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ILL.

ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA

DICTIONARY

OF

ARTS, SCIENCES, AND GENERAL LITERATURE

THE R. S. PEALE REPRINT

WITH NEW MAPS AND ORIGINAL AMERICAN ARTICLES BY EMINENT

WRITERS

VOLUME X

CHICAGO
R. S. PEALE & CO.

1890

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GADDI. W. M. ROSSETTI, author of " Fine Art, chiefly

Contemporary:

GAELIC LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE. Rev.

THOMAS M'LAUCHLAN, LL.D.

GALATIANS Rev. J. SUTHERLAND BLACK, M.A.
GALILEE. Capt. CoNDER, R. E., Director, " Palestino

Exploring Expedition.

GALILEO. Miss A. M. CLERKE,

GALLATIN.

GALLS. F. H. BUTLER M.A., Assoc. R.S. Mines.
GALT. Prof. GILRAY.
GALVANOMETER. GEORGE CHRYSTAL, M.A., Pro.

fessor of Mathematics, University of Edinburgh.
GALVESTON.. ELLERY C. HUNTINGTON, Univ. vi Nashville.
GAMA, VASCO DA. , HENKY O. FORBES
GAME LAWS. EDMUND ROBERTSON, LLD., M.P.,

Professor of Roman Law, University College, London.

GAMES. FRANCIS STORE, M.A.

GANNET. ALFRED NEWTON, F.R.S., Professor of

Zoology, &c., University of Cambridge.

GARDINER, STEPHEN. JAMES GAIRDNER, Public

Record Office, London.

GARE-FOWL. Prof. NEWTON.
GARNET. F. H. BUTLER, M.A.
GARRICK. ROBERT CARRUTIÉRS, LL.D., and Prof.

4. W. WARD, Owens College, Manchester.
GARRISON, WILLIAM LLOYD.
GAS AND GAS LIGHTING. JAMES L'Atox, Corpora-

tion Galleries of Art, Glasgow.
GASKELL, MRS. Miss F. Masson.
GASSENDI. R. ADAMSON, M.A., Professor of Logic

and Political Economy, Owens College, Manchester.
GAUR. Col. HENRY YULE, C. B.
GAUSS. Prof. CAYLEY.
GAUTIER. GEORGE SAINTSBURY, late Postmaster,

Merton College, Oxford.
GAY. R. CARRUTHERS, LL.D.
GAY LUSSAC. JOHN PERGUSON, M. A., Prorossor of

Chemistry, University of Glasgow.
GEBER. Prof. FERGUSON.
GELATIN D. CONSTABLE ROBB, B.A., University

Museum, Oxford.
GEMS. A. S. MURRAY, British Museum.
GENEALOGY. Rev. J. SUTIERLAND BLACK, M. A.
GENEVA, H. A. WEBSTER.
GENTIAN. E. M. HOLMES, F.L.S., Curator of Museum

of Pharmaceutical Society, London.
GENTZ., . ABRAHAM HAYWARD, Q.C., anthor of " Bio-

graphical and Critical Essays.'

GEODESY. Col. Sir. A. R. CLARKE. R. E C.B., late

Ordnance Survey, Southampton.

GEOFFREY OF MONMOUTH. Prof. GILRAY.

GEOFFROY SAINT-HILAIRE. F. II. BUTLER, M.A.

GEOGRAPHY

HISTORICAL. CLEMENTS BARKHAM, O.B., F.R.S.,

Secretary, Royal Geographical Society, London.

MATHEMATICAL. Col. Sir A. R. CLARKE.

PHYSICAL. A. GEIKIE.
GEOLOGY. ARCHIBALD GEIKIE, F.R.S., Director

General of Geological Survey of United Kingdom,

GEOMETRY

PURE AND PROJECTIVE. OLAUS HENRICI, Ph.D.,

F.R.S., Professor of Mathematics, University Col.

lege, London.

ANALYTICAL ARTHUR CAYLEY, F.R.S., LL.D.,

D.C.L., Sadlerian Professor of Mathematics, Uni-

versity of Cambridge.

GEORGE I.-IV. 8. RAWSON GARDINER, M.A., Pro-

fessor of Modern History, King's College, London,

GEORGIA (UNITED STATES). ELLERY C. HUNTINGTON,

GERMANICUS. FRANCIS STOP.R, M.A.

GERMANY

GEOGRAPHY. HERMANN WAGNER, Ph.D., Professor

of Geography, Königsberg.

HISTORY. JAMES SIME, author of " Lessing."

LANGUAGE

Prof. E. SIEVERS, University of Jena

LITERATURE. James SIME, M.A.
GERSO M. LINDSAY, D.D., Professor of Divinity,

Free Church Collego, Glasgow.
GERVINUS. C. A. BUCHHEIM, Ph.D., Professor of

German Literature, King's College, London.'
GHAZNI. Col. YULE, C.B.
GHIRLANDAJO. W, M. ROSSETTI.
GIANT. E. B. TYLOR, LL.D., F.R.S., President,'

Anthropological Institute, London,
GIBBON. HENRY ROGERs and Rev. J. S. BLACK.
GIBSON, JOHN. LADY EASTLAKE.
GILGIT. Col. YULE.
GINGER. J. R. JACKSON, Curator of Museum, Royal

Botanic Gardens, Kew.
GIORGIONE. SIDNEY COLVIN, Slade Professor of Fine

Art, University of Cambridge.

GIOTTO. Prof. SIDNEY COLVIN.

GIPSIES. FRANCIS HINDES GROOME,

GLADIATORS. F. STORR, M.A.

GLAMORGAN. Rev. Prebendary DAVIES.

GLASGOW. J. H. STODDART, editor of “

Glasgow

Heralu," and J. Paton.

GLASS-

History. ALEXANDER NESBITT.

MANUFACTURE JAMES PATON.

PAINTING. C. HEATI Wilson, author of “Life and

Works of Michelangelo."

GLOBE. C. H. Coote, British Museum, and A. V.

NEWTON, London.
GLOUCESTER. Rev. Prebendary DAVIES.
GLUCK. FRANCIS HUEFFER, author of “Wagner and

the Music of the Future."
GLYCERIN. Dr C. R. A. Wright, St Mary's Hos.

pital, London.

GNOSTICISM. Very Rev. Principal TULLOCH,

D.D.

GOAT. S. HOLMES PEGLER, author of "Advantagos of

Goat Keeping."

GOATSUCKER. Prof. NEWTON.

GODWIN, MARY AND WILLIAM. C. KEGAN Paul,

author of “ William Godwin: His Friends and Con.

temporaries."

GODWINE. Prof. E. A. FREEMAN, D.O.L., LL.D.

GOETHE Oscar BROWNING, M.A., Fellow of King's

College, Cambridge.

GOITRE. J. O. AFFLECK, M.D., Examiner, Royal

College of Physicians, Edinburgh.
GOLD. W. CHANDLER ROBERTS, F.R.S., Assayer,

Royal Mint, London, and H. BAUERMAN, F.G.S.

GOLDSMITH. Lord MACAULAY.

GOLF. P. P. ALEXANDER, St Andrews.
GOODSIR. Tuomas N10H0Ls, British Museum.
GOOSE. Prof. NEWTON.
GOOSEBERRY. C. PIERPOINT JOHNSON, Oditor of

Sowerby's “Wild Flowərs."
GÖRRES. LEONARD A. MONTEFIORE, B.A.
GOSPELS. Rev. EDWIN A. ABROTT, D.D., Head

Master, City of London School, author of "Cam.

bridge Sermons," &c.

GOSSART. J. A. CROWE, author of "Painting in

Italy."

COTHS. E. A, FIERAN, - GOTHIQ LANGUAGE.

Pofessor SIEVER3.

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