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birds, some of them in size exceeding any that had before | with short whitish streaks, while a conspicuous white curved

been known. His collection has since been dispersed, most of the specimens finding their way into various public museums in this country.

A literature by no means inconsiderable has grown up respecting the Gare-fowl. Neglecting works of general bearing, few of which are without many inaccuracies, the following treatises may be especially mentioned:-J. J. S. Steenstrup, "Et Bidrag til Geirfuglens Naturhistorie og særligt til Kundskaben om dens tidligere Udbredningskreds," Naturh. Foren. Vidensk. Meddelelser [Copenhagen], 1855, p. 33; E. Charlton, "On the Great Auk," Trans. Tyneside Nat. Field Club, iv. p. 111; "Abstract of Mr J. Wolley's Researches in Iceland respecting the Gare-fowl," Ibis, 1861, p. 374; W. Preyer, "Ueber Plautus impennis," Journ. für Orn., 1862, pp. 110, 337; K. E. von Baer, "Ueber das Aussterben der Thierarten in physiologischer und nicht physiologischer Hinsicht," Bull, de l'Acad. Imp. de St Petersb., vi. p. 513; R. Owen, "Description of the Skeleton of the Great Auk," Trans. Zool. Soc., v. p. 317; "The Gare-fowl and its Historians," Nat. Hist. Rev., v. p. 467; J. H. Gurney, jun., "On the Great Auk," Zoologist, 2d ser. pp, 1442, 1639; H. Reeks, "Great Auk in Newfoundland," &c., op. cit., p. 1854; V. Fatio, "Sur l'Alca impennis," Bull. Soc. Orn. Suisse, ii. pp. 1, 80, 147; "On existing Remains of the Gare-fowl," Ibis, 1870, p. 256; J. Milne, "Relics of the Great Auk," Field, 27 March, 3 and 10 April 1875. Lastly, reference cannot be omitted to the happy exercise of poetic fancy with which the late Prof. Kingsley was enabled to introduce the chief facts of the Garefowl's extinction (derived from one of the above-named papers) into his charming Water Babies. (A. N.)

GARESSIO, GARESSO, or GAREZZO, in Latin Garexium, a town of Italy about 18 miles S.E. of Mondovi, in the valley of the Tararo. The Roman remains which are discovered from time to time bear witness to its high antiquity; during the Middle Ages it was the seat of a marquisate, which in 1509 was sold to the Spinola family, and its double walls gave it some importance as a defensible position. Besides a castle, it possesses three old monastic buildings, one of which, the Carthusian convent of Casotto, is an edifice of much magnificence. Population in 1870 nearly 7000.

line descends backwards from the eyes. The upper wing coverts are bluish-grey, the scapulars black with a white shaft-stripe, and the wing-spot (speculum) greyish-green bordered above and below by white. The female closely resembles the hen Teal, but possesses nearly the same wingspot as her mate. In Ireland or Scotland the Garganey is very rare, and though it is recorded from Iceland, more satisfactory evidence of its occurrence there is needed. It has not a high northern range, and its appearance in Norway and Sweden is casual. Though it breeds in many parts of Europe, in none can it be said to be common; but it ranges far to the eastward in Asia-even to Formosa, according to Swinhoe-and yearly visits India in winter. Those that breed in Norfolk arrive somewhat late in spring and make their nests in the vast reed-beds which border the Broads a situation rarely or never chosen by the Teal. The labyrinth or bony enlargement of the trachea in the male Garganey differs in form from that described in any other Drake, being more oval and placed nearly in the median line of the windpipe, instead of on one side, as is usually the case.

division, under the jurisdiction of the lieutenant-governor GARIIWÁL, a district of British India, in the Kamaon 15" and 31° 5' 30" N. lat., and 78° 18′ 45" and 80° 8' E. of the North-Western Provinces, situated between 29° 16 long, and bounded on the N. by Chinese Tibet, on the E. by Kumaon district, on the S. by Bijnor district, and on the W. by Independent Garhwal or Teliri. Garhwal district consists almost entirely of rugged mountain ranges running in all directions, and separated by narrow valleys, which may almost be described as gorges or ravines. The only level portion of the district consists of a narrow strip of waterless forest, between the southern slopes of the hills and the fertile plains of Rohilkhand. The highest mountains are in the north of the district, the principal peaks being Nanda Devi (25,661 feet), Kamet (25,413), Trcoul (23,382), Dunagiri (23,181), Badrinath (22,901), and Kedarnath (22,853). The Alaknanda, one of the main sources of the Ganges, receives with its affluents the whole drainage of the district. The river is regarded as of peculiar sanctity, and is annually resorted to by thousands

of devout Hindus.

GAR-FISH is the name given to a genus of fishes (Belone) found in nearly all the temperate and tropical seas, and readily recognized by their long, slender, compressed and silvery body, and by their jaws being produced into a long, pointed, bony, and sharply-toothed beak. About fifty species are known from different parts of the globe, some attaining to a length of 4 or 5 feet. One species is common on the British coasts, and is well known At Deoprayág the Alaknandá joins by the names of "long-nose," "green-bone," &c. The last the name of the Ganges. Navigation is impracticable in the Bhagirathí, and thenceforward the united streams bear name is given to those fishes on account of the peculiar all the rivers, owing to the velocity of their currents, and green colour of their bones, which deters many people from eating them, although their flesh is well flavoured and the existence of shoals and rapids. Cultivation is principerfectly wholesome. The Skipper (Scomberesox) and Half-pally confined to the immediate vicinity of the rivers, which beak (Hemirhamphus), in which the lower jaw only is prolonged, are fishes nearly akin to the gar-pikes. See İCHTHYOLOGY.

GARGANEY1 (North-Italian, Garganello), or SUMMERTEAL, the Anas querquedula and 4. circia of Linnæus (who made, as did Willughby and Ray, two species out of one), and the type of Stephens's genus Querquedula. This bird is one of the smallest of the Anatida, and has gained its common English name from being almost exclusively a summer-visitant to this country, where nowadays it only regularly resorts to breed in some of the East-Norfolk waters called Broads, though possibly at one time found at the same season throughout the great Fen-district. About the same size as the common Teal (A. crecca), the male, is readily distinguished therefrom by its peculiarly-coloured head, the sides of which are nutmeg-brown, closely freckled

1 The word was introduced by Willughby from Gesner (Orn., lib. j. p. 127), but, though generally adopted by authors, seems never to have become other than a book-name in English, the bird being invariably known in the parts of this island where it is indigenous as Summer Teal.”

are employed for purposes of irrigation; but out of a total estimated area of 5500 square miles in 1872, only 209 were returned as under cultivation. Agriculture, however, is carried on with great skill and industry, by terracing out the hill sides. Wheat, rice, and manduá are the staple crops, the surplus produce being exported to Tibet. Tea planting is also carried on under European supervision.

The census of 1872 disclosed a population in the Garhwal district of 310,288 (115,745 males and 154,537 females), distributed among 3944 villages and 57,293 houses. The Hindus numbered 308,398, or no less than 99.3 per cent. of the population, the Mahometans 1799, and Christians 85. The two great Hindu temples of Badrinath and Kedarnath, which lie hidden among the recesses of the snowy range, attract large numbers of pilgrims, who considerably add to the prosperity of the district. No place in Garhwal contains as many as 5000 inhabitants. Srinagar is the largest town, but the administrative headquarters is at Pauni. Trade is principally carried on with Tibet, by way of the Máns and Niti passes, sheep and goats being used as beasts of burden. The chief exports are grain, gur, cloth, and tobacco; the imports salt, borax, wool, gold, and precious stones. Good hill roads, from 10 to 12 feet in width, intersect the district in every direction, the total length being about 1000 miles. The land revenue in 1875 amounted to £9555. Only a small force of regular police is stationed at headquarters, and there is little crime of any kind.

Elacation has made greater progress among these mountain valleys | dishes, and is largely consumed by the agricultural poputhan in the plain districts beneath them. In 1875 73 schools afforded education to 3609 pupils.

Garhwal originally consisted of 52 petty chieftainships, each chief with his own independent fortress (garh). Between 400 and 54 years ago, one of these chiefs, Ajai Pál, ruler of Chandpur, luced all the minor principalities under his own sway, and founded the Garhwal kingdom. He and his ancestors ruled over Garhwal and the adjacent state of Tehri, in an uninterrupted line till 1803, when the Gurkhas invaded Kumaon and Garhwal driving Prithimán Sáh, the Garhwal chief, into the plains. For twelve years the Gurkhas ruled the country with a rod of iron, until a series of encroachments by them on British territory, led to the Wer with Nepal in 1814. At the termination of the campaign, Garhwal and Kumaon were converted into British districts, while the Tehri principality was restored to Pridhimán Sáh, whose randson still holds it. Since the annexation, Garhwal has rapidly advanced in material prosperity. Cultivation has rapidly increased, and the spread of tea-culture has opened the country to British capital and enterprise, which are converting this long harassed tract into an important and wealthy district.

GARLIC (Greek, σkópodov;. Latin, Allium; Italian, Aglio; French, Ail; German, Knoblauch), Allium sativum, Linn., a bulbous perennial plant of the tribe Hyacinthineæ of the natural order Liliaceae, indigenous apparently to the south of Europe and to the East, having entire, obscurely keeled leaves, a deciduous spathe, a bulbiferous globose umbel, and whitish flowers, with exsert pistil and stamens. The bulb, which is the only part eaten, has membranous scales, in the axils of which are 10 or 12 cloves, or smaller bulbs. From these new bulbs can be procured by planting out in February or March. The bulbs are best preserved hung in a dry place. If of fair size, twenty of them weigh about 1 b. To prevent the plant from running to leaf, Pliny (Nat. Hist., xix. 34) advises to bend the stalk downward, and cover with earth; seeding, he observes, may be prevented by twisting the stalk. Garlic is cultivated in the same manner as the SHALLOT (q. v.). It is stated to have been grown in England before the year 1548. The percentage composition of the bulbs is given by Mr E. Solly (Trans. Hort. Soc. Lond., new ser., iii. p. 60) as water 84-09, organic matter 13'38, and inorganic matter 153,—that of the leaves being water 87.14, organic matter 11-27, and inorganic matter 1.59. The bulb has a strong and characteristic odour, and an acrid taste, and yields an offensively smelling oil, essence of garlic, identical with allylic sulphide (CH),S (see Hofmann and Cahours, Journ. Chem. Soc., x. p. 320). This, when garlic has been eaten, is evolved by the excretory organs, the activity of which it promotes. From the earliest times garlic has been used as an article of diet. It formed part of the food of the Israelites in Egypt (Numb. xi. 5), and of the labourers employed by Cheops in the construction of his pyramid, and is still grown in Egypt, where, however, the Syrian is the kind most esteemed (see Rawlinson's Herodotus, ii, 125). It was largely consumed by the ancient Greek and Roman soldiers, sailors, and rural classes (ef. Virg, Ecl., ii. 11), and, as Pliny tells us (N. H., xix. 32), by the African peasantry. Galen eulogizes it as the rustic's theriac (see F. Adams's Paulus Egineta, p. 99), nl Alexander Neckam, a writer of the 12th century (see Wright's edition of his works, p. 473, 1863), recommends it

is a palliative of the heat of the sun in field labour. "The

people in places where the simoon is frequent," says Elphinstone (An Account of the Kingdom of Caubul, p. 140, 1815), "eat garlic, and rub their lips and noses with it, when they go out in the heat of the summer, to prevent their suffering by the simoon." "O dura messorum ilia," exclaims Horace (Epod., iii.), as he records his detestation of the popular esculent, to smell of which was accounted a sign of vulgarity (cf. Shakespeare, Coriol., iv. 6, and Meas. for Meas., iii. 2). In England garlic is seldom used except as a seasoning, but in the southern countries of Europe it is a common ingredient in

10-6

lation. Garlic was placed by the ancient Greeks on the piles of stones at cross-roads, as a supper for Hecate (Theophras tus, Characters, Deloidaμovías); and according to Pliny garlic and onions were invocated as deities by the Egyptians at the taking of oaths. The inhabitants of Pelusium in Lower Egypt, who worshipped the onion, are said to have held both it and garlic in aversion as food. Garlic possesses stimulant and stomachic properties, and was of old, as still (N. H., xx. 23) gives an exceedingly long list of complaints. sometimes now, employed as a medicinal remedy. Pliny in which it was considered beneficial. Dr Sydenham valued it as an application in confluent smallpox, and, says Cullen (Mat. Med., ii. p. 174, 1789), found some dropsies cured by it alone. The volatile oil has proved efficacious in indigestion, and in some stages of bronchitis, especially in the acute form of the disease in infants, also in chronic colds, and as a rubefacient and nervine tonic; and poultices of the pounded pulp are recommended for the convulsions and suffocative catarrh of infants (Wood, Treat. on Therapeutics, p. 451, 1874). With lemon-juice garlic has also been resorted to for the cure of diphtheria (Brit. and For. Med. Chir. Rev., 1860, i. p. 281). The wild "Crow Garlic" and "Field Garlic" of Britain are the Linnean species Allium vineale and A. oleraceum respectively.

See Phillips, Hist. of Culinary Vegetables, vol. ii.; Pereira, Materia Medica, vol. ii. pt. i.; M'Intosh The Book of the Garden, vol. ii., 1855, p. 29.

GARNET (German, Granat; French, Grenat), a mineral the name of which is derived from the Latin granatum, the pomegranate, or, as Lydgate calls it, "garnet appille" (see Halliwell, Dict., i. p. 392), on account of the resemblance of Several its granular varieties to the seeds of that fruit. sorts of garnets, with other stones, seem to have been included under the terms avopag and carbunculus, employed by Theophrastus and Pliny. Garnet occurs in crystals, mostly dodecahedral or trapezohedral, very rarely octahedral,1 of the isometric, regular, or cubical system, also in pebbles and grains (as in alluvial deposits), and massive, with a granular or coarse lamellar structure. It varies in diaphaneity from transparent to nearly opaque; is red, red-brown, or black in colour, less frequently white, yellow, pink, or green; has a vitreous to resinous lustre, a white streak, dodecahedral cleavage, hardness of 65 to 7.5, specific gravity of 3·15 to 4.30, and an uneven sub-conchoidal fracture; and is brittle and sometimes friable, or, in the compact cryptocrystalline varieties, tough. Before the blowpipe it gives a brown, green, or black (often magnetic) glass, which hydrochloric acid decomposes, with the separation of gelatinous silica. Previous to melting, the mineral is but little affected by the acid. garnets. It has been shown by Professor Church that, although unaffected by exposure to a full red heat for a quarter of an hour, iron garnet may by fusion have its specific gravity lowered from 4.059 to 3.204. By almost complete fusion a specimen of almandine garnet examined by him had its specific gravity increased from 4·103 to 4-208. Long-continued ignition effected only a slight increase in the density of various specimens of lime garnet (see Journ. Chem. Soc., vol. xvii. p. 388). Garnets, which through the isomorphism of their constituents are extremely variable in chemical composition, are silicates of the general "-calcium, magnesium, iron, and manganese, and Rformula R"R". Si3012, or 3R"O,R20. 3SiO2, in which aluminium. iron. and chromium. Occasionally rarer metals

The least fusible forms are the lime-iron

=

[blocks in formation]

iii. p. 348; C. E. Kluge, db. d. Edelsteinkunde. Leipsic, 1800; Emanuel, Diamonds und Precious Stones, 3d ed., 1867; A. Schroef, Hdb. d. Edelsteinkande. Vienna, 1869; A. Castellani, Grais, 171;

J. D. Dana, 4 System of Mineralogy, 5th ed., pp. 265–72, New York, 1874; C. F. Naumann, Elemente der Mineralogie, 10th ed., by Dr F. Zirkel, pp. 532-5, Leipsic, 1877. On so-called gauets from the river Bobrowska, Urals, see Church, Mineralog. Mag. ii., 1879, (F. H. B.)

191.

are present; yttrium, for instance, has been found in garnets from Brevig, Norway. Three principal groups have been recognized, called, according to their chief sesquioxide basic components, alumina, iron, and chrome garnets, which have the general formula "Al, Si,O,2, R" FeSiO2, and R"Cr.SiO12, respectively. These are further classed, by the predominance of one or other of their contained proGARNIER, GERMAIN (1754-1821), an able writer on toxides, into numerous subordinate groups, as lime-alumina garnet, Ca, Al, Si,O12, e.g., grossularite, topazolite, and political economy, was born at Auxerre, on 8th November 1754. He was educated for the law, and obtained when cssonite; magnesia-alumina garnet, comprising pyrope, the typical specimens of which contain a small percentage of young the office of procureur at Chatelet. He acted for some time as secretary to Mme. Adelaide, aunt of Louis chromium; iron-alumina garnet, e.g., almandite, common garnet in part, and allochroite; manganese-alumina garnet, siderable reputation and power at court. XVI., and by his fine presence and manners acquired couOn the calling of as spessartite and romanzovite; lime-iron garnet, which includes andradite, melanite, or black garnet, which may in 1790 he appears to have been a member of the monthe states-general he was named as deputy for Chatelet, and be titaniferous, as at Frascati, and pyreneite, aplome,archical club in Paris. After 1792 he withdrew to the and common garnet in part; lime-magnesia-iron garnet (CaMg) Fe. SiO2, or bredbergite; and lime-chrome garnet, or ouvarovite. Colophonito, a yellow-brown to honey-yellow or almost pitch-black mineral, with a resinous lustre, commonly considered to be a lirac-iron garnet, according to Wichmann and Des-Cloiseaux must be regarded as for the most part granular vesuvian.

Pays de Vaud, and did not return till 1795. In public life, however, he seems to have been singularly fortunate. In 1797 he was on the list of candidates for the Directory; in 1800 he was prefect of Seine et Oise; in 1804 he was made senator; and from 1809 to 1811 he acted as president of the senate. After the restoration he obtained a peerage, and on the return of Louis XVIII., after the Hundred Days, he became minister of state and member of privy council. He died at Paris, 4th October 1821. Garnier was somewhat advanced in years before he began to take any interest in political economy; his previous efforts in literature had been of an altogether different kind. At court he was, when young, noted for his facile power of verse-writing, and he translated Mrs Radcliffe and Mrs Montague.

Garnier is best known by his admirable translation, with notes and introduction, of Smith's Wealth of Nations (1st ed 1805, 21 ed. 1822), and by his Histoire de la Monnaic (2 vols., 1819), which contains much sound and well-arranged material. His Abrégé dis Principes de l'Econ. Polit. (1796) is a very clear and instructive manual. Of high value also is the Description géographique, ply sique, et politique du départe ment de Seine-ct-Oise (1822), drawn up from his instructions. Other works are De la Propriété (1792), and Histoire des Banques d'Escompte (1806)

Garnet is a wide-spread mineral, and is found in micaceous, talcose, chloritic, and hornblendic schists, and in syenitic gneiss, syenite, granite, dolomite, and crystalline limestone; sometimes as pyrope, in serpentine; also in felspar-porphyry, and in volcanic rocks. In Cornwall it is met with chiefly in greenstone, or in close proximity thereto. It is an essential ingredient of the rock cklogite. Grossularite, a greenish to grey-green garnet, is found at Rezbanya in Hungary, and the Wilui river, Siberia; topazolite and essonite at Mussa, Piedmont, the latter also in Ceylon, Piedmont, and Elba; pyrope in Bohemia, and at Zoblitz in Saxony; and almandite in Ceylon, Pegu, Brazil, and Greenland. Spessartite is obtained at Haddam, Ct., and elsewhere; melanite in Vesuvian and other lavas; aplomo at Breitenbrunn and Schwarzenberg in Saxony; the fine green garnet ouvarovite chiefly at Saranovskaja, 14 versts from Bissersk in the Urals, and at New Idria in California; and white garnet in the Urals. Numerous other localities for garnet might be mentioned. Precious garnet, almandite or almandine (so termed, it is said, from being cut at Alabanda in Carin, whence the appellation alabandicus employed by Pliny), essonite or cinnamon-stone, grossularite, grossularia, or gooseberry stone, and pyrope or Bohemian garnet are the varieties of the mineral employed as gems. They are shaped by means of garnet powder or emery on a copper wheel, and polished on lead with tripoli.sination in Tong-king, December 7, 1873. He entered the Carbuncles are almadine garnets eut en cabochon; when of large size, and free from black spots, they may be worth as much as £20 apiece. The deep red or precious garnet often has a density close to that of the ruby, for which stone it has been sold. The Syriam or Pegu garnets, possibly the amethystizontas of Pliny (Nat. Hist., xxxvii. 25), commonly designated amethystine or oriental garnets, vary in colour from a deep red to a violet-purple, and may occur 3 inches in diameter. They are usually cut with four large and four small facets, and may fetch very high prices, a single specimen, of a fiery-red hue, measuring 1 inch by inch, having been sold for £40, and another, of octagonal form, for £140. Pyrope is a dark hyacinth-red to blood-red gem, much esteemed in Austria, Transylvania, and Turkey. Viewed by transmitted light it appears of a yellowish-red tint, more especially at the edges. Essonite, yellow to hyacinth-red in colour, is a softer and more fusible garnet than the other kinds used in jewellery. It is commonly called hyacinth, and has frequently been mistaken, as also sold, for true hyacinth or jacinth, which is a zirconium silicate, and may be distinguished by its density of 405-475, that of essonite being about 3 60-3 66. The garnet was much used as a jewel in ancient times. Antique intaglios on garnet are recognized by their usually fragmentary condition, due to their brittleness, and by a softness of colour, imparted to them by time, which defies imitation by even the ablest artists (Castellani) The bust of Hadrian in the Odescalchi museum, the Venus Genetrix in the cabinet of Abbé Pullini at Turin, and the representation of Sirius on the celebrated Marlborough stone, are among the finer examples of engraving in garnet. Garnet, where abundant, has been used in the smelting of iron ores. polishing purposes it is sometimes substituted for emery. large dull-coloured "carbunculus of India," according to Pliny (4.c.), used to be hollowed out into vessels that would hold as much as a pint. Garnet has been obtained as a furnace-product, and otherwise artificially. What is known as "white garnet" is the mineral leucite.

For

The

See Bischof, Chemical Geology, vol. ii. chap, xxxiii., and vol.

GARNIER, MARIE JOSEPH FRANÇOIS (1839-1873), usually called Francis Garnier, a French officer and explorer, was born at St Etienne, July 25, 1839, and perished by assas navy, and after voyaging in Brazilian waters and the Pacific he obtained a post on the staff of Admiral Charner, who from 1860 to 1862 was campaigning in Cochin-China. After some time spent in France he returned to the East, and in 1862 he was appointed inspector of the natives in Cochin-China, and entrusted with the administration of the town of Cho-len or Sho-len. It was at Garnier's suggestion that the Marquis de Chasseloup-Laubat determined to send a mission through Laos to Tibet, but as he was not considered old enough to be put in command, the chief authority was entrusted to Captain Doudart de Lagrée. In the course of the expedition to quote the words of Sir Roderick Murchison addressed to the youthful traveller when, in 1870, he was presented with the Victoria Medal of the Royal Geographical Society of London-from Cratieh in Cambodia to Shanghai 5392 miles were traversed, and of these 3625 miles, chiefly of country unknown to European geography, were surveyed with care, and the positions fixed by astronomical observations, nearly the whole of the observations being taken by Garnier himself. Volunteering to lead a detachment to Talifu the capital of Sultan Sulciman, the sovereign of the Mahometan rebels in Yunnan, he successfully carried out the more than adventurous enterprise. When shortly afterwards Lagrée died, Garnier naturally assumed the command of the expedition, and he conducted it in safety to the Yang-tze-Kiang, and thus to the Chinese coast. On his return to France he was received with enthusiasm. The preparation of his narrative was

interrupted by the Franco-German war, and during the siege of Paris he served as principal staff officer to the admiral in command of the eighth "sector." His experiences during the siege were published anonymously in the feuilleton of Le Temps, and appeared separately as Le Siége de Paris, journal d'un officier de marine, 1871. Returning to Cochin-China he found the political circumstances of the country unfavourable to further exploration, and accordingly he went to China, and in 1873 followed the upper course of the Yang-tze-Kiang to the waterfalls. He was next commissioned by Admiral Dupré, governor of Cochin-China, to Tong-king to found a French protectorate or a new colony. On November 20, 1873, he took Hanoi, the capital of Tong-king, and on December 7th he was slain.

The narrative of the principal expedition appeared in 1873, as Voyage d'exploration en Indo-Chine effectué pendant les années 1866, 1867, et 1868, publié sous la direction de M. Francis Garnier, avec le concours de M. Delaporte et de MM. Joubert et Thorel, 2 vols. An account of the Yang-tze-Kiang from Garnier's pen is given in the Bulletin de la Soc. de Geog., 1874. His Chronique royale du Camboje was reprinted from the Journal Asiatique in 1872. See Occan Highways, 1874, for a memoir by Colonel Yule.

GAROFALO, BENVENUTO. See Tisio. GARONNE, the ancient Garumna, a river of southern France, which rises in the Spanish Pyrenees not far from the massif of Maladetta, flows through the fine gorge called the Val d'Aran, partly loses itself under the calcareous rocks that form the gulf of Clédes, enters France near the Pont du Roi, and proceeds in a general north-west direction till it falls into the Bay of Biscay. Rafts can be sent down the river from the Spanish frontier; boats can pass with the stream from the confluence of the Salat to Toulouse; from Toulouse downwards regular navigation with boats can be maintained; and seafaring vessels can sail up as far as Castets, 32 miles above Bordeaux. At Bec d'Ambes, near the confluence of the Dordogne, the river widens out to a breadth of from 2 to 4 miles, and takes the name of the Gironde. This estuary presents an almost uninterrupted succession of islands and banks, which divide it into two nearly equal branches, and render the navigation somewhat difficult. At the mouth stands the famous tower of Cordouan, which dates from 1584-1610, and ranks as one of the finest lighthouses on the coast of France. The current at Toulouse, when the water is at its lowest, amounts to 1271 cubic feet per second, but in the ordinary state of the river it is 5297 cubic feet. During ordinary flood it rises about 25 feet; but in exceptional cases, as in 1855 and 1856, this increases to 28 or even 30 feet, and as the banks of the river are low the inundations are very extensive. The principal affluents on the right are the Salat, the Ariége, the Taru, the Lot, the Dropt, and the Dordogne; and on the left the Neste, the Bouge, the Save, the Gimoné, the Gers, the Baise, and the Ciron. GARONNE, HAUTE-, or UPPER GARONNE, is one of the frontier departments in the south of France, being continuous with Spain along the line of the Pyrenees. To the N. lies the department of Tarn-et-Garonne, to the E. are those of Tarn, Aude, and Ariége, and to the W. those of Gers and Hautes-Pyrénées. The form of the department is very irregular. Its greatest length is 99 miles from N.E. to S.W., and its greatest breadth about 56 miles; but its area only amounts to 629,000 hectares, or 2428 English square miles. The northern portion is a fertile but mountainous stretch of country, with continual interchange of hill and valley nowhere thrown into striking relief; while towards the south the land rises gradually to the Pyrenees, which there attain a height of upwards of 11,000 feet. All the streams by which the department is watered-the Neste, the Salat, the Lers, the Logue, the Touche, &c.-belong to the system of the river from which it takes its name. Except in the mountainous region the

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climate is mild, the mean annual temperature being rather higher than that of Paris. The rainfall, which averages 23 inches at Toulouse and 26 at St Gaudens, is distributed over 125 days. The winds are often violent. Thick forests of oak, fir, and pine exist in the mountains, and furnish timber for shipbuilding. The arable land (360,241 hectares, or 890,207 acres) is well adapted for the cultivation of wheat, maize, and other grain crops; and the produce of cereals is generally much more than is required for the local consumption. Oats, buckwheat, barley, flax, colza, and potatoes are all grown; fruit is plentiful, and about 54,000 hectares, or 133,441 acres, are occupied by vineyards, though the wine is only of medium quality. As pasture land is abundant, a good deal of attention is given to the rearing of cattle and sheep; and owing to the mountainous character of the southern region asses and mules are favourite beasts of burden, and may be estimated at 24,000 in number. Iron, lead, copper, and coal are among the mineral productions, as well as marble, both white and variegated, granite, freestone, lime, and slate. The manufactures are various though not individually extensive, and include iron and copper utensils, earthenware, woollen, cotton, and linen goods, leather, paper, watches, mathematical instruments, &c. Railway communication is furnished by the line from Bordeaux to Cette which passes by Toulouse, and there sends off branch lines leading to Albi, Auch, Foix, St Giron, and Bagnères de Luchon. The Canal du Midi traverses the department for 32 miles. There are four arrondissements-Toulouse, Villefranche, Muret, and St Gaudens, subdivided into 39 cantons and 585 communes. The chief town, Toulouse. contained 120,208 inhabitants in 1875; but there is no other town of even 5000 in the department, the largest being St Gaudens with 4087. The population of Haute-Garonne in 1801 was 405,574, including the arrondissement of Castelsarrasin with 60,545 inhabitants, which was detached in 1806; in 1851 it was 481,610, and in 1875, 477,730.

GARRICK, DAVID (1716-1799), the greatest actor of his age, and the most successful of English theatrical managers, was descended from a good French Protestant family of Bordeaux which had settled in England on the revocation of the edict of Nantes. His father, Captain Peter Garrick, was on a recruiting expedition when his celebrated son was born at Hereford on February 19, 1716-17. The captain usually resided at Lighfield on half pay, but, in order to benefit his large family, he accepted an offer to proceed on service to Gibraltar, in place of a brother officer who was desirous of returning to England. This kept him many years absent from home, and the letters written to him by "little Davy," acquainting him with the doings at Lichfield, are highly interesting memorials of the future Roscius. In his nineteenth year, after receiving a good education at the grammar school of Lichfield, David was sent to the establishment at Edial, opened in June or July 1736 by Samuel Johnson, his senior by seven years. The Edial academy was shut in about six months, and on the 2d of March 1736-7 master and pupil, Johnson and Garrick, left Lichfield for London, the one to commence the study of the law, and the other to try his tragedy of Irene-Johnson, as he afterwards said, "with twopence halfpenny in his pocket," and Garrick "with three-halfpence in his." Seven days afterwards, however, Garrick was entered of Lincoln's Inn, but after remaining for a few months in London, he resided for some time with Mr Colson, a distinguished teacher at Rochester (afterwards Lucasian professor at Cambridge). Captain Garrick, who had returned from Gibraltar, died about a month after his son's arrival in London. Soon afterwards a rich uncle, a wine merchant at Lisbon, in his will left David a sum of £1000, and he and his brother entered into partnership as wine merchants in

London and Lichfield. The concern was not prosperous though Foote's assertion that he had known Garrick with three quarts of vinegar in the cellar calling himself a wine merchant need not be taken literally—and before the end of 1741 he had spent nearly half of his £1000. His passion for the stage completely engrossed him; he tried his hand both at dramatic criticism and at dramatic authorship, and made his first appearance on the stage late in 1740-1, incognito, as harlequin at Goodman's Fields, where Woodward, being ill, allowed him to take his place during a few scenes. When the manager of the same theatre, Giffard, took a party of players to Ipswich, Garrick accompanied them, and there made his first essay as an actor under the name of Lyddal, in the part of the black Aboan (in Southerne's Oroonoko). His success on the provincial boards determined his future career. On the 19th of October 1741 he made his appearance at Goodman's Fields in the character of Richard III., and gained the most enthusiastic applause. His staid and sedate brother, and | his sisters at Lichfield, were scandalized at this derogation from the provincial dignity of the family; and Garrick, greatly distressed at the shock they had received by the intelligence (which, however, he expected), hastened to give up his interest in the wine company. Each night added to his popularity on the stage. He was received by the best company in town. While his Richard was still calling forth general admiration, he won new applause in Lear and Pierre, as well as in several comic characters (including that of Bayes). Glover ("Leonidas") attended every performance; Lyttelton, Pitt, and several other members of parliament had shown him the greatest civility. From December 2d he appeared in his own name. Pope went to see him thrice during his first performances, and pronounced that "that young man never had his equal as an actor, and he will never have a rival." Before next spring he had supped with "the great Mr Murray, counsellor," and hoped to do so with Mr Pope through Murray's introduction, while he was dining with Halifax, Sandwich, and Chesterfield. "There are a dozen dukes of a night at Goodman's Fields," writes Horace Walpole. The Lying Valet being at this time brought out with success, the honours of dramatic author were added to those of the stage. His fortune was now made, and while the managers of Covent Garden and Drury Lane resorted to the law to make Giffard close his little theatre, Garrick was engaged by Fleetwood for Drury Lane for the season of 1742. In the meantime, having very advantageous terms offered him for performing in Dublin during part of the summer, he went over to that city, where he found the same homage paid to his merit which he had received from his own countrymen. From September 1742 to April 1745 he continued at Drury Lane, after which he again went over to Ireland, and remained there the whole season, as joint-manager with Sheridan, in the direction and profits of the theatre-royal in Smock Alley. From Dublin he returned to England, and fulfilled a short engagement in 1746-7 with Rich at Covent Garden. This was his last series of performances as a hired actor; for in the close of that season Fleetwood's patent for the management of Drury Lane expired, and Garrick, in conjunction with Lacy, purchased the property of the theatre, together with the renovation of the patent, and in the winter of 1747 opened it with a strong company of actors, the prologue for the occasion being written by his old preceptor Johnson.

For a time, at least, "the drama's patrons" were content with the higher entertainment furnished them; in the end Garrick had to "please" them, like most other managers, by gratifying their love of show. Garrick was surrounded by many players of eminence; and he had the art, as he was told by Miss Clive, "of contradicting the proverb that one cannot make bricks without straw. by doing what is

infinitely more difficult, making actors and actresses without genius." The naturalness of his own acting was its great charm. As Churchill says in the Rosciad, which remains the chief literary monument of Garrick's pre-eminence among his fellows, he who is "pleased with Nature, must be pleased with thee." Booth, Quin, and the old tragedians were remarkable for a style of stately declamation, sonorous, and often graceful and impressive, but wanting the versatility and rapid changes of passion that, when exhibited by Garrick, at once captivated the audience. "It seemed," said Richard Cumberland, "as if a whole century had been stepped over in the passage of a single scene; old things were done away, and a new order at once brought forward, bright and luminous, and clearly destined to dispel the barbarisms of a tasteless age, too long superstitiously devoted to the illusions of imposing declamation." Garrick's French descent and his education may have contributed to give him the vivacity of manner and versatility of concep tion which distinguished him as an actor; and nature had given him an eye, if not a stature, to command, and a mimic power of wonderful variety. The list of his characters in tragedy, comedy, and farce is large, and would be extraordinary for a modern actor of high rank; it includes not less than seventeen Shakespearean parts. As a manager, though he committed some grievous blunders, he did good service to the theatre and signally advanced the popularity of Shakespeare's plays, of which not less than twenty-four were produced at Drury Lane under his management. Many of these were not pure Shakespeare; but not every generation has the same notions of the way in which he is best honoured. He purified the stage of much of its grossness, and introduced a relative correctness of costume and decoration unknown before.

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After, about the year 1745, escaping from the chains of an unreturned passion for the beautiful but reckless actress 'Peg" Woffington, Garrick had, in 1749, married Mademoiselle Violette (Eva Maria Veigal), a German lady who had attracted the admiration of the court of Vienna as a dancer, and was patronized in England by the countess of Burlington. This lady Garrick called "the best of women and wives," and he lived most happily with her in his villa at Hampton (acquired by him in 1754, and adorned by the famous Shakespeare temple), whither he was glad to escape from his house in Southampton Street. Their union was childless, and Mrs Garrick survived her husband, living in great respect until 1822. Having sold the moiety of his theatre for £35,000, Garrick took leave of the stage by playing a round of his favourite characters-Hamlet, Lear, Richard, Lusignan, and Kitely, as the graver; Archer, Abel Drugger, Sir John Brute, Benedick, Leon, and Don Felix, as those of a lighter cast. He ended the series with Don Felix (in The Wonder) on June 10, 1776. But he was not long to enjoy his opulent and well-earned repose, for he died in London on the 20th of January 1779. He was buried in Westminister Abbey with imposing solemnities, and amidst an unexampled concourse of people of all ranks. Johnson, whose various and not always consistent criticisms on Garrick are scattered through the pages of Boswell. spoke warmly of the elegance and sprightliness of his friend's conversation, as well as of his liberality and kindness of heart; and his death, which came upon him unexpectedly, "eclipsed," Johnson said, "the gaiety of nations, and impoverished the public stock of harmless pleasure." But the most accurate and discriminating character of Garrick, slightly tinged with satire, is that drawn by Goldsmith in his poem of Retaliation. As a literary man Garrick was very happy in his epigrams and slight occasional poems. He had the good taste to recognize, and the spirit to make public his recognition of, the excellence of Gray's Odes at time when they were either ridiculed or neglected, His

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