. See the monograph, De residence, the hospital, aiid the barracks. The summit of Gorgia Leontino Commentatin, by Foss, 1828. the rock within the citadel is levelled to an esplanade, and GORGON, yopyú, according to Hesychius, is a word akin in the centre is a deep Artesian well, the only source in the to yopyós, which means terrible, lively, rapid. Sophocles otherwise arid island, which is dependent on its rain-water (fr. 167) calls the sea-nymphis ycpyides and yopyádes is tanks for its ordinary supplies. Goree is a free port, and quoted as a title of the daugliters of Oceanus. Now it is forms a convenient centre for the distribution of European a well-established fact that the sea was at one time the sea goods. It is regularly visited by the vessels of the British of air and its nymphis the clonds. Hence we may infer and African Steam Navigation Company. The harbour is that words from this stem are employed in the sense of formed in a small sandy bay on the north-east side of the quick-moving as epithets of the clouds. island. Telegraphic communication with St Louis dates The various forms in which the Gorgon appears in Greck from 1862. A chamber of commerce was establislıcd in mythology originate probably from the rapidly gnthering 1870, and a sanitary commission in 1874. The town was terrible thunder-cloud. When the cloud covered the heaven reported in 1878 to have a population of 3243, and the and hid the sun, a primitive race, whose thoughts and words arrondissement of Gorée-Dakar, of which it is the adminis- were few and simple, said that the sun was united in frative centre, had a total population of 61,394. Dakar is marriage to the cloud. From this union sprang the light a new settlement on the mainland, with a port constructel ning and the thunder. Now the sun, in its different since 1857 for the vessels of the Messageries Maritimes; but aspects and relations, was conceived in different ways, which with the exception of the public buildings the town has still developed, as thought unfolded itse.f, into distinct deities ; to be built. Goree owes its name to the Dutch, who took and, as connected with clouds, rain, and the fertility that possession of it in the beginning of the 17th century, and springs therefrom, he is the original of the Vedic Savitar called it Goeree or Goedereede, in memory of the island on and Tvashtar and of the Greek Poseidon. Accordingly their own coast pow united with Overflakkee. It was taken (Hes., T'heol., 273 ff.) Poseidon on a meadow (i.e., the heaven, from them in 1663 by the English under Commodore thus often in mythology) begat from the Gorgon Medusa Holmes, but recovered in the following year by De Ruyter. Chryszor and Pegasus. Chrysaor, Gold-sword, is obviously They were finally expelled, in 1677, by the French under the lightning; and Pegasus, who bears the thunder and Admiral D'Estrées, whose conquest was confirmed in 1678 lightning for Zeus (ibid. 286), was probably at first simply by the peace of Nymwegen. In 1758 the island was the tlıunder. Gorgo and Erinys are merely tribal or local captured for the English by Commodore Keppel, but a few varieties of the same conception ; Gorgo is specially Attic, years afterwards it was restored to France. With the Erinys Minyan. A similar legend occurs about children exception of a few months in 1804, when the island was of Erinys and Poseidon (Paus., viii. 37). Hence Æschylus held by the French, the English were again in possession (Cho., 1048) compares the Erinyes to Gorgons. from 1800, when it was seized by Sir Charles Hamilton, Gorgo is always the impersonation of the atmospheric till the peace of 1814.

terrors, and is conceived in connexion with the deities that GORGIAS of Leontini, in Sicily, a rhetorici.in and are arined with thunder and lightning-Zeus and Athene. sophist of whose personal history nothing is known beyond With Athene in particular is the connexion very close, and the facts that in 427, when already a comparatively old some facts ritual and nomenclature almost suggest an man, he was sent by his fellow-citizens at the lead of an original identity of the two. Palæphatus says that Athene embassy to ask Atlieninn protection against the nggression was worshipped in the island of Cerne under the name of the Syracusans ; that he then sctiled in Athens, and Gorgo; Sophocles (Al., 450) calls her yopyüttes; and Plutarch supported himself by the practice of oratory and by teachi (Arat., 32) says that her wooden statue at Pallene, if

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