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marked by the speech put into his mouth by Orosius. He | south-castern Europe nearly tlic sanc part which the Westhad at one time dreamed of destroyipg the Roman power, Gothis played in the century before. They are seen going of turning Romania into Gothia, and putting Ataulf in the to and fro, in every conceivable relation of frienrlship and stead of Augustus ; but he had learned that the world could comity with the Eastern Roman power, till, just as the be governed only by the laws of Rome, and he had deter- West-Gotlıs had done before them, they pass from the East mined to use the Gothic arms for the support of the Roman to the West. They are still ruled by kings of the house of power. And in the confused and contradictory accounts of the Amali, and from that housc thcre now steps forward a his actions (for the story in Jordanis cannot be reconciled great figure, famous alike in history and in romance, in the with the accounts in Olympiodorus and the chroniclers), person of Theocloric son of Thcodemir. Born about 454, we can’see something of this principle at work throughout. his childhood was spent at Constantinople as a hostage, Gaul and Spain were overrun both by barbarian invaders where he was carefully educated. The former part of his and by rival einperors.

The sword of the Gothi was to win life is taken up with various disputes, intrigues, and wars back the lost lands for Rome. And, amid many shiftings within the Eastern cmpirc, ili which he has as his rival of allegiance, Ataulf seems never to have wholly given up another Theodoric, son of Triarius, and surnamed Strabo. the position of an ally of the empire. His marriage with This older but lesser Thcodoric scems to have been the chief Placidia, the daughter of the great Theodosius, was taken (not king) of that branch of the East-Goths which had as the seal of the union between Goth and Roman, and, had settled within the empiro at an carlier time. Theodoric their son Theodosius lived, a dynasty might have arisen | the Great, as lie is sometimes distinguished, is sometimes uniting both claims. But the career of Ataulf was cut the friond, sometimes the onciny, of the cmpire. In the short at Barcelona in 415, by his murder at the hands of former case he is clothed with various Roman titles and another faction of the Goths. The reign of Sigeric was offices, as patrician and consul; but in all cases alike he momentary. Under Wallia in 418 a more settled state of remains the national East-Gothic king. It was in both things was established. The empire received again, as the characters together that he sct out in 488, by commission prize of Gothic victories, the Tarraconensis in Spain, and from the emperor Zeno, to recover Italy from Odoaccr. By Novempopulana and the Narbonensis in Gaul. The 493 Ravenna was taken; Odoacer was killed by Theodoric's

second Aquitaine,” with the sea-coast from the mouth of own hand; and the East-Gothic power was fully estab. the Garonne to the mouth of the Loire, became the West- lished uver Italy, Sicily, Dalmatia, and the lands to the Gothic kingdom of Toulouse. The dominion of the Goths north of Italy. In this war the history of the East and was now strictly Gaulish ; their lasting Spanish dominion West Goths begins again to unite, if we may accept the does not yet begin.

witness of one writer (Auon. Valcs. 728) that Theodoric The reign of the first West-Gothic Theodoric (418-451) was helped by West-Gothic auxiliaries. The two branches shows a shifting state of relations betwen the Roman and of the nation were soon brought much more closely together, Gothic powers; but, after defeats and successes both ways, when, through the overthrow of the West-Gothic kingdom the older relation of alliance against common enemies was of Toulouse, the power of Theodoric was practically extended again established. At last Goth and Roman had to join over a large part of Gaul and over nearly the whole of together against the common enemy of Europe and Chris Spain. A time of confusion followed the fall of Alaric, tendom, Attila the Hun. But they met Gothic warriors in and, as that prince was the son-in-law of Theodoric, the Easthis army. By the terms of their subjection to the Huns, Gothic king stepped in as the guardian of his grandson the East-Goths came to fight for Attila against Christendom Amalaric, and preserved for liim all his Spanish and a at Châlons, just as the Servians came to fight for Bajazet fragment of his Gaulish dominion. Toulouse passed away against Christendom at Nicopolis. Theodoric fell in the to the Frank ; but the Goth kept Narbonne and its district, battle (451). After this momentary. meeting, the history the land of Septimania—the land which, as the last part of the East and West Goths again separates for a while. of Gaul held by the Goths, kept the name of Gothin for The kingdom of Toulouse grew within Gaul at the expense many ages. While Thcodoric lived, the West-Gothic kingof the empire, and in Spain at the expense of the Suevi. dom was practically united to his own dominion. He Under Euric (466-488) the West-Gothic power again seems also to have claimed a kind of protectorate over the became largely a Spanish power. The kingdom of Toulouse Teutonic powers generally, and indeed to bave practically took in nearly all Gaul south of the Loire and west of the exercised it, except in the case of the Franks. Rhone, with all Spain, except the north-west corner, which The East-Gothic dominion was now again as great in was still held by the Suevi. Provence alone remained extent, and far inore splendid, than it could have been in to the empire. The West-Gothic kings largely adopted the time of Ermanaric. But it was now of a wholly difRoman manners and culture; but, as they still kept to their ferent character. The dominion of Thcodoric was not a original Arian creed, their rule never becaine thoroughly barbarian but a civilized power. His twofold position ran acceptable to their Catholic subjects. They stood therefore through everything. He was at once national king of the at a great disadvantage when a new and aggressive Catholic Goths, and successor, though without any imperial titles, of power appeared in Gaul through the conversion of the the Roman emperors of the West. The two nations, difFrank Chlodwig. Toulouse was, as in days long after, the fering in manners, language, and religion, lived side by seat of an heretical power, against which the forces of side on the soil of Italy; each was ruled according to its own northern Gaul marched as on a crusade. In 507 the West- law, by the prince who was, in his two separate characters, Gothic king Alaric fell before the Frankish arms at Bouglé, the common sovereign of both. The picture of Theodoric's near Poitiers, and his kingdom, as a great power north rule is drawn for us in the state papers drawn up in bis of the Alps, fell with him. That Spain and a fragment of name and in the names of his successors by his Roman Gaul still remained to form a West-Gothic kingdom was minister Cassiodorus. The Goths seem to have been thick owing to the intervention of the East-Goths under the rule on the ground in northern Italy ; in the south they formed of the greatest man in Gothic history.

little more than garrisons. In Theodoric's theory the Goth When the Hunnish power broke in pieces on the death was the armed protector of the peaceful Roman; the of Attila, the East-Goths recovered their full independence. Gothic king had the toil of government, while the Roman They now entered into relations with the empire, and were consul had the honour. All the forms of the Roman settled on lands in Pannonia. During the greater part of administration went on, and the Roman polity and Ronian the latter half of the 5th century, the East-Goths play in culture had great influence on the Goths themselves. The rule of the prince over two distinct nations in the same land | The next reign, that of his son Recared (586-601), was was necessarily despotic; the old Teutonic freedom was marked by a change.which took away the great hindranco necessarily lost. Such a system as that which Theodoric which had thus far stood in the way of any national union 'established needed a Theodoric to carry it on. It broke botween Goths and Romans. The king and the greater part in pieces after his death.

of the Gothic people embraced the Catholic faith. A vast On the death of Theodoric (526) the East and West degree of influence now fell into the hands of the Catholic Goths were again separated. The few instances in which bishops; the two nations began to unite; the Goths wete they are found acting together after this time are as scattered gradually Romanized, and the Gothic langliage began to go and incidental as they were before. Amalaric succeeded out of use. In short, the Romance nation and the Romance to the West-Gothic kingdom in Spain and Septimania speech of Spain began to be formed. The Goths supplied Provence was added to the dominion of the new East-Gothic the Teutonic infusion into the Roman mass. The kingking Atbalaric, the grandson of Theodoric through his dom, however, still remained a Gothic kingdom. “Gothic," daughter Amalasontha. The weakness of the East-Gothic not “Roman” or “Spanish,” is its formal title; only a singlo position in Italy now showed itself. The long wars of late instance of the use of the formula "regnum Hispaniæ" Justinian's reign (535-555) recovered Italy for the empire, is known. In the first half of the 7th century that name and the Gothic name died out on Italian soil. The chance became for the first time geographically applicable by the of forming a national state in Italy by the union of Roman conquest of the still Roman coast of southern Spain. The and Teutonic elements, such as those which arose iu Gaul, . empire was then engaged in the great struggle with the in Spain, and in parts of Italy under Lombard rule, was Avars and Persians, and, now that the Gothic kings were 'thus lost. The East-Gothic kingdom was destroyed before Catholic, the great objection to their rule on the part of the Goths and Italians had at all mingled together. The war of Roman inhabitants was taken away. The Gothic nobility course made the distinction stronger; under the kings who still renained a distinct class, and held, along with the were chosen for the purposes of the war national Gothic feel Catholic prelacy, the right of choosing the king. Union with ing bad revived. The Goths were now again, if not a wander- the Catholic Church was accompanied by the introduction ing people, yet an armud host, no longer the protectors but of the ecclesiastical ceremony of anointing, a change dethe eneniies of the Roman people of Italy. The East-Gothic cidedly favourable to elective rule. The growth of those dominion and the East-Gothic name wholly passed away. later ideas which tended again to favour the hereditary docThe nation had followed Theodoric. It is only once or trine had not time to grow up in Spain before the Malo twice after his expedition that we hear of Goths, or even of metan conquest (711). The West-Gothic crown therefore Gothic leaders, in the eastern provinces. From the soil remained elective till the end. The modern Spanish nation of Italy the nation passed away almost without a trace, is the growth of the long struggle with the Mussulmans; while the next Teutonic conquerors stamped their name on but it ha a direct connexion with the West-Gothic kingthe two ends of the land, one of which keeps it to this day. dom. Wo see at once that the Goths hold altogether a

The West-Gothic kingdom lasted much longer, and different place in Spanish memory from that which they came much nearer to establishing itself as a national hold in Italian memory. In Italy the Goth was but a power in the lands which it took in. But the difference momentary invader and ruler; the Teutonic element in of race and faith between the Arian Goths and the Catholic Italy comes from other sources. In Spain the Goth supRomans of. Gaul and Spain influenced the history of the plies an important element in the modern nation. And West-Gothic kingdom for a long time. The Arian Goths that element has been neither forgotten nor despised. Part ruled over Catholic subjects, and were surrounded by of the unconquered region of northern Spain, the land of Catholic neighbours. The Franks were Catholics from Asturia, kept for a while the name of Gothia, as did the their first conversion; the Suevi became Catholics much Gothic possessions in Gaul and in Crim. The name earlier than the Goths. The African conquests of Belisarius of the people who played so great a part in all southern gave the Goths of Spain, instead of the Arian Vandals, Europe, and who actually ruled over so large a part of it, another Catholic neighbour in the form of the restored has now wholly passed away; but it is in Spain that its

The Catholics everywhere preferred either historical impress is to be looked for. Roman, Suevian, or Frankish rule to that of the heretical Of Gothic literature in the Gothic language we have the Goths; even the unconquerable mountaineers of Cantabria Bible of Ulfila, and some other religious writings and frag. seem for a while to have received a Frankish governor. In / ments (see notice of Gothic Language below). Of Gothic some other mountain districts the Roman inhabitants long legislation in Latin, we have the edict of Theodoric of the maintained their independence, and in 534 a large part of year 500, lately edited by Bluhme in the Monumenta Gerthe south of Spain, including the great cities of Cadiz, maniæ Historica ; and the books of Variæ of Cassiodorus Cordova, Seville, and New Carthage, was, with the good may pass as a collection of the state papers of Theodoric and will of its Roman inhabitants, reunited to the empire, his immediate successors. Among the West-Goths written which kept some points on the coast as late as 624. That laws had already been put forth by Euric (466-484). The is to say, the same work which the empire was carrying on second Alaric (484-507) put forth a Breviarium of Roman in Italy against the East-Goths was at the same moment law for his Roman subjects; but the great collection of Westearried on in Spain against the West-Goths. But in Italy Gothic laws dates from the later days of the monarchy, the whole land was for a while won back, and the Gothic being put forth by King Rekisvinth about 654. This code power passed away for ever. In Spain the Gothic power gave occasion to some well-known comments by Montoutlived the Roman power, but it outlived it only by itself esquieu and Gibbon, and have been discussed by Savigny becoming in some measure Roman. The greatest period (Geschichte des Römischen Rechts

, ii. 65) and. various other of the Gothic power as such was in the reign of Leovigild writers. They are printed in the old collections of Linden(567-586). He reunited the Gaulish and Spanish parts of brog and Heineccius. They do not seem to have been yet the kingdom which had been parted for a moment; he reprinted in the Monumenta Germanic. Of special Gothic united the Suevian dominion to his own; he overcame histories, besides that of Jordanis, already so often quoted, some of the independent districts, and won back part of the there is the Gothic history of Isidor, archbishop of Seville, recovered Roman province in southern Spain. He further a special source of the history of the West-Gothic, kings established the power of the crown over the Gothic down to Siunthala (621-631). But all the Latin and nobles, who were beginning to grow into territorial lords. Greek writers contemporary with the days of Gothic pre

Roman power:


dominance make their constant contributions. Not for language may be drawn from a careful examination of the special facts, but for a general estimate, no writer is more numerous words borrowed from Gothic at a much earlier instructive than Salvian of Marseilles in the 5th century, period by some of the Finnish tribes originally dwelling in .whose work De Gubernatione Dei is full of passages con- the interior of Russia. It may be safely assumed that trasting the vices of the Romans with the virtues of the some at least of these words still retain forms of the barbarians, especially of the Goths. In all such pictures Gothic language from as early a period as perhaps the 1st we must allow a good deal for exaggeration both ways, but or 2d century B.C. By the same date the Goths, as well there must be a ground-work of truth. The chief virtues as the other Teutonic nations, were no doubt already in which the Catholic presbyter praises in the Arian Goths are possession of the Runic alphabet, an adaptation of a partitheir chastity, their piety according ty their own creed, cular form of the Latin characters to their special wants and their tolerance towards the Catholics under their rule, and uses. 3 No traces of this alphabet, however, have been left, their general good treatment of their Roman subjects. He except the already mentioned short inscription of the even ventures to hope that such good people may be saved, Bucharest ring, a list of the Gothic names of these runes, uotwithstanding their heresy. All this must have had some preserved in a Vienna manuscript of the 9th century,* and ground-work of truth in the 5th century, but it is not very some letters in Ulfila's Gothic alphabet, which soon sup wonderful if the later West-Goths of Spain had a good planted the less convenient Runic characters, and so helped deal fallen away from the doubtless somewhat ideal picture to inaugurate the short literary period of the Gothic of Salvian.

language so closely connected with the name of that prelate. of modern writers dealing specially with Gothic history may be

Ulfila, or rather Vulfila (310-380 A.D., see L'LFILA), mentioned Manso (Geschichte des Ost-Gothischen Reiches in Italien, was a man of the most profound learning. He not only Breslau, 1824); Aschbach (Geschichte der Westgothon, Frankfort, invented, as has been said, a new alphabet for his literary 1827); Köpke (Die Anfänge des Königsthums bei den Gothen, Berlin, 1854; Dahn (Die Könige der Gerinanen, Munich and

purposes, but was also able to preach and to write in Latin Würzburg, 1861–1871): Pallmann (Geschichte der Völkerwanderung, and Greek as well as in his native Gothic language, and he Gotha and Weimar, 1863–1864). It is hard to find any work in is reported to have left behind him a great number of tracts English dealing specially with Gothio history, though much may be and translations in these three idioms. The principal work learned from writers like Gibbon and Milman, who deal with the

of his life, however, was his translation of the Bible, parts Goths simply as part of some larger subject. Several chapters in the third book of Milman's History of Latin Christianity are of

of which seem to have reached us in the famous Codex special importance in this way.

(E. A. F.) Argenteus, now at Upsala, and in several minor fragments

at Wolfenbüttel (Codex Carolinus) and Milan (Codices GOTHIC LANGUAGE.

Ambrosiani, including some leaves now kept at Rome and By this name, which may be taken generally as denoting Turin). In this way we possess the greater part of the the idioms of the various divisions of the Gothic nation, is gospels, considerable portions of the epistles, and a few more particularly meant the language exhibited in certain fragments of the Old Testament; there is also a fragment fragments of a translation of the Bible and other minor

of a commentary on St John's gospel, commonly called documents, which, although preserved in manuscripts not

Skeireins (or "explanation"); and the fragment of a calendar dating farther back than perhaps the 5th century, and

which has been already mentioned as containing the oriclearly written in Italy during the rule of the East-Goths, ginal form of the name of the Gothic people. As to the are commonly assumed to have originated among the West authorship of the last two fragments nothing can be said Goths at the time when they were seated in Mesia, and to

with certainty; and certain differences in language and be therefore older by at least a century than the manu

manner of translation make it doubtful even whether the scripts themselves. It is chiefly due to this assumption fragments of the Old Testament can be traced to the same that the more distinctive name of Mæsogothic language is origin as those of the New. The bulk of the whole, how. often used, in England and elsewhere, as well as the simpler ever, may safely be ascribed to Ulfila, for it can hardly be Gothic. The latter name, however, seems to be more appro.

assumed that the same work would have been done twice priate, in spite of the great probability of the assumption

over in so short a space of time as that lying between the referred to,-since it is, for obvious reasons, utterly impos- days of Ulfila and the date of our manuscripts

. The whole sible to prove that the language of the West-Goths at that

character of the translation too seems to indicate a man of time differed from that of the East-Goths, or, even if there

Ulfila’s mental power and theological learning. Although was any difference, to show that our manuscripts represent

it cannot be denied that several alterations of the original the original forms of the speech of their supposed West

have been introduced into our texts at a later time, it is Gothic author. Indeed, according to a fragment of a Gothic

certain both that the author carefully interpreted the Greek calendar preserved in one of the Milan manuscripts, which

text (which was of course the fundamental source of his gives the name of the Gothic people as Gut-thiudal (thiuda, work), and also that he consulted, and in not a few places “people "), the most correct form of the name would be followed, the old Latin versions where his own ideas seemed Gotic. This spelling at least has obviously greater claims to differ from those of his Greek authorities. to authenticity than Gothi, Gotthi, or Tórbon and other

As a specimen of the language, and of Ulfila's mode of similar forms most commonly (although not exclusively) translation, we may insert here his version of the Lord's used by Latin and Greek writers, whose want of familiarity prayer:with the sounds of the Gothic language is often abundantly thíudinassus theins." Wairthai wilja theins swe in himina jah ana

Atta unsar thu in himinam. Weihnai namo thein. Qimai manifest. From Gut-thiuda we may infer with certainty that the Goths called themselves Gutós, the corresponding * See Dr Wilh, Thomsen, Ueber den Einfluss der Germanischen adjective being gutisks

Sprachen auf die Finnisch-Lappischen (Halle, 1870). We have no direct evidence of the character of the Gothic

* See especially Dr Ludv. Wimmer, Runeskriflons Oprindelse og

Udvikling i Norden, Copenhagen, 1874. language until the time of the above-mentioned manuscripts ; * J. Zacher, Das Gothische Alphabet Vulfilas und das Runen. but some conclusions regarding a more archaic state of the alphabet, Leipsic, 1855.

5 A few Gothic words and names occur among the subscriptions to | The same form of the namo seems to occur a second time in the two Latin charters, one of which is now preserved at Naples; the Runic inscription of the Bucharest ring, Gut-annôm nailag, "dedicated other, formerly kept at Arezzo, is now lost. to the Goths' treasure. Cf. H. F. Massmann, in Pfeiffer's Germania For fuller particulars see the two principal editions of the Gothic (Vienna, 1857), ii. p. 200 sq.; and Ludv. Wimmer, Aarböger for texts by V. d. Gabelentz und Loebe (3 vols., Altenburg and Leipsic, nordisk Olkyndighed og Historie (Copenhagen, 1867), p. 45

1843–76), and by E. Bernhardt (Halle, 1875).


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airthai. Hlalf unsarana thana sinteinan gif uns himma daga. Jan ending in - (as in Gothic and Old Norse wast, gafl, thou wert, aflet uns thatei skulans sijaima, swaswe jah weis afletam thaim gavest) by the corresponding form of the subjunctive (Old English skulam unsaraim. Jah ni briggais uns in fraistabnjai, ak lausais wcére, geafe, Old Saxon and Old High German wāri, gāli). uns af thamma ubilin

Western l'eutonic has also lost the faculty of deriving passive or The Gothic language did not very long survive the times intransitive verbs from active verbs or adjectives by adding the

syllable -na- after the root-syllable, as in Gothic fullnan, Old of Ulfila. From Mosia, where it had gained its highest

Norse fullna, to be filled, as compared with Gothic fulls, Old Norse literary culture, it disappeared together with the Goths, fullr, rull; or Gothic fulljan, Old Norse fylla, to fill. Only a very when they were driven from these parts by later migrations. few instances of this formation are left in Western Teutonic, such In the western portions of Europe, that is, in Italy, France, as Old English warnan, to awaken (intrans. ), or leornian, German and Spain, whither it had been carried by the emigrants, (trans.) and Gerinan lchten, to teach). As to the vocabulary, we

lernen, to learn (cf. Old English weccan, Gerinan wecken, to awaken the Gothic language seems to have died out even suoner may mention the loss of the verb dón, to do, in Gothic aud Scandithan the Gothic nationality, giving way to the overpowering navian. The most conspicuous peculiarity in the syntax is the influence of Latin, and leaving behind it only a few indis- frequent use of the dative (or perhaps originally the instrumental tinct relics in some proper names and other words that case) instead of the accusative in Eastern Teutonic. had been received into that victorious language.

Among the Teutonic languages Gothic holds by far the foremost

It rank as regards the regularity of its sound-system and its inflexions. was only in a remote spot of the Crimea that it continued The vowel system is remarkable for the absence of the short e and to exist until the 16th century, wheu the last remains of a o sounds, except in a few places where & and (spelt ai and au) Gothic people were detected, and a few specimens of their

occur under certain consonantal influences. Umlau, or assimilation a

of root-vowels to a following a., i., or u- sound, is not discernible language were gathered by Augerius de Busbeck, a Dutch

in Gothic. Thus we find only five short vovels, a, (ai), , (au), u; traveller, who visited the eastern parts of Europe in the five long vowels d, e, i (spelt oz), 7, ū; and three diphthongs ai, years 1554-1564.1

and ir. There may have been other distinctions of vowel. It is well known that the literary remains of Gothic are (with the qualities besides those expressed in spelling, but we have no means exception, perhaps, of a few Runic inscriptions belonging to the

of definitely settling this question; so much, however, can be said, Scandinavian Tanguages) by several centuries the oldest specimens sounds, since these are often interchanged with oi and us in our

that the long vowels, and especially ē and o, probably had the close of Teutonic speech, and therefore have a particular value for the student of the history of that family of languages. Notwithstand | manuscripts. The spelling of the consonantal system is also very ing this fact, it would be altogether wrong to regard Gothic as the simple. Besides y, 20, 7, 7 and three nasal sounds (the guttural common source of the more modern stages of these idioms. Although

nasal being expresssed by g after the Greek fashion), re find three very archaic in

voiceless stops, p, t, k (q being only a conı bination of kro); three of its forms and sounds, it is in these still far

many removed from the original features of the common language, as that

voiced stops, b, d, 9; four voiceless spirants, f, s, th, h; and only was spoken before any separation of Teutonic tribes had taken place.

one distinct sign for a voiced spirant, z. This system of spelling, Most nearly related to it seem to have been the Scandinavian

however, is obviously insufficient to express all the sounds of the languages, which are now generally assumed to have formed, together

language, --an insufficiency partly dne to the fact that the transcripwith Gothic, the so-called eastern branch of the Teutonic family,

tion of the Gothic speech-sounds was chiefly an imitation of the Greek while English, Frisian, and Low and High German belonged to a

graphic system, which, at least in Ulfila's time, had become rather Western division. The latter is chiefly marked by the introduction

imperfect, inasmuch as different sounds developed out of one sound of a considerable number of forms and sounds of a less archaic

of an earlier period were still often expressed by the same sign (just stamp, while the eastern idioms are found to have adhered more

as in the English orthography of the present day). It is highly closely to the original forms. Thus, almost the only distinct inno

probable, for instance, that the signs of b, d, g of the Gothic vation in the sound-system of the eastern branch is the insertion of

alphabet not only expressed the sounds of voiced stop consonants a g sound into the groups iuw, auw, uw in accented syllables, as

(mediæ), but also represented the sounds of voiced spirants, such as in Gothic triggres, Old Norse tryggr, compared with Old High Ger

English o and soft th, or North German g after a vowel (these man and Old Saxon triuwi, Old English ireowe, trywe, true"; or

valuos being the only ones left to the Modern Greek signs B, 7, 8). Old Norse höggva, to hew, Old High German and Old Saxon

Hence the regular change of b, d final after a vowel into f, th, as in hauwan, Old English heawan. Western Teutonic, on the other

gaf, I gave, from giban, to give; or bath, I bade, from bidjan, to bid. hand, is at once discernible by its doubling all single consonants

Great regularity prevails also in the inflexional system. In the ending a short root-syllable before y (w, 7, 1); thus Old English

substantival and adjectival declensions the instrumental case has theccan, Old Saxon thekkian, Old High German deckon, to cover

become extinct by an early confusion with the dative (the case (literally “to thatch”), but Gothic thakjan, Old Norse thekja ; or

commonly called dative being, in fact, a mixture of forms of the Old English sellan, Old Saxon sellian, Old High German sellon, to

original dative and the instrumental and local cases), while in the sell, but Gothio saljan, Old Norse selja. As to the inflexional

Western branch of Teutonic it was still in frequent use. At the system, the accusative plural of nouns has in Western Teutonic

same time, Gothic is the only Teutonic idiom that has still prebeen replaced by the nominative form, as in Old English dagas,

served, in a few cases, the vocative in a form distinct from that of Old Saxon dagos, Old High German tagā, days; Gothic still has

the nominative (fisks, fish, for instance, has fisk in the voc.). The dagòs for the nominative, and dagans for the accusative, the Old

adjectival declension is remarkable for the retention of special forms Norse forms being dagar and daga respectively. The same change

of the s- and 2- stems, which in all other Teutonic languages have is found in the adjectives, as Old English and Old Saxon blinde,

been transferred to the inflexion of the ja- stems. In the proOld High German blinte, blind (cæci), corresponding to both Gothic

nominal inflexion the instrumental case has been kept distinct in a blindai and blindans, Old Norse blindir and blinda. On the other

few instances, such as thë, hvë (the latter form being the same as Eng. hand, the formation of the plural of certain neutral substantives by

lish why). There are also some relics of the dual number left in adding an , as in Old English lombru, lambs, Old High German

the 1st and 2d personal pronouns.

As for the verb, Gothic is lembir (still extant in the English plural children) is entirely lost in

quite unique in retaining the old formation of the passive voice by Eastern Teutonic (Gothic lamba, Old Norse lömb). Another instance

means of simple derivation (as in bairada, bairanda, he is, they are of change is to be seen in the loss of the dative case of the reflective borne, Greek pépetai, péportai), the dual number of the 1st and 20 pronoun (Gothic sis, Old Norse sér) in Western Teutonic, the corre

persons throughout the whole active voice (bairős, bairats, we, you sponding forms of the personal pronoun of the 3d person being

two bear, in the indicative, or bairaiva, bairaits in the subjunctive, used instead (Old English him, hire, &c.) Western Teutonic has

or bēru, bēruts, we, you two bore [ind.], and bēreiva, bereits (subj.] also introduced the use of the genitive forms of the same personal along with the plural forms bairam, bairith, &c.), and the 31 prononn instead of the possessive pronoun (Gothic seins, Old Norse person of the imperative (as bairadau, bairandau, he, they shall sinn) when the possessor is denoted by a feminine or a plural bear, Greek pepéta, pepórtwr). The different verbal classes are of (Old English has gone even farther by dropping the possessive pro

course the same as in the other cognate idioms; but they are kept noun altogether). In the verb, Western Teutonic has replaced the more completely distinct in Gothic, for it is only there that the original form of the 2d person singular of the past indicative reduplication has been preserved intact in the past of the redupli

cative verbs, Gothic haihald, I held, for instance, çorresponding to

such shortened forms as old Norse helt, Old English hcold, Old 1 See his report and word-lists, reprinted by Massmann, in Zeit Saxon held, and Old High German helt, healt, hielt. Gothic again schrift für Deutsches Alterthum, i. p. 345 seq. The words contained is the only language that seems to give us a clue to the explanation in these lists are not all intelligible, and some of them are clearly of of the formation of the past in weak verbs. There we find such Slavonic or Iranian crigin, but others are decidedly Gothic as regards their form, thus schlipen, to sleep; criten, to weep; fyder, four; the See W. Weingaertner, Die Aussprache des Gothischen (Leipric, correct Gothic forms being slēpan, gritan, fidvor.

1658); F. Dietrich, Veber die Aussprache des Gothischen (Marburg, · H. Zimmer, “ Ostgermanen und Westgermaned," in Zeitschrift | 1862); H. Paul, “Zur Lautverschiebung," in Beiträge zur Geschichte für Deutsches Alterthum, xix. p. 393 sq.

der Deutschen Sprache und Literutur, i. 147 sq. (Halle, 1874)

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plural forms as hausi-dēdum, we heard, while in Old Norse we have nothing for this new Isolt; the memory of his old love simple heyr-rum, in Old English hior-don, &c. Now, this - dēlum

rises powerfully in his soul; and he gives utterances to his would be exactly the corresponding form of the verb dön, to do (lost in Gothic, as mentioned above), so that hausi-dēdum must

doubts and perplexities in a soliloquy, with which the once have meant "we did hear."

poem abruptly concludes. Notwithstanding all these instances of great antiquity, we must Tristan is thus an unfinished work; still it is a tolerably be on our guard against the assumption that Gothic in all its long one, as it consists of 19,552 short rhymed lines. The features bears the samo archaic stamp. In fact, it often goes

There is an artistic choice of fit farther than the other cognate idioms in dropping short final style is highly finished. vowels. There are no traces left of the short vowels originally words, a frequent use of antithesis and word-play, and a ending a- or :- stems in declension ; thus, dags from daga-, day; skilful management of the versification. But these are, of haurn from horna-, horn; gasts from gasti-, guest; hugs froin hugi-,

course, only side matters. The permanent interest of the mind; but there are many instances of the preservation of these vowels in the other languages, such as dagar, horna, gastir in Old

poem consists in its representation of human passion, and Scandinavian Runic inscriptions, or hyge in Old English, or hugi in in the knowledge it shows of the human heart. The plain, Old Saxon and Old High German. Even the regularity of the rude story, when told by Gottfried, takes a depth and inflexional system is often not archaic, but due to later assimilations pathos that are hardly its own. All is described, too, of formos originally more distant than in Gothic. The most striking with such clear, bright touches, and such vivid force, that instance of this is perhaps the loss, in the verbal system, of the so-called grammatical change, that is, the transferring of a voiceless the poem seems somehow a tale of our own time.

Its spirant into a voiced spirant after a syllable unaccented in the morality indeed is not high ; but this objection did not earliest time before the general Teutonic rule of fixing the accent probably occur to those who first read it. If we judge it on the root-syllables had come into rise. This change (still discernible in such English forms as I was, we were) was fully deby a purely art standard, we must pronounce it worthy of veloped in all other cognate idioms, as for instance in Old English, an important place in the literature of Europe. Tristan cf. ic woes, we wcéron, or ceosan, to choose, ic ceas, we curon, gecoren, was not allowed to remain a fragment. Ulrich von &c., these forms standing for wus, wēzúm, &c. Gothic has given | Türheim (about 1236) and Heinrich von Freiberg (about up the voiced sound altogether, forming simply was, wisum, or

1270) both wrote continuations and conclusions of the work, kiusan, kars, kusum, gakusans. It is only in some isolated words (such as fadar and brothar, corresponding to Sanskrit pitor and

which certainly fell far short of the original. bhrātar), and some derivatives that even traces of this fundamental Of Gottfried's other writings, only some lyrics in the rule are now to be found in the Gothic language.

(E. SI.)

ordinary style of the minnesingers remain to us. Two GOTTFRIED. Meister Gottfried cf Strasburg, the longer poems, entitled Lobgesang auf die Jungfrau Maria most brilliant German poet of the Middle Ages, flourished and Gedicht von der Armuth, were long attributed to him, about the end of the 12th and beginning of the 13th but recent criticism has conclusively proved that they are century. Of his life and position we have no certain in

the work of others. Gottfried's influence on German formation, for he has told us next to nothing about him literature was very great, and a proof of this is the self, and contemporary records are dubious and confusing. number of poets who treated the same subject after the It would seem, however, that he was a man of good birth plan he had laid down. All these, from Hans Sachs and position, who filled an important municipal office in his (1494-1576) to Immermann (1796–1840), may fairly be native town of Strasburg. His chief work was written

claimed as his followers. about 1210, and we may confidently place his death

The chief editions of Gottfried's Tristan are those of Fr. Heinrich between 1210 and 1220. We know from his writings that

v. d. Hagen (& complete edition, with the continuations, Bresl.,

1823), Groote (Berlin, 1821), Massmann (Leip., 1843), and Bechstein he was a man of high culture, but it is almost certain that containing a very able and complete introduction, 2d ed., 2 vols., he was not a priest. Of this his occasional sneers at the Leip., 1873). See also the translations into modern German, with clergy are perhaps a better proof than the dubious morality

continuations, &c., by Herm. Kurz (Stuttg., 1844, 3d ed., 1877), of much of his work. Gottfried wrote one great poem,

and Karl Simrock (2d ed., Leip., 1875). For what is known of the

life of Gottfried see Kurz's "Zum Leben Gottfried von Strassburg Tristan und Isolt. The story is of Celtic origin; it came (in the Augsburg. Allgemeine Zeitung for 1868, and Germania, 15 first from Britain and Ireland, thence was carried to France, Jahrgang); and as to the sources of the story, Franck's Tristan and thence to Germany. Few stories have been so often

et Isoull (Paris, 1865), and F. Compart, Die Sagen überliefertreated or have had so wide an influence upon literature.

ungen in den Trislan-Epen Eilharts von Oberge und Gottfrieds

von Strassburg (Güstrow, 1876). A very few words will suffice to give Gottfried's version of it. King Mark of Cornwall has a nephew named

GÖTTINGEN, the chief town of a circle of the same Tristan, whom he sends to woo vicariously, and bring

name in the land-drostei of Hildesheim and province of home as queen of Cornwall, the beautiful Isolt, princess Hanover, Prussia, is pleasantly situated at the foot of the of Ireland. The young man goes on his mission, is suc- Hainberg in the fertile valley of the Leine, about 67 miles cessful, and sets out with Isolt on the homeward journey.

to the south of Hanover, on the Hanover and Cassel railway. Before they reach Cornwall, however, they unfortunately

It is traversed by the Leine, which separates the Altstadt drink a love potion which Isolt's mother had intended to be from the Neustadt and Masch ; end it is surrounded by given to her daughter by the king of Cornwall

. The con.

ramparts which are planted with lime trees and form an sequence of the mistake is that the young people fall madly agreeable promenade. The streets in the older part of the and hopelessly in love with one another. The wild force town are for the most part crooked and narrow, but the of their passion soon causes them to disregard morality and

newer portions are spaciously and regularly built. Apart prudence alike, and the bulk of the poem is devoted to an

from the churches and the numerous university buildings, account of the numerous complications which in time arose. it has few structures of any public importance. There are Of course the king soon becomes suspicious, and at last his several thriving industries, including, besides the various suspicions become certainties. Tristan withdraws to Nor- branches of the publishing trade, the manufacture of mandy, and enters into an alliance with a princess of the

woollen and cotton goods, and of physical and mathemaland, whose very name—Isolt, the white-handed—has a

tical instruments. The university, the famous Georgia strange charm for him. But he finds that he really cares Augusta, founded by George II. in 1734, and opened in

1737, rapidly attained a leading position, and in the year * E. Sievers, in Beiträge zur Geschichte der Deutschen Sprache und 1823 its students numbered 1547. Political disturbances, Literatur, v. 101 sq. (Halle, 1878).

in which both professors and students were implicated, · W. Braune, " Ueber den grammatischen Wechsel," in Beiträge, lowered the attendance to 860 in 1834; and the expulsion &o., i. 513 89.; K. Verner, “Veber eine Ausnahme der ersten Lautverschiebung," in Heitschrift für vergleichende Sprachwissenschaft,

of the famous seven professors (Albrecht, Dahlmann, Ewald, Xxiii. 97 sq. (Berlin, 1877).

Gervinus, Weber, and the brothers Grimm) in 1637 still

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